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1.
Mol Carcinog ; 60(3): 201-212, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595872

RESUMO

Mutations in the BRAF gene are highly prevalent in thyroid cancer. However, the response rate of thyroid tumors to BRAF-directed therapies has been mixed. Increasingly, combination therapies inhibiting the MAPK pathway at multiple nodes have shown promise. Recently developed ERK1/2 inhibitors are of interest for use in combination therapies as they have the advantage of inhibiting the most downstream node of the MAPK pathway, therefore preventing pathway reactivation. Here, we examined the effect of combined BRAF inhibition (dabrafenib) and ERK1/2 inhibition (SCH772984) on the growth and survival of a panel of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cell lines using in vitro and in vivo approaches. We found that resistance due to MAPK pathway reactivation occurs quickly with single-agent BRAF inhibition, but can be prevented with combined BRAF and ERK1/2 inhibition. Combined inhibition also results in synergistic growth inhibition, decreased clonogenic survival, and enhanced induction of apoptosis in a subset of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cells. Finally, combined inhibition of BRAF and ERK1/2 results in enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in an anaplastic thyroid cancer in vivo model. These results provide key rationale to pursue combined BRAF and ERK1/2 inhibition as an alternative therapeutic strategy for BRAF-mutant advanced thyroid cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Nus , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Oximas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(3): 1167-1178, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease, in part, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Diabetic subjects have increased number of platelets that are activated, more reactive, and respond suboptimally to antiplatelet therapies. We hypothesized that reducing platelet numbers by inducing their premature apoptotic death would decrease atherosclerosis. Approach and Results: This was achieved by targeting the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large; which is essential for platelet viability) via distinct genetic and pharmacological approaches. In the former, we transplanted bone marrow from mice carrying the Tyr15 to Cys loss of function allele of Bcl-x (known as Bcl-xPlt20) or wild-type littermate controls into atherosclerotic-prone Ldlr+/- mice made diabetic with streptozotocin and fed a Western diet. Reduced Bcl-xL function in hematopoietic cells significantly decreased platelet numbers, exclusive of other hematologic changes. This led to a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion formation in Bcl-xPlt20 bone marrow transplanted Ldlr+/- mice. To assess the potential therapeutic relevance of reducing platelets in atherosclerosis, we next targeted Bcl-xL with a pharmacological strategy. This was achieved by low-dose administration of the BH3 (B-cell lymphoma-2 homology domain 3) mimetic, ABT-737 triweekly, in diabetic Apoe-/- mice for the final 6 weeks of a 12-week study. ABT-737 normalized platelet numbers along with platelet and leukocyte activation to that of nondiabetic controls, significantly reducing atherosclerosis while promoting a more stable plaque phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that selectively reducing circulating platelets, by targeting Bcl-xL to promote platelet apoptosis, can reduce atherosclerosis and lower cardiovascular disease risk in diabetes. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/complicações , Plaquetas/patologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrofenóis/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Plaquetas , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and well-tolerated in adults and is rapidly being adopted globally. We describe the design of the ODYSSEY trial which evaluates the efficacy and safety of DTG-based ART compared with standard-of-care in children and adolescents. The ODYSSEY trial includes nested pharmacokinetic (PK) sub-studies which evaluated pragmatic World Health Organization (WHO) weight-band-based DTG dosing and opened recruitment to children < 14 kg while dosing was in development. METHODS: ODYSSEY (Once-daily DTG based ART in Young people vS. Standard thErapY) is an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, basket trial comparing the efficacy and safety of DTG + 2 nucleos(t) ides (NRTIs) versus standard-of-care (SOC) in HIV-infected children < 18 years starting first-line ART (ODYSSEY A) or switching to second-line ART (ODYSSEY B). The primary endpoint is clinical or virological failure by 96 weeks. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and June 2018, 707 children weighing ≥14 kg were enrolled; including 311 ART-naïve children and 396 children starting second-line. 47% of children were enrolled in Uganda, 21% Zimbabwe, 20% South Africa, 9% Thailand, 4% Europe. 362 (51%) participants were male; median age [range] at enrolment was 12.2 years [2.9-18.0]. 82 (12%) children weighed 14 to < 20 kg, 135 (19%) 20 to < 25 kg, 206 (29%) 25 to < 35 kg, 284 (40%) ≥35 kg. 128 (18%) had WHO stage 3 and 60 (8%) WHO stage 4 disease. Challenges encountered include: (i) running the trial across high- to low-income countries with differing frequencies of standard-of-care viral load monitoring; (ii) evaluating pragmatic DTG dosing in PK sub-studies alongside FDA- and EMA-approved dosing and subsequently transitioning participants to new recommended doses; (iii) delays in dosing information for children weighing 3 to < 14 kg and rapid recruitment of ART-naïve older/heavier children, which led to capping recruitment of participants weighing ≥35 kg in ODYSSEY A and extending recruitment (above 700) to allow for ≥60 additional children weighing between 3 to < 14 kg with associated PK; (iv) a safety alert associated with DTG use during pregnancy, which required a review of the safety plan for adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: By employing a basket design, to include ART-naïve and -experienced children, and nested PK sub-studies, the ODYSSEY trial efficiently evaluates multiple scientific questions regarding dosing and effectiveness of DTG-based ART in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT, NCT02259127 , registered 7th October 2014; EUDRACT, 2014-002632-14, registered 18th June 2014 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2014-002632-14/ES ); ISRCTN, ISRCTN91737921 , registered 4th October 2014.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-1/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 212-222, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palbociclib added to endocrine therapy improves progression-free survival in hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer. The PALLAS trial aimed to investigate whether the addition of 2 years of palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy improves invasive disease-free survival over endocrine therapy alone in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: PALLAS is an ongoing multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study that enrolled patients at 406 cancer centres in 21 countries worldwide with stage II-III histologically confirmed hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, within 12 months of initial diagnosis. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks of random size (4 or 6), stratified by anatomic stage, previous chemotherapy, age, and geographical region, by use of central telephone-based and web-based interactive response technology, to receive either 2 years of palbociclib (125 mg orally once daily on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle) with ongoing standard provider or patient-choice adjuvant endocrine therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor, with or without concurrent luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist), or endocrine therapy alone, without masking. The primary endpoint of the study was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients who started palbociclib or endocrine therapy. This report presents results from the second pre-planned interim analysis triggered on Jan 9, 2020, when 67% of the total number of expected invasive disease-free survival events had been observed. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02513394) and EudraCT (2014-005181-30). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2015, and Nov 30, 2018, 5760 patients were randomly assigned to receive palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (n=2883) or endocrine therapy alone (n=2877). At the time of the planned second interim analysis, at a median follow-up of 23·7 months (IQR 16·9-29·2), 170 of 2883 patients assigned to palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 181 of 2877 assigned to endocrine therapy alone had invasive disease-free survival events. 3-year invasive disease-free survival was 88·2% (95% CI 85·2-90·6) for palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 88·5% (85·8-90·7) for endocrine therapy alone (hazard ratio 0·93 [95% CI 0·76-1·15]; log-rank p=0·51). As the test statistic comparing invasive disease-free survival between groups crossed the prespecified futility boundary, the independent data monitoring committee recommended discontinuation of palbociclib in patients still receiving palbociclib and endocrine therapy. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (1742 [61·3%] of 2840 patients on palbociclib and endocrine therapy vs 11 [0·3%] of 2903 on endocrine therapy alone), leucopenia (857 [30·2%] vs three [0·1%]), and fatigue (60 [2·1%] vs ten [0·3%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 351 (12·4%) of 2840 patients on palbociclib plus endocrine therapy versus 220 (7·6%) of 2903 patients on endocrine therapy alone. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: At the planned second interim analysis, addition of 2 years of adjuvant palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy did not improve invasive disease-free survival compared with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. On the basis of these findings, this regimen cannot be recommended in the adjuvant setting. Long-term follow-up of the PALLAS population and correlative studies are ongoing. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem
5.
Lancet HIV ; 8(1): e33-e41, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir has been widely available in Brazil since 2017. Following the signal that infants born to women with dolutegravir exposure at conception in Botswana had a higher risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), public health leaders initiated a national investigation to evaluate periconception dolutegravir exposure among all pregnant Brazilian women with HIV and its potential association with risk of NTDs, stillbirth, or miscarriage before 22 weeks (also called spontaneous abortion). METHODS: In this retrospective, observational, national, cohort study, we identified all women with pregnancies and possible dolutegravir exposure within 8 weeks of estimated date of conception between Jan 1, 2017, and May 31, 2018, and approximately 3:1 matched pregnant women exposed to efavirenz between Jan 1, 2015, and May 31, 2018, using the Brazilian antiretroviral therapy database. We did detailed chart reviews for identified women. The primary outcomes were NTD and a composite measure of NTD, stillbirth, or miscarriage. NTD incidences were calculated with 95% CI. The composite outcome was examined with logistic regression using propensity score matching weights to balance confounders. FINDINGS: Of 1427 included women, 382 were exposed to dolutegravir within 8 weeks of estimated date of conception. During pregnancy, 183 (48%) of 382 dolutegravir-exposed and 465 (44%) of 1045 efavirenz-exposed women received folic acid supplementation. There were 1452 birth outcomes. There were no NTDs in either dolutegravir-exposed (0, 95% CI 0-0·0010) or efavirenz-exposed groups (0, 95% CI 0-0·0036). There were 23 (6%) stillbirths or miscarriages in 384 dolutegravir-exposed fetuses and 28 (3%) in the 1068 efavirenz-exposed fetuses (p=0·0037). Logistic regression models did not consistently indicate an association between dolutegravir exposure and risk of stillbirths or miscarriages. After study closure, two confirmed NTD outcomes in fetuses with periconception dolutegravir exposure were reported to public health officials. An updated estimate of NTD incidence incorporating these cases and the estimated number of additional dolutegravir-exposed pregnancies between Jan 1, 2015 and Feb 28, 2019, is 0·0018 (95% CI 0·0005-0·0067). INTERPRETATION: Neither dolutegravir nor efavirenz exposure was associated with NTDs in our national cohort; incidence of NTDs is probably well under 1% in dolutegravir-exposed HIV-positive women but still slightly above HIV-uninfected women (0·06%) in Brazil. FUNDING: The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the United States' National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to systematically quantify adverse events (AE) will assist in the improvement of medical care and the QoL of patients living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported side effects and other PROs, demographics and laboratory data, and further evaluate the Health Questionnaire (HQ) as a tool for following trends in patient-reported side effects over time in relation to trends in prescribed third agent in ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Swedish National Registry InfCareHiv includes an annual self-reported nine-item HQwhich is used in patient-centered HIV care in all Swedish HIV units. In this study, the experience of side effects was addressed. We analyzed 9,476 HQs completed by 4,186 PLWH together with details about their prescribed ART and relevant biomarkers collected during 2011-2017. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and mixed logistic regression. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis of the HQs showed that the frequency of reported side effects decreased from 32% (2011) to 15% (2017). During the same period, there was a shift in ART prescription from efavirenz (EFV) to dolutegravir (DTG) (positive correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p = 0.0016). Further, PLWH who reported being satisfied with their physical health (OR: 0.47, p = <0.001) or psychological health (OR: 0.70, p = 0.001) were less likely to report side effects than those less satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported side effects were found to have a close relationship with the patient's ratings of their overall health situation and demonstrated a strong correlation with the sharp decline in use of EFV and rise in use of DTG, with reported side effects being halved. This study supports the feasibility of using the HQ as a tool for longitudinal follow up of trends in PROs.


Assuntos
Alquinos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Alquinos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Suécia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5263-5270, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer is difficult and challenging because available chemotherapeutic agents only offer short survival improvements. The efficacy of re-treatment with platinum-based agents including nedaplatin for platinum-resistant patients has not been fully investigated. CASE REPORT: We describe herein three cases of heavily treated platinum-resistant ovarian cancer that were successfully treated with weekly nedaplatin followed by olaparib. After becoming platinum-resistant, the cases were treated with non-platinum chemotherapies. Following these regimens, weekly nedaplatin was introduced, followed by olaparib. At the time of writing, survival since the start of weekly nedaplatin was 30 months for case 1, 20 months for case 2, and 17 months for case 3, with all patients showing no evidence of disease. CONCLUSION: Weekly nedaplatin followed by olaparib might represent a good treatment option for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and is a solid candidate for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942346

RESUMO

Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a complex mood disorder characterized by a chronic and subtle course of fluctuating manic/hypomanic and depressive symptoms. Cariprazine, a dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist with serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and serotonin 5-HT2A antagonist properties, is approved to treat manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder. Post hoc analyses evaluated efficacy across symptoms in bipolar depression. Methods: Pooled data were analyzed from 3 phase 2 or 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of adults with bipolar disorder and a major depressive episode. Mean change from baseline to week 6 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score and individual item scores were analyzed in individual dose groups (1.5 mg/d, 3 mg/d) and overall cariprazine (1.5-3 mg/d). Pooled safety was evaluated via adverse events. Results: A significantly greater difference in mean change from baseline in MADRS total score was seen for each cariprazine dose group versus placebo (least squares mean difference vs placebo: 1.5-3 mg/d = -2.6, 1.5 mg/d = -2.8, 3 mg/d = -2.4) (P < .001 all). Significant differences versus placebo were seen on all individual MADRS items except inner tension for the overall cariprazine group (P < .05). Cariprazine was generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Cariprazine demonstrated broad efficacy across symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. In previous post hoc analyses, cariprazine also demonstrated broad efficacy across manic symptoms, suggesting that it is effective across the wide range of symptoms on the bipolar spectrum. A 1.5-mg/d starting dose and slow titration resulted in lower rates of some adverse events in the bipolar depression studies versus the mania studies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01396447, NCT02670538, NCT02670551.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurotransmissores/administração & dosagem , Neurotransmissores/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): 1155-1164, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors combined with immunotherapy have shown antitumour activity in preclinical studies. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of olaparib in combination with the PD-L1-inhibitor, durvalumab, in patients with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: The MEDIOLA trial is a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2, basket trial of durvalumab and olaparib in solid tumours. Patients were enrolled into four initial cohorts: germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic breast cancer; germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic ovarian cancer; metastatic gastric cancer; and relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Here, we report on the cohort of patients with breast cancer. Patients who were aged 18 years or older (or aged 19 years or older in South Korea) with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated or both and histologically confirmed, progressive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer were enrolled from 14 health centres in the UK, the USA, Israel, France, Switzerland, and South Korea. Patients should not have received more than two previous lines of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Patients received 300 mg olaparib in tablet form orally twice daily for 4 weeks and thereafter a combination of olaparib 300 mg twice daily and durvalumab 1·5 g via intravenous infusion every 4 weeks until disease progression. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, and 12-week disease control rate. Safety was analysed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment, and activity analyses were done in the full-analysis set (patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and were not excluded from the study). Recruitment has completed and the study is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02734004. FINDINGS: Between June 14, 2016, and May 2, 2017, 34 patients were enrolled and received both study drugs and were included in the safety analysis. 11 (32%) patients experienced grade 3 or worse adverse events, of which the most common were anaemia (four [12%]), neutropenia (three [9%]), and pancreatitis (two [6%]). Three (9%) patients discontinued due to adverse events and four (12%) patients experienced a total of six serious adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths. 24 (80%; 90% CI 64·3-90·9) of 30 patients eligible for activity analysis had disease control at 12 weeks. INTERPRETATION: Combination of olaparib and durvalumab showed promising antitumour activity and safety similar to that previously observed in olaparib and durvalumab monotherapy studies. Further research in a randomised setting is needed to determine predictors of therapeutic benefit and whether addition of durvalumab improves long-term clinical outcomes compared with olaparib monotherapy. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4249, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843618

RESUMO

Aberrant cell cycle machinery and loss of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor locus make CDK4/6 a potential target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, a vast majority of PDAC cases do not harbor a durable response to monotherapy of CDK4/6 inhibitor. Utilizing remote loading to co-encapsulate CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib (PAL) and an autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we demonstrate a ratiometrically designed mesoporous silica nanoformulation with synergistic efficacy in subcutaneous and orthotopic PDAC mouse models. The synergism is attributed to the effective intratumoral buildup of PAL/HCQ, which otherwise exhibit distinctly different circulatory and biodistribution profile. PAL/HCQ co-delivery nanoparticles lead to the most effective shrinkage of PDAC compared to various controls, including free drug mixture. Immunohistochemistry reveals that PAL/HCQ co-delivery nanoparticles trigger anti-apoptotic pathway after repetitive intravenous administrations in mice. When combined with a Bcl inhibitor, the performance of co-delivery nanoparticles is further improved, leading to a long-lasting anti-PDAC effect in vivo.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/química , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nature ; 583(7817): 620-624, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669709

RESUMO

Approximately 75% of all breast cancers express the oestrogen and/or progesterone receptors. Endocrine therapy is usually effective in these hormone-receptor-positive tumours, but primary and acquired resistance limits its long-term benefit1,2. Here we show that in mouse models of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, periodic fasting or a fasting-mimicking diet3-5 enhances the activity of the endocrine therapeutics tamoxifen and fulvestrant by lowering circulating IGF1, insulin and leptin and by inhibiting AKT-mTOR signalling via upregulation of EGR1 and PTEN. When fulvestrant is combined with palbociclib (a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor), adding periodic cycles of a fasting-mimicking diet promotes long-lasting tumour regression and reverts acquired resistance to drug treatment. Moreover, both fasting and a fasting-mimicking diet prevent tamoxifen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. In patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer receiving oestrogen therapy, cycles of a fasting-mimicking diet cause metabolic changes analogous to those observed in mice, including reduced levels of insulin, leptin and IGF1, with the last two remaining low for extended periods. In mice, these long-lasting effects are associated with long-term anti-cancer activity. These results support further clinical studies of a fasting-mimicking diet as an adjuvant to oestrogen therapy in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dietoterapia/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fatores Biológicos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Fulvestranto/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Estrogênicos , Receptores de Progesterona , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2639, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457312

RESUMO

Homologous recombination (HR) is important for error-free DNA double strand break repair and maintenance of genomic stability. However, upregulated HR is also used by cancer cells to promote therapeutic resistance. Therefore, inducing HR deficiency (HRD) is a viable strategy to sensitize HR proficient cancers to DNA targeted therapies in order to overcome therapeutic resistance. A bromodomain containing protein, BRD9, was previously reported to regulate chromatin remodeling and transcription. Here, we discover that following DNA damage, the bromodomain of BRD9 binds acetylated K515 on RAD54 and facilitates RAD54's interaction with RAD51, which is essential for HR. BRD9 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and depleting BRD9 sensitizes cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. In addition, inhibitor of BRD9, I-BRD9, acts synergistically with olaparib in HR-proficient cancer cells. Overall, our results elucidate a role for BRD9 in HR and identify BRD9 as a potential therapeutic target to promote synthetic lethality and overcome chemoresistance.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Rad51 Recombinase/química , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(4): 316-322, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals on anticoagulation therapy are at increased risk of bleeding, including epistaxis. There is a lack of available reversal agents for novel oral anticoagulation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the current literature on epistaxis in the context of novel oral anticoagulation use, in order to recommend guidelines on management. METHOD: A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to identify all relevant articles published up to April 2019. RESULTS: Patients on oral anticoagulation therapy are over-represented in individuals with epistaxis. Those on novel oral anticoagulation therapy were more likely to relapse compared to patients on classic oral anticoagulants or non-anticoagulated patients. Idarucizumab is an effective antidote for bleeding associated with dabigatran use. Recommendations for epistaxis management in patients on novel oral anticoagulation therapy are outlined. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to be aware of the potential severity of epistaxis and the increased likelihood of recurrence. High-quality studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of andexanet alfa and ciraparantag, as well as non-specific reversal agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Epistaxe/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Epistaxe/induzido quimicamente , Epistaxe/epidemiologia , Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Primeiros Socorros/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 323-329, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A PARP inhibitor is effective in breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 germline mutations, and in cell lines with BRCA1 promoter methylation. However, its efficacy in breast cancer patients with BRCA1 promoter methylation is still unknown. METHODS: Biopsy samples were obtained from 32 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients treated with eribulin/olaparib combination therapy in a clinical trial (UMINID: 000009498) and analyzed for their mutations by FoundationOne CDx. DNA methylation was evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, and its level was adjusted for tumor cell fraction. RESULTS: Among 20 TNBC patients evaluable for both methylation and mutations, one (5%) and five (25%) patients had a high (> 80%) and low (30-80%) BRCA1 promoter methylation levels, respectively. One patient with a high methylation level, also having a BRCA2 mutation of unknown significance, displayed complete response. Among the 5 patients with low methylation levels, only one patient with a BRCA2 mutation of unknown significance displayed long-lasting disease control (24 weeks). Patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or high BRCA1 promoter methylation showed better 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the other patients (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Quantitative methylation analysis suggested that addition of homozygous BRCA1 promoter methylation to mutations may more accurately identify TNBC patients who would benefit from olaparib/eribulin combination therapy. (209 words).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cetonas/administração & dosagem , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1783-1793, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296859

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia typically receive life-long treatments with antipsychotic drugs (APDs). However, the impact of chronic APDs treatment on neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain remains largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: Here, we focused on blonanserin, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) that acts as an antagonist at dopamine D2, D3, and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, and represents an important tool for the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We used rats to investigate the ability of chronic treatment blonanserin to modulate the activity of brain structures relevant for schizophrenia, under baseline conditions or in response to an acute forced swim session (FSS). We measured the expression of different immediate early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos, Arc/Arg 3.1, Zif268 and Npas4. RESULTS: Blonanserin per se produced limited changes in the expression of these genes under basal conditions, while, as expected, FSS produced a significant elevation of IEGs transcription in different brain regions. The response of blonanserin-treated rats to FSS show anatomical and gene-selective differences. Indeed, the upregulation of IEGs was greatly reduced in the striatum, a brain structure enriched in dopamine receptors, whereas the upregulation of some genes (Zif268, Npas4) was largely preserved in other regions, such as the prefrontal cortex and the ventral hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings show that chronic exposure to blonanserin modulates selective IEGs with a specific anatomical profile. Moreover, the differential activation of specific brain regions under challenging conditions may contribute to specific clinical features of the drug.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Precoces/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Genes Precoces/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(3): 115, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296987

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to develop ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate (ZHM) nanocrystal-based orally dispersible tablet (ODT) formulations. Design of experiment approach was used to develop ODTs. The tablets were compressed using direct compression method and characterized with quality control tests. In vitro dissolution studies and Caco-2 cell permeability tests were executed. The hardness and friability values of nanocrystal-based ODTs were found 31.2 N and 1.05%, respectively. The disintegration time was below 10 s. Dissolution profile in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer showed that nanocrystal-based ODTs and commercial product were dissolved in 120 min 58.98% and 16%, respectively. In pH 7.4 phosphate buffer with SLS, sample groups dissolved above 85% at the end of the study. Permeability value and cumulative ZHM amount on the cells were improved with nanocrystals. In conclusion, the novel formulation of ZHM nanocrystal-based ODTs was successfully developed for alternative dosage form.


Assuntos
Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas , Permeabilidade , Piperazinas/química , Solubilidade , Comprimidos , Tiazóis/química
19.
Acta Oncol ; 59(6): 723-725, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167397
20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 500-507, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olaparib was approved on December 19, 2014 by the US FDA as 4th-line therapy (and beyond) for patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations; rucaparib was approved on December 19, 2016 as 3rd-line therapy (and beyond) for germline or somatic BRCA1/2-mutated recurrent disease. On October 23, 2019, niraparib was approved for treatment of women with damaging mutations in BRCA1/2 or other homologous recombination repair genes who had been treated with three or more prior regimens. We compared the cost-effectiveness of PARPi(s) with intravenous regimens for platinum-resistant disease. METHODS: Median progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity data from regulatory trials were incorporated in a model which transitioned patients through response, hematologic complications, non-hematologic complications, progression, and death. Using TreeAge Pro 2017, each PARPi(s) was compared separately to non­platinum-based and bevacizumab-containing regimens. Costs of IV drugs, managing toxicities, infusions, and supportive care were estimated using 2017 Medicare data. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and PFS was reported in quality adjusted life months for platinum-resistant populations. RESULTS: Non­platinum-based intravenous chemotherapy was most cost effective ($6,412/PFS-month) compared with bevacizumab-containing regimens ($12,187/PFS-month), niraparib ($18,970/PFS-month), olaparib ($16,327/PFS-month), and rucaparib ($16,637/PFS-month). ICERs for PARPi(s) were 3-3.5× times greater than intravenous non­platinum-based regimens. CONCLUSION: High costs of orally administered PARPi(s) were not mitigated or balanced by costs of infusion and managing toxicities of intravenous regimens typically associated with lower response and shorter median PFS. Balancing modest clinical benefit with costs of novel therapies remains problematic and could widen disparities among those with limited access to care.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/economia , Administração Oral , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/economia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Indazóis/economia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Indóis/economia , Infusões Intravenosas , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/economia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/economia , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Ftalazinas/economia , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/economia , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/economia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos
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