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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3735104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471406

RESUMO

How to effectively improve the effectiveness of art teaching has always been one of the hot topics concerned by all sectors of society. Especially, in art teaching, situational interaction helps improve the atmosphere of art class. However, there are few attempts to quantitatively evaluate the aesthetics of ink painting. Ink painting expresses images through ink tone and stroke changes, which is significantly different from photos and paintings in visual characteristics, semantic characteristics, and aesthetic standards. For this reason, this study proposes an adaptive computational aesthetic evaluation framework for ink painting based on situational interaction using deep learning techniques. The framework extracts global and local images as multiple input according to the aesthetic criteria of ink painting and designs a model named MVPD-CNN to extract deep aesthetic features; finally, an adaptive deep aesthetic evaluation model is constructed. The experimental results demonstrate that our model has higher aesthetic evaluation performance compared with baseline, and the extracted deep aesthetic features are significantly better than the traditional manual design features, and its adaptive evaluation results reach a Pearson height of 0.823 compared with the manual aesthetic. In addition, art classroom simulation and interference experiments show that our model is highly resistant to interference and more sensitive to the three painting elements of composition, ink color, and texture in specific compositions.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Simulação por Computador , Estética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Semântica
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360339

RESUMO

Caves present unique habitats for the development of microbial communities due to their peculiar environmental conditions. In caves decorated with frescoes, the characterization of microbial biofilm is important to better preserve and safeguard such artworks. This study aims to investigate the microbial communities present in the Fornelle Cave (Calvi Risorta, Caserta, Italy) and their correlation with environmental parameters. The cave walls and the wall paintings have been altered by environmental conditions and microbial activity. We first used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction to characterise the biofilm structure and the mineral composition of substrata, respectively. Then, using both culture-dependent (Sanger sequencing) and culture-independent (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, ARISA) molecular methods, we demonstrated that the taxonomic composition of biofilms was different across the three substrata analysed and, in some cases, positively correlated with some environmental parameters. We identified 47 taxa in the biofilm samples, specifically 8 bacterial, 18 cyanobacterial, 14 algal and 7 fungal taxa. Fungi showed the highest number of ARISA types on the tuff rock, while autotrophic organisms (cyanobacteria and algae) on the frescoes exposed to light. This study confirms that caves constitute a biodiversity-rich environment for microbial taxa and that, in the presence of wall paintings, taxonomic characterization is particularly important for conservation and restoration purposes.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Pinturas , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4383092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422032

RESUMO

Color is the basic element of printmaking art creation and also an important medium for artists to express their emotions. In order to improve the understanding of the print by tourists, the research first carries out image analysis of different colors, summarizes the common color image adjectives in the art of publishing and painting, then optimizes BP neural network algorithm by gradient promotion (GP) algorithm, and constructs a color language analysis technology based on GP-BP neural network review paradigm. Through this technology, the content of color expression of different types of print art works is analyzed. Then, the subjective evaluation of these print art works is carried out by questionnaire adjustment method. Finally, the subjective evaluation and network evaluation results are compared. On the three materials, the expression effect of color image adjectives such as "heavy light fast," "modern classical," "lively steady," and "soft Yang Gang" is consistent (P value is greater than 0.05). The first set of print works mainly reflects the artist's "affinity cold" emotion. The MSE values of the evaluation results are less than 0.01. That is, the color language analysis technology of print art based on GP-BP neural network can reflect the artist's emotion to a certain extent when analyzing the color language of the print.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Pinturas , Algoritmos , Estética , Idioma
4.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(7): E580-581, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351270

RESUMO

This acrylic painting considers intimacy and its ethical demands during our personal and professional encounters with one another, drawing on Pablo Picasso's 1907 Head of the Medical Student.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Estudantes de Medicina , Ética Médica , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3835083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413886

RESUMO

Static painting works have independent theme significance in the framework of Chinese painting history, and their overall structure, lightness structure, and color structure all show different characteristics of visual mechanism. In order to extract the visual mechanism features effectively, this experiment uses the PSO algorithm to optimize the BP neural network, constructs the PSO-BP neural network for feature recognition and extraction, and compares it with the training results of other algorithms. The results show that the prediction accuracy, recognition accuracy, and ROC curve of PSO-BP neural network are high, which shows that the convergence of PSO-BP neural network is good, and it can effectively complete the recognition and analysis of people and effectively extract the visual mechanism features of static writing paintings.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Algoritmos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 263: 120153, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314968

RESUMO

Mural paintings within the tomb of Setka, Qubbet el-Hawa, in Aswan, Upper Egypt, were investigated using a multi-disciplinary analytical approach (Stereomicroscopy, SEM-EXD and FT-IR spectroscopy). The walls of the tomb were hewn from fragile sandstone and covered by a clay plaster, overlaid by two layers of white gypsum plaster. SEM micrographs were indicative of the penetration of fungal mycelium within the pores of the gypsum plaster, forming white encrustations due to the re-precipitation of gypsum. SEM micrographs revealed that the calcification of the gypsum plaster had occurred due to its exposure to a high temperature. The EDX pattern for the white plaster gave the characteristic spectrum of gypsum, the blue pigment was Egyptian blue, the black pigment was magnetite, the white pigment was of gypsum (or anhydrite) and the yellow pigment was limonite. Finally, the FT-IR spectrum of the binder gave the characteristic features of gum Arabic.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Egito , Microscopia , Pigmentação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203186

RESUMO

In this work, decorative wallpapers (19th century) from an historical palace located in Oiartzun (Basque Country, Spain) were analyzed before their restoration. Micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the elemental and molecular composition of pigments, the presence of binders, and the state of conservation of the paper support. The aim of the investigation was trying to understand the possible degradation pathways and identify the raw materials in order to choose the best restoration protocol according to the original aspect of wallpapers. As stated from both the elemental distribution and the identification of mineral phases by Raman spectroscopy, the most used pigment was lead chromate. It was mixed with other pigments such as ultramarine blue, zinc chromate, hematite, and atacamite among others to obtain different shades and they were applied mixed with an animal glue. Brass, identified thanks to elemental micro-EDXRF maps, was employed as a shiny decorative element. In addition, a partial degradation of cellulose was detected due to its natural ageing, the acidic nature of lignin, and to a phenomenon of humidity of the walls. Probably the deposition of black particulate matter was the cause of the darkening of the painting surfaces.


Assuntos
Pintura , Pinturas , Animais , Corantes , Espanha , Análise Espectral Raman
8.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 583-604, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231888

RESUMO

In the struggle with COVID-19, art offered a way to face the solitude of the lockdown. The focus of this paper is primarily on Caravaggio's painting The Seven Works of Mercy, with references to other paintings to amplify some aspects of the artist's approach to life and his uniqueness in the artistic landscape of his time. Darkness was part of Caravaggio's research for spiritual truth and by entering the stories of his life and exploring the tales told through imaginative expression in his paintings, it is possible to understand his process of exploration of ancestral darkness. The author uses her imagination to reflect on how art can help to contact the profound fears buried in the unconscious which are now being awakened by the pandemic. The contemplation of this painting facilitated the emergence of emotions related to the darkness of our time, with the discovery that empathy and mercy offer a way to come to terms with the pandemic. This approach demands a different understanding of reality with Caravaggio's dark creative world becoming a companion that permits the exploration of what is not yet thinkable in daily life. Images accompany the author's research that relies on her imagination and amplifications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pinturas/história , Religião e Psicologia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Peste/história
9.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 111-121, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982402

RESUMO

This is a literature review of publications describing artworks that include depictions of individuals with suspected genetic conditions or congenital anomalies. Types of artwork described in the identified papers included drawings, paintings, sculptures, carvings, or pottery. The papers included in this review consisted of general reviews, reviews of depictions of specific conditions, reviews of individual artists who had portrayed subjects with genetic conditions or anomalies, and artwork that generated discussions on possible diagnoses. Papers describing a single work were not included in this review.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Humanos
10.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 213-215, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982416

RESUMO

Virgin and Child, a painting attributed to a follower of Andrea Mantegna completed around 1460, is currently in storage at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. With special supervised permission, I have visited the painting three times to assess whether this Christ child might have Down syndrome. My conclusion evolved each time-as did my appreciation for the synergy between physicians and art historians.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Medicina nas Artes , Pinturas , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
11.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 144-147, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982855

RESUMO

The experience of art provides the visitor of a museum or gallery with the opportunity to contemplate and share the human condition both from the physical and psychological point of view. Because of the accessibility and the number of museums throughout Europe, classical European art as both sculpture and painting, affords the viewer the opportunity to experience life from one part of the world over centuries of history. These museums occasionally exhibit pieces showing a person with a human disorder and physical differences. On viewing such artwork, practitioners of health care, especially dysmorphologists, usually find themselves observing such pieces within the context of their practice. In this essay, the coauthors reflect on paintings and sculptures which remind us of our patients with similar physical and medical conditions. Various works of art also provide the opportunity to observe and view the human face from many vantage points and times in history. Several paintings are cited to illustrate the central themes of the Commentary: the human circumstance of disease and differences and the skill of observing and describing the human face.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Escultura , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Museus
12.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 192-198, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982873

RESUMO

Dwarfism has been depicted in various Chinese art forms including literature, sculpture, and painting. This article examines several representative Chinese works of art from different ages of Chinese history, in order to glimpse the living situations of people with dwarfism, their professions and social status, as well as the social attitude toward them in China. We highlight "" (Shan Hai Jing, translated as the Classic of Mountains and Seas), a remarkable collection of myths and illustrations which documented the existence of dwarf communities where the residents were capable of producing high-quality grains. Representations from sculptures and paintings frequently captured the images of individuals with dwarfism in royal courts, which showed their remarkable performance skills and social ability. There are also works of art associating dwarfism with rituals. In addition to portraying ordinary individuals with humble social status, there was one particular individual with dwarfism named Yan Zi () who was highly regarded as a figure of wisdom. Throughout the long Chinese history, dwarfism had been portrayed in art as either positive, neutral or derogatory, which reflected the fact that people with dwarfism, while short in stature, are usually intellectually normal, generally skillful, and often talented, in short, like the general population.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Medicina nas Artes , Pinturas , China , Humanos , Escultura
14.
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0233628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750982

RESUMO

The sublime-the mixed aesthetic experience of uplift and elevation in response to a powerful or vast object that otherwise is experienced as menacing-has nurtured philosophical discourse for centuries. One of the major philosophical issues concerns whether the sublime is best thought of as a subjective response or as a stimulus. Recently, psychology has conceived of the sublime as an emotion, often referred to as awe, arising from natural or artistic stimuli that are great, rare, and/or vast. However, it has not yet been empirically demonstrated whether two major elicitors of the sublime-nature and art-differ in inducing this state. In order to experimentally compare nature and art, we exposed 50 participants to sublimity-inducing content in two different formats (nature-based and art-based) using 360° videos. We compared Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night with a photorealistic version of the actual place depicted in the painting, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. We measured participants' emotional responses before and after each exposure, as well as the sense of presence. The nature-based format induced higher intensity emotional responses than the art-based format. This study compares different sublime stimuli (nature vs. art) for eliciting the sublime.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Afeto , Teorema de Bayes , Emoções , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pinturas , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Microbiol Res ; 247: 126727, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652267

RESUMO

The MinION single-molecule sequencing system has been attracting the attention of the community of microbiologists involved in the conservation of cultural heritage. The use of MinION for the conservation of cultural heritage is extremely recent, but surprisingly the only few applications available have been exploring many different substrates: stone, textiles, paintings and wax. The use of MinION sequencing is mainly used to address the metataxonomy (with special emphasis on non-cultivable microorganisms) with the effort to identify species involved in the degradation of the substrates. In this review, we show the current applications available on different artworks, showing how this technology can be a useful tool for microbiologists and conservators also in light of its low cost and the easy chemistry.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Metagenômica/instrumentação , Pinturas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Têxteis
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711046

RESUMO

Because large numbers of artworks are preserved in museums and galleries, much work must be done to classify these works into genres, styles and artists. Recent technological advancements have enabled an increasing number of artworks to be digitized. Thus, it is necessary to teach computers to analyze (e.g., classify and annotate) art to assist people in performing such tasks. In this study, we tested 7 different models on 3 different datasets under the same experimental setup to compare their art classification performances when either using or not using transfer learning. The models were compared based on their abilities for classifying genres, styles and artists. Comparing the result with previous work shows that the model performance can be effectively improved by optimizing the model structure, and our results achieve state-of-the-art performance in all classification tasks with three datasets. In addition, we visualized the process of style and genre classification to help us understand the difficulties that computers have when tasked with classifying art. Finally, we used the trained models described above to perform similarity searches and obtained performance improvements.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Pinturas , Humanos
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