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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364028

RESUMO

Objectives: Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of C. longa, P. nigrum and C. cyminum. In addition to proposing a quantum-mechanical model to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Methods: The aqueous extracts were prepared using roots of the Curcuma longa L., seeds of the Piper nigrum L. and seeds of Cuminum cyminum. The extracts were subjected to tests to detect and quantify phenolic compounds and to assess their antioxidant capacity by different methods. Furthermore, to investigate the electronic nature of the antioxidant activity of the main compounds present in these extracts, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) were obtained by the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Results: After statistical analysis of the results, a greater number of phenolic compounds and better antioxidant activity was identified in the aqueous extracts of cumin (C. cyminum) in all three assays performed, when compared to the other extracts tested. The theoretical model based on the Pietro method is in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion: This study has an innovative proposal with the trivial antioxidant activity combined with theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations that can serve to reduce costs and time and to predict the antioxidant activity of subsequent studies.


Objetivos: avaliar os compostos fenólicos e atividades antioxidantes dos extratos aquosos de C. longa, P. nigrum e C. cyminum bem como propor um modelo quanto-mecânico para avaliar a atividade antioxidante. Métodos: os extratos aquosos foram preparados por meio da utilização de raízes de Curcuma longa L., sementes de Piper nigrum L. e sementes de Cuminum cyminum. Os extratos foram submetidos a ensaios para detectar e quantificar compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante por diferentes métodos. Além disso, com objetivo de investigar a natureza eletrônica da atividade antioxidante dos principais compostos presentes nesses extratos, orbitais moleculares de fronteira (OMFs) foram obtidos pelo nível de teoria DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). Resultados: após as análises estatísticas dos resultados, a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos com maior atividade antioxidante foi identificada no extrato aquoso do cominho (C. cyminum) em todos os ensaios realizados, quando comparados com os outros extratos testados. O modelo teórico baseado no método de Pietro está concordante com os resultados experimentais. Conclusão: este estudo possui uma proposta inovadora com a atividade antioxidante trivial combinada com cálculos quanto-mecânicos que podem servir para reduzir custos e tempo para predizer a atividade antioxidante de estudos futuros.


Assuntos
Piper nigrum , Curcuma , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Áreas de Fronteira , Compostos Fenólicos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Antioxidantes
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886981

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common biological phenomenon used in hybrid production of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Although several restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes of pepper CMS lines have been mapped, there is no report that the Rf gene with clear gene function has been isolated. Here, pepper CMS line HZ1A and its restorer line HZ1C were used to construct (HZ1A × HZ1C) F2 populations and map the Rf gene. A single dominant gene CaRfHZ conferred male fertility according to inheritance analysis. Using sterile plants from (HZ1A × HZ1C) F2 populations and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), the CaRfHZ gene was mapped between P06gInDel-66 and P06gInDel-89 on chromosome 6. This region spans 533.81 kb, where four genes are annotated according to Zunla-1 V2.0 gene models. Based on the analysis of genomic DNA sequences, gene expressions, and protein structures, Capana06g002968 was proposed as the strongest candidate for the CaRfHZ gene. Our results may help with hybrid pepper breeding and to elucidate the mechanism of male fertility restoration in peppers.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Capsicum/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Piper nigrum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5870443, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707383

RESUMO

Background: Dental/oral diseases are one of the significant public health problems globally. Herbal medicines for managing oral diseases are considered an effective alternative to synthetic compounds due to their lower side effect. Azadirachta indica, Terminalia chebula, Camellia sinensis, and Piper nigrum are used to control and prevent oral inflammations in dentistry. In this study, we have evaluated the protease inhibition activity of these plant extracts, and further, the binding mode of the active ingredient of these plants with trypsin was studied using molecular docking. Methods: In this study, protease inhibition activity was carried out using aqueous extracts of the plant parts such as Azadirachta indica (neem) twig, Terminalia chebula (Haritaki) fruit, Camellia sinensis (green tea) powder, and Piper nigrum (kali miri) seed. Next, to explore the binding mode of active ingredients azadirachtin, chebuligenic acid, catechin, and piperine with trypsin, we employed a molecular docking study using AutoDock4.2. Results: The results revealed that the Azadirachta indica plant extract showed an IC50 value of 96.19 µg mL-1, Camellia sinensis IC50 value of 188.50 µg mL-1, Piper nigrum IC50 value of 371.20 µg mL-1, and Terminalia chebula IC50 value of 639.48 µg mL-1, when compared with standard drug diclofenac sodium, had IC50 value 93.00 µg mL-1. Further, the docking result reveals that all the main active ingredients of these plants have significant binding affinity and prefer the same binding pocket of trypsin. Conclusion: Hence, our results show the importance of traditional plants Azadirachta indica, Terminalia chebula, green tea, and Piper nigrum to control oral disease conditions. As they show significant protease inhibition activity, hence, the active ingredient could act as a potential anti-inflammatory agent and further help to prevent or control oral disease conditions such as gingivitis and periodontitis.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Piper nigrum , Plantas Medicinais , Terminalia , Odontologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Inibidores de Proteases , Chá , Terminalia/química , Tripsina
5.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684048

RESUMO

Sleep is one of the most essential factors required to maintain good health. However, the global prevalence of insomnia is increasing, and caffeine intake is a major trigger. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of black pepper, Piper nigrum extract (PE), on caffeine-induced sleep disruption and excitation in mice. Caffeine significantly decreased sleep duration in the pentobarbital-induced sleep test. It also resulted in a significant increase in sleep onset and a decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, in an open-field test, caffeine-treated mice exhibited a significantly increased time in the center zone and total distance traveled. However, the co-administration of caffeine and PE did not result in similar arousal activities. Thus, our results suggest that PE can be used as a potential therapeutic agent to treat sleep problems and excitatory status associated with caffeine intake.


Assuntos
Piper nigrum , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Camundongos , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sono
6.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111393, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761648

RESUMO

Fine ground black pepper generally consumed as a seasoning without any further processing has been associated with Salmonella enterica outbreaks. Thermal inactivation kinetics data is necessary to develop a pasteurization process for fine ground black pepper. This study investigates the influence of temperature and water activity on thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in fine ground black pepper. It also assesses the suitability of Enterococcus faecium as a surrogate for Salmonella. Fine ground black pepper of varying water activities, aw (0.40, 0.55, 0.70) was subjected to isothermal treatments at different temperatures (65-80 °C) for five equidistant time points with intervals ranging from 18 s to 250 min. The survival data were used to fit two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) and two secondary models (response surface and Modified Bigelow). Results indicated that among the two primary models, the Weibull model explained the thermal inactivation kinetics better with lower RMSE (0.24 - 0.56 log CFU/g) and AICc values at all aw and temperatures. Water activity and treatment temperature significantly enhanced the thermal inactivation of Salmonella. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was found to be a suitable surrogate for Salmonella in fine ground black pepper at all tested treatment conditions. The developed modified Bigelow model based on the Weibull model could be applied to predict the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in black pepper and would benefit the spice industry in identifying process parameters for thermal pasteurization of fine ground black pepper.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Piper nigrum , Salmonella enterica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Salmonella/fisiologia , Temperatura , Água/análise
7.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566194

RESUMO

Piper nigrum, or black pepper, produces piperine, an alkaloid that has diverse pharmacological activities. In this study, N-aryl amide piperine analogs were prepared by semi-synthesis involving the saponification of piperine (1) to yield piperic acid (2) followed by esterification to obtain compounds 3, 4, and 5. The compounds were examined for their antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 main protease activities. The new 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenyl piperamide 5 exhibited the most robust biological activities with no cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines, Vero and Vero E6, as compared to the other compounds in this series. Its half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was 15.46 ± 3.09 µM, and its antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum was 24.55 ± 1.91 µM, which were fourfold and fivefold more potent, respectively, than the activities of piperine. Interestingly, compound 5 inhibited the activity of 3C-like main protease (3CLPro) toward anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at the IC50 of 106.9 ± 1.2 µM, which was threefold more potent than the activity of rutin. Docking and molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the potential binding of 5 in the 3CLpro active site had the improved binding interaction and stability. Therefore, new aryl amide analogs of piperine 5 should be investigated further as a promising anti-infective agent against human African trypanosomiasis, malaria, and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antimaláricos , COVID-19 , Piper nigrum , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis , Humanos , Mamíferos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Piper nigrum/química , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 165: 113189, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636641

RESUMO

The toxicity of D. tripetala fruit extract to mice was investigated using data obtained from lipidomic analyses, comet and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays. Mice (n = 8) were exposed for 30 days via oral gavage to vehicle (5% Tween 80) (negative control), D. tripetala extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and 40 mg/kg methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) (positive control). The profile of compounds in the fruit extract was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of the total of 32 compounds identified, considerable amount of established insecticidal compounds such as 2-phenylnitroethane, cis-vaccenic acid, linalool and linoleic acid were detected. Fruit extract did not induce DNA damage relative to negative control. Percentage gain in body weights differed significantly across the four weeks. Significantly highest and lowest brain AChE activity was observed in animals exposed to 200 and 400 mg/kg D. tripetala, respectively. Fruit extract modulated the brain phospholipid profile due to significant fold changes of 48 lipid species out of the total of 280 lipid species. High number of differentially expressed phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and significant levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) at 400 mg/kg suggests that activation of inflammation and methylation pathways are the most plausible mechanisms of D. tripetala toxicity to mouse brain tissue.


Assuntos
Frutas , Piper nigrum , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Frutas/química , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Food Chem ; 390: 133148, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551027

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the piperine content, essential oil composition, and multi-elemental composition of black pepper samples according to different drying methods and harvest season. Differences in essential oil composition and B, Ca, K, Mg, and S were noted according to sampling campaign, indicating secondary metabolism plant alterations. Mechanical drying resulted in essential oil composition changes due to high temperature exposure during processing. Increases in Fe and Cr contents when employing mechanical dryers with direct heating were also observed, due to direct contact with metallic structures and particulate material from the burning process. The As and Pb contents of several samples were higher than the maximum permissible limits, reaching 0.46 and 0.56 mg kg-1, respectively, thus surpassing legislation safety limitations for human consumption.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Piper nigrum , Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Piper nigrum/química , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Estações do Ano
10.
Plant J ; 111(3): 731-747, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634755

RESUMO

Piperine (1-piperoyl piperidine) is responsible for the pungent perception of dried black pepper (Piper nigrum) fruits and essentially contributes to the aromatic properties of this spice in combination with a blend of terpenoids. The final step in piperine biosynthesis involves piperine synthase (PS), which catalyzes the reaction of piperoyl CoA and piperidine to the biologically active and pungent amide. Nevertheless, experimental data on the cellular localization of piperine and the complete biosynthetic pathway are missing. Not only co-localization of enzymes and products, but also potential transport of piperamides to the sink organs is a possible alternative. This work, which includes purification of the native enzyme, immunolocalization, laser microdissection, fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy combined with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), provides experimental evidence that piperine and PS are co-localized in specialized cells of the black pepper fruit perisperm. PS accumulates during early stages of fruit development and its level declines before the fruits are fully mature. The product piperine is co-localized to PS and can be monitored at the cellular level by its strong bluish fluorescence. Rising piperine levels during fruit maturation are consistent with the increasing numbers of fluorescent cells within the perisperm. Signal intensities of individual laser-dissected cells when monitored by LC-ESI-MS/MS indicate molar concentrations of this alkaloid. Significant levels of piperine and additional piperamides were also detected in cells distributed in the cortex of black pepper roots. In summary, the data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of and insights into cell-specific biosynthesis and storage of piperidine alkaloids, specific and characteristic for the Piperaceae. By a combination of fluorescence microscopy and LC-MS/MS analysis we localized the major piperidine alkaloids to specific cells of the fruit perisperm and the root cortex. Immunolocalization of native piperine and piperamide synthases shows that enzymes are co-localized with high concentrations of products in these idioblasts.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Piper nigrum , Alcaloides/química , Benzodioxóis , Cromatografia Líquida , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111006, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400419

RESUMO

The release profiles of protein-bound heterocyclic amines (HAs) in beef myofibril protein (MP) model systems were investigated after different enzyme dosage or stages of digestion were simulated in vitro. The effects of co-digestion of pepper, apple, and onion with bound HAs on the release rate of bound HAs were also explored. The results showed that, at a constant ratio of substrate to enzyme, the bound HAs were not completely converted into free HAs. Most bound HAs were enzymatically released after intestinal digestion, resulting in a significant increase of free HAs. ß-Carbolines were more easily hydrolyzed compared with other HAs. Pepper, apple, and onion promoted the release of bound HAs, and the total free HAs was increased 20.44, 41.56, and 33.28 times by 1.0% pepper, 150% apple, and 150% onion. The sensitivity of HAs to different additives was variable, with the most significant changes observed in harman and norharman.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Piper nigrum , Aminas , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Digestão , Miofibrilas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of a fixed combination of Curcumin (200 mg), Artemisia (80 mg), Bromelain (80 mg), and Black pepper (2 mg) on vascular parameters in mild to moderate diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Prospective, case-control study. METHODS: Fifty-six patients affected by diabetes mellitus type II were enrolled in the study. Twenty-eight patients with DME received 2 tablets/day, before meals of a dietary complementary supplement containing in fixed combination Curcumin (200 mg), Artemisia (80 mg), Bromelain (80 mg), and Black pepper (2 mg) (Intravit®, OFFHEALTH Spa, Firenze, Italy) for 6 months. Twenty-eight age-matched subjects affected by diabetes mellitus type II were given placebo and served as control group. Patients underwent best correct visual acuity (BCVA), swept optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-Angiography (OCTA). OCTA images of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were obtained for each eye. By the end of the follow-up patients were defined responder to the therapy when a decrease of more than 30 µm was registered in central retinal thickness (CRT) measurement, while a poor responder was determined by the absence of reduction or an increase in central retinal thickness at 6 months. We assessed the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, vessel density and quantified the number of microaneurysms in each layer. RESULTS: A significant improvement of BCVA and CRT reduction was recorded at 6 months follow-up in the dietary complementary supplementation group compared to control (respectively p = 0.028 and p = 0.0003). VD of the total capillary plexus, microaneurysms count, glycaemia and HbA1c did not vary over the follow-up period between groups. Within the Intravit® group, poor responders tended to show a larger FAZ area, more microaneurysms, and a lower VD in the DCP compared to the good responders group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A fixed combination of Curcumin, Artemisia, Bromelain, and Black pepper oral administration may have a positive impact on central retinal thickness, visual acuity, and VD of the DCP in compensated type 2 diabetic patients with mild DME.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Curcumina , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Microaneurisma , Piper nigrum , Administração Oral , Bromelaínas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Humanos , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5487, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361821

RESUMO

Given the increasing consumer demand for raw, nonprocessed, safe, and long shelf-life fish and seafood products, research concerning the application of natural antimicrobials as alternatives to preservatives is of great interest. The aim of the following paper was to evaluate the effect of essential oils (EOs) from black pepper (BPEO) and tarragon (TEO), and their bioactive compounds: limonene (LIM), ß-caryophyllene (CAR), methyl eugenol (ME), and ß-phellandrene (PHE) on the lipolytic activity and type II secretion system (T2SS) of Pseudomonas psychrophila KM02 (KM02) fish isolates grown in vitro and in fish model conditions. Spectrophotometric analysis with the p-NPP reagent showed inhibition of lipolysis from 11 to 46%. These results were confirmed by RT-qPCR, as the expression levels of lipA, lipB, and genes encoding T2SS were also considerably decreased. The supplementation of marinade with BPEO and TEO contributed to KM02 growth inhibition during vacuum packaging of salmon fillets relative to control samples. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provided insight into the spoilage potential of KM02, proving its importance as a spoilage microorganism whose metabolic activity should be inhibited to maintain the quality and safety of fresh fish in the food market.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Piper nigrum , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo II , Animais , Lipólise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
14.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 57(5): 358-368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392762

RESUMO

Several aflatoxin inhibitors can modulate the antioxidant system in fungi. In this work, the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capsicum chinense and Piper nigrum fruits, capsaicin, and piperine on the expression of the aflE, aflG, aflH, aflI, aflK, aflL, aflO, aflP, and aflQ genes involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus parasiticus were studied by qRT-PCR analysis. As well as, the effect on the expression of fungal antioxidant genes (sod1, catA, and cat2) and enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results reveal that the highest (p < 0.05) radial growth inhibition (68 and 86%) and aflatoxins production inhibition (73 and 80%) was observed with capsaicin and piperine respectively, at 300 µg/mL, instead of the ethanolic extract at the same concentration. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that compounds and extracts at 300 µg/mL induced a down-regulation of aflatoxin genes and an up-regulation on the fungal antioxidant genes. CAT activity increased by 23.15, 36.65, 51.40, and 65.50%, in the presence of C. chinense and P. nigrum extract, capsaicin, and piperine exposure, respectively. While SOD activity was not significantly impacted (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the capsaicin and piperine, two antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic compounds produce an up-regulation of antioxidant defense genes accompanied by an enhancement of catalase enzymatic activity in A. parasiticus.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Aflatoxinas/análise , Alcaloides , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Benzodioxóis , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Catalase/genética , Frutas/química , Piperidinas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Superóxido Dismutase/genética
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 52220-52232, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260981

RESUMO

The present study's aims of isolation, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity screening of pure compound from Black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated. Nowadays, scientific exploration of medicinal plants from natural sources has become the prime concern globally. All the crude drugs that have been isolated from natural plant origin (herbs, root, stem, bark, fruit and flower) have great significance in drug discovery as well as a lead compound to demonstrate great synergistic effect on pharmacology. For this research work, methanol was selected as a mother solvent, and the crude methanolic extract of black pepper was partitioned in between the solvent chloroform and di-ethyl-ether. A crystal fraction has been eradicated from the chloroform extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum). The crystal compound (C1) was isolated and purified by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and recrystallization technique. The purified crystal compound (C1) isolated from black pepper possesses a strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of crystal compound (C1) was 4.1 µg/ml where the standard one had 3.2 µg/ml. Physical, phytochemical and chromatographical characterization of pure crystal compound (C1) has been explored, and from the analysis of all characteristics, it was found that, crystal compound (C1) might have resembling features of the standard Piperine of black pepper. The overall research work was really remarkable and introduced a convenient way of isolating pure compound from the natural source which will be a great referential resource in isolating crude drugs for future analysis.


Assuntos
Piper nigrum , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofórmio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes
16.
Plant Dis ; 106(8): 2082-2089, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253482

RESUMO

Viral diseases are one of the main categories of diseases that cause substantial yield losses in black pepper. Disease symptoms in black pepper are generally complex and are often caused by both known and undescribed viruses. To identify and clarify the etiology of viral diseases in black pepper in Hainan, China, we conducted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) by targeting purified double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and ribosomal RNA depleted total RNA (rRNA-depleted totRNA). Analysis of the data revealed the presence of one known virus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), and three newly identified viruses: black pepper virus F (BPVF) in the genus Fabavirus, black pepper virus E (BPVE) in the genus Enamovirus, and black pepper virus B (BPVB) in the genus Badnavirus. The dominant viruses in P. nigrum sampled in Hainan are PYMoV, with an incidence of 100%, followed by BPVF (84%, 133 of 158) and BPVB (66%, 105 of 158). Mechanical inoculation of sap extracts from source plants containing PYMoV, BPVF, and BPVB gave negative results on both herbaceous and woody host plants 60 days postinoculation (dpi). BPVF and PYMoV were successfully transmitted to virus-free seedlings of black pepper through bark grafting, while BPVB was experimentally undetectable up to 150 dpi. Seed transmission experiments showed that no target viruses were present in all 59 germinated seedlings. This study provides information on diagnosis, prevalence, and transmission of black-pepper-associated viruses.


Assuntos
Badnavirus , Piper nigrum , Viroma , Badnavirus/classificação , Badnavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Piper nigrum/virologia , Prevalência
17.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 437-450, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188051

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ocimum sanctum Linn (Labiatae) (OS), Zingiber officinale Rose (Zingiberaceae) (ZO), and Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) (PN) are used in traditional medicine as immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and bioavailability enhancer agents. OBJECTIVE: Active phytoconstituents of OS, ZO, PN hydro-alcoholic extracts and their effects on gut microbiota, basal inflammation and lipid profile were investigated in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Active phytoconstituents of extracts were analysed using HPLC and GC-MS. SD rats were supplemented with individual/combined extracts (OS-850; ZO-500; PN-100 mg/kg Bw) and Fructooligosaccharide (standard prebiotic-5g/kg-Bw), orally for 30 days. Haematology, lipid profile, LPS, CRP, IL-6, insulin and histology of vital organs were analysed. Caecal bacterial levels were assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: High content of phenolic compounds luteolin-7-O-glucoside (430 ± 2.3 mg/100g), gallic acid (84.13 ± 1.2 mg/100 g) and flavones (88.18 ± 1.8 mg/100 g) were found in OS, ZO, and PN, respectively. Combined extract was rich in luteolin-7-O-glucoside (266.0 ± 1.80 mg/100 g). Essential oils including methyleugenol (13.96%), 6-shogaol (11.00%), piperine (18.26%), and cyclopentasiloxane (10.06%) were higher in OS, ZO, PN and combined extract. Higher levels of caecal Lactobacillus (1.7-3.4-fold), Bifidobacterium (5.89-28.4-fold), and lower levels of Firmicutes (0.04-0.91-fold), Bacteroides (0.69-0.88-fold) were noted among extracts and FOS supplemented rats. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in plasma lipid profile and LPS was noted in all supplemented rats. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The current study could be first of its kind in exploring prebiotic potential of OS, ZO, PN and their effect on native gut bacterial population.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Feminino , Gengibre/química , Lipídeos/sangue , Medicina Tradicional , Ocimum sanctum/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Piper nigrum/química , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 593-605, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157900

RESUMO

Conversion of lignocellulosic biowastes from agricultural industry into nanocrystalline cellulose provides pathway to reduce environmental pollution while enhancing the economic value of biowastes. Nanocellulose (NCC) with uniform morphology was isolated from pepper (Piper nigrum L.) stalk waste (PW) using acid hydrolysis method. The role of inorganic acids (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid), organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, acetic acid) and variation of sonication times were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, self-assembled structure, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential and thermal stability of the isolated nanocellulose. Hydrolysis using inorganic acids transformed cellulose from PW into a spherical shaped NCC at ~33-67 nm of average diameter. Meanwhile hydrolysis in organic acids produced rod-shaped NCC at 210-321 nm in length. This study highlighted the role of acidity strength for organic acid and inorganic acid in controlling the level of hydrogen bond dissociation and the dissolution of amorphous fragments, which consequently directing the morphology and the physicochemical properties of NCCs.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Piper nigrum , Celulose/química , Hidrólise , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Polim Med ; 52(1): 29-34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196422

RESUMO

Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a climbing perennial plant in the Piperaceae family. Pepper has been known since antiquity for its use both as a medicine and a spice. It is particularly valued for its pungency attributed to its principal constituent - piperine. This review summarizes the information on the biological source of piperine, its extraction and isolation strategies, physicochemical properties, and pharmacological activity - analgesic, immunomodulatory, anti-depressive, anti-diarrheal, hepatoprotective, etc. The effect of piperine on biotransformation of co-administered drugs is also presented in this review, along with the mechanisms involved in its bioavailability-enhancing effect. Its important medicinal uses, including anti-hepatotoxic, anti-diarrheal, anti-depressive, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects, besides many other traditional uses, are compiled. Based on an exhaustive review of literature, it may be concluded that piperine is a very promising alkaloid found in members of the Piperaceae family.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Piper nigrum , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/química , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Piper nigrum/química , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/uso terapêutico
20.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(2): 801-818, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199325

RESUMO

Foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious threat to black pepper cultivation in India and globally. High diversity exists among the Phytophthora isolates of black pepper and hence detailed investigations of their morphology and phylogenetic taxonomy were carried out in the present study. In order to resolve the diversity, 182 isolates of Phytophthora, collected from different black pepper-growing tracts of South India during 1998-2013 and maintained in the National Repository of Phytophthora at ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kozhikode, were subjected to morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterization. Morphologically all the isolates were long pedicellate with umbellate/simple sympodial sporangiophores and papillate sporangia with l/b ranging from 1.63 to 2.55 µm. Maximum temperature for the growth was ~ 34 °C. Chlamydospores were observed in "tropicalis" group, whereas they were absent in "capsici" group. Initial molecular studies using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) marker gene showed two clear cut lineages-"capsici-like" and "tropicalis-like" groups among them. Representative isolates from each group were subjected to host differential test, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogeny studies. MLST analysis of seven nuclear genes (60S ribosomal protein L10, beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1 alpha, enolase, heat shock protein 90, 28S ribosomal DNA and TigA gene fusion protein) clearly delineated black pepper Phytophthora isolates into two distinct species-P. capsici and P. tropicalis. On comparing with type strains from ATCC, it was found that the type strains of P. capsici and P. tropicalis differed from black pepper isolates in their infectivity on black pepper. The high degree of genetic polymorphism observed in black pepper Phytophthora isolates is an indication of the selection pressure they are subjected to in the complex habitat which ultimately may lead to speciation. So based on the extensive analysis, it is unambiguously proved that the foot rot disease of black pepper in India is predominantly caused by two species of Phytophthora, viz. P. capsici and P. tropicalis. Presence of multiple species of Phytophthora in the black pepper agro-ecosystem warrants a revisit to the control strategy being adopted for managing this serious disease. The silent molecular evolution taking place in such an ecological niche needs to be critically studied for the sustainable management of foot rot disease.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Piper nigrum , Ecossistema , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Piper nigrum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Irmãos
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