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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 156: 70-82, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PEARL study showed that palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (palbociclib/ET) was not superior to capecitabine in improving progression-free survival in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to aromatase inhibitors, but was better tolerated. This analysis compared patient-reported outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PEARL quality of life (QoL) population comprised 537 patients, 268 randomised to palbociclib/ET (exemestane or fulvestrant) and 269 to capecitabine. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 and EQ-5D-3L questionnaires. Changes from the baseline and time to deterioration (TTD) were analysed using linear mixed-effect and stratified Cox regression models, respectively. RESULTS: Questionnaire completion rate was high and similar between treatment arms. Significant differences were observed in the mean change in global health status (GHS)/QoL scores from the baseline to cycle 3 (2.9 for palbociclib/ET vs. -2.1 for capecitabine (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.6; P = 0.007). The median TTD in GHS/QoL was 8.3 months for palbociclib/ET versus 5.3 months for capecitabine (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89; P = 0.003). Similar improvements for palbociclib/ET were also seen for other scales as physical, role, cognitive, social functioning, fatigue, nausea/vomiting and appetite loss. No differences were observed between the treatment arms in change from the baseline in any item of the EQ-5D-L3 questionnaire as per the overall index score and visual analogue scale. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving palbociclib/ET experienced a significant delay in deterioration of GHS/QoL and several functional and symptom scales compared with capecitabine, providing additional evidence that palbociclib/ET is better tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02028507 (ClinTrials.gov). EUDRACT STUDY NUMBER: 2013-003170-27.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Metástase Neoplásica , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Lancet HIV ; 8(8): e463-e473, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simplified antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are desirable for people with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching from triple ART to dual dolutegravir plus lamivudine therapy. METHODS: DOLAM is a phase 4, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, done at six HIV clinics in Catalonia, Spain. Adults with HIV-1 receiving a triple ART regimen, aged 18 years or older, with virological suppression, a CD4 nadir of at least 200 cells per µL, who were HBsAg-negative, and without previous viral failure or resistance mutations to study drugs were eligible. Participants underwent computer-generated randomisation, stratified by the class of the third drug, and were assigned (1:1) to switch to oral dolutegravir 50 mg and lamivudine 300 mg once daily or to continue triple ART for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of people with an HIV RNA value of at least 50 copies per mL at week 48 (US Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm, 8% non-inferiority margin). Both the primary and safety outcomes were evaluated in the intention-to-treat exposed population. The study is completed and was registered with EudraCT 201500027435. FINDINGS: Between July 7, 2015, and Oct 31, 2018, 265 participants were randomly assigned to switch to dolutegravir plus lamivudine (n=131) or to maintain triple ART (n=134) and all received at least one dose. Nine (7%) participants in the dual therapy group and ten (7%) in the triple therapy group were excluded before 48 weeks, mostly due to treatment discontinuations or virological failure. Participants were predominantly male (116 [87%] of 134 in the triple ART group and 111 [85%] of 131 in the dolutegravir plus lamivudine group). The difference in the proportion of participants with HIV RNA values of at least 50 copies per mL at 48 weeks between the dual therapy group (three [2%] of 131) and triple therapy group (two [1%] of 134) was 0·8 percentage points (95% CI -3·3 to 5·2), showing non-inferiority of dolutegravir plus lamivudine dual therapy compared with triple ART. 73 (56%) of 131 participants allocated to dual therapy had 150 adverse effects, compared with 78 (58%) of 134 participants allocated to triple therapy who also had 150 adverse events (p=0·68). Drug discontinuation due to adverse effects occurred in four people in the triple therapy group and three people in the dual therapy group. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir plus lamivudine as a simplified therapy switch option for selected people with HIV with virological suppression on triple ART. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Red de Investigación en Sida, and ViiV Healthcare.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos
4.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(9): 642-651, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bictegravir is a potent integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI) with a high genetic barrier to resistance. Bictegravir, coformulated with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide, is recommended by key European and US HIV treatment guidelines as the preferred single-tablet regimen for adults and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of switching to this regimen in virologically suppressed children and adolescents with HIV. METHODS: In this single-arm, open-label trial, we enrolled virologically suppressed children and adolescents (aged 6 to <18 years) with HIV at 22 hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA. Eligible participants had a bodyweight of at least 25 kg, were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL) on a stable ART regimen for at least 6 months before screening, had a CD4 count of at least 200 cells per µL, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 by the Schwartz formula at screening. All participants received the fixed-dose regimen of coformulated bictegravir 50 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg once daily. Pharmacokinetic analysis was used for dosing confirmation, and results compared with adult values. The primary outcomes were area under the curve at the end of the dosing interval (AUCtau) and concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Ctau) of bictegravir, and incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and laboratory abnormalities at week 24. Efficacy and safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. We report the 48-week results. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02881320. FINDINGS: Between Sept 29, 2016 and Feb 16, 2018, we enrolled 102 participants. 100 participants received bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (cohort 1 [adolescents aged 12 to <18 years], n=50; cohort 2 [children aged 6 to <12 years], n=50). The mean bictegravir AUCtau was 89 100 ng × h/mL (coefficient of variation 31·0%) in adolescents (cohort 1) and 128 000 ng × h/mL (27·8%) in children (cohort 2). Compared with adults, bictegravir Ctau was 35% lower in adolescents and 11% lower in children. The 90% CIs of both parameters were within the predefined pharmacokinetic equivalence boundary and within overall range of exposures observed in adults and deemed to be safe and efficacious (geometric least-squares mean ratio [GLSM] 86·3% [90% CI 80·0-93·0] for AUCtau and 65·4% [58·3-73·3] for Ctau in adolescents; GLSM 125% [90% CI 117-134] for AUCtau and 88·9% [80·6-98·0] for Ctau for children). Bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was well tolerated; most adverse events were grade 2 or less in severity and no study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. One participant discontinued study drug due to adverse events (grade 2 insomnia and anxiety). Virological suppression (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL) was maintained by all 100 participants at week 24 and by 98 (98%) of 100 at week 48; no participants had treatment-emergent resistance. INTERPRETATION: In adolescents and children with HIV, the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide single-tablet regimen was well tolerated and maintained virological suppression. Our data support the treatment of HIV in adolescents and children with this single-tablet regimen. At present, the single-tablet regimen is recommended as first-line treatment in the USA for adolescents and as an alternative regimen in children and has the potential to represent an important regimen in the paediatric population. FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.


Assuntos
Alanina , Antirretrovirais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Emtricitabina , Infecções por HIV , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/farmacocinética , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/farmacocinética , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/farmacocinética , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Criança , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Emtricitabina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/métodos
5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(4): 330-341, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends dolutegravir with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for second-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Evidence is limited for the efficacy of this regimen when NRTIs are predicted to lack activity because of drug resistance, as well as for the recommended switch of an NRTI from tenofovir to zidovudine. METHODS: In a two-by-two factorial, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned patients for whom first-line therapy was failing (HIV-1 viral load, ≥1000 copies per milliliter) to receive dolutegravir or ritonavir-boosted darunavir and to receive tenofovir or zidovudine; all patients received lamivudine. The primary outcome was a week 48 viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter, assessed with the Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm (noninferiority margin for the between-group difference in the percentage of patients with the primary outcome, 12 percentage points). RESULTS: We enrolled 464 patients at seven sub-Saharan African sites. A week 48 viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter was observed in 90.2% of the patients in the dolutegravir group (212 of 235) and in 91.7% of those in the darunavir group (210 of 229) (difference, -1.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.7 to 3.7; P = 0.58; indicating noninferiority of dolutegravir, without superiority) and in 92.3% of the patients in the tenofovir group (215 of 233) and in 89.6% of those in the zidovudine group (207 of 231) (difference, 2.7 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.6 to 7.9; P = 0.32; indicating noninferiority of tenofovir, without superiority). In the subgroup of patients with no NRTIs that were predicted to have activity, a viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter was observed in more than 90% of the patients in the dolutegravir group and the darunavir group. The incidence of adverse events did not differ substantially between the groups in either factorial comparison. CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir in combination with NRTIs was effective in treating patients with HIV-1 infection, including those with extensive NRTI resistance in whom no NRTIs were predicted to have activity. Tenofovir was noninferior to zidovudine as second-line therapy. (Funded by Janssen; NADIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03988452.).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Darunavir/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Zidovudina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Criança , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Cancer ; 149(10): 1828-1832, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270809

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are sensitive to PARP1 inhibitors in vitro. The combination of Olaparib and radiotherapy for TNBC is currently evaluated in the Phase I RADIOPARP trial. RADIOPARP is a monocentric prospective open-label Phase I dose-escalation trial evaluating the combination of breast radiotherapy and Olaparib in TNBC patients with inflammatory, locoregionally advanced or metastatic disease, or with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Olaparib was orally given at increasing dose levels (50, 100, 150 or 200 mg twice a day [BID]); radiotherapy consisted of 50 Gy to the breast or chest wall with or without lymph node irradiation. Twenty-four TNBC patients were enrolled between September 2017 and November 2019. Olaparib was escalated to 200 mg BID without dose-limiting toxicities. At 1-year follow-up, no treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicity was observed. One patient (4.2%) had persistent grade 2 adverse events (breast pain, fibrosis and deformity). There was no cardiac, pulmonary or digestive toxicity related to treatment. The 1-year follow-up report of the RADIOPARP Phase I trial, evaluating Olaparib associated with breast radiotherapy in TNBC patients, consequently demonstrated an excellent toxicity profile of this combination with few low-grade adverse events.


Assuntos
Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is scant data from India on efficacy and safety of palbociclib and ribociclib in routine clinical practice. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, single institution study included patients with estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative metastatic breast cancers, who received palbociclib or ribociclib with any partner endocrine therapy in any line of treatment between January 2016 and June 2019. Data were analyzed for progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. RESULTS: The study included 101 female patients with median age of 57 (IQR 48-62) years, of whom 80 (79.2%) were postmenopausal, 79 (78.2%) received palbociclib or ribociclib in second- or later-line treatment, 59 (58.4%) received fulvestrant and 41 (40.6%) received an aromatase inhibitor. In first-line treatment, at a median follow-up of 21.7 (0.5-41.9) months, median PFS and OS were 21.1 (95%CI 16.36-not estimable) months and not reached, respectively. In second- or later-line setting, at a median follow-up of 17.2 (0.5-43.7) months, median PFS and OS were 5.98 (95%CI 4.96-7.89) months and 20.2 (95%CI 14.1-not estimable) months, respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were seen in 45 (45.0%) and 9 (9.0%) patients, respectively while dose reduction was required in 32 (31.7%) patients. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, first-line setting (HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.25-0.97, p = 0.043) and ECOG performance status 1 (HR 0.43, 95%CI 0.20-0.91, p = 0.028) were significantly associated with PFS while only ECOG PS 1 was significantly associated (HR 0.04, 95%CI 0.008-0.206, p = 0.000) with OS. CONCLUSION: Palbociclib and ribociclib, when used in routine clinical practice in first or subsequent lines of treatment, resulted in efficacy and toxicity outcomes in concordance with those expected from pivotal trials.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Idoso , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 88(4): 723-729, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pharmacist consultation is unfrequently performed in oncology clinical trials that include patients who often have many co-treatments increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDI). The aim of this study was to determine whether best possible medication history (BPMH) by hospital pharmacist at inclusion and therapeutic drug monitoring could be used for DDI risk evaluation and for current oral targeted therapy management. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial (ALCINA 2, NCT04025541) was carried out in metastatic breast cancer cohort treated by palbociclib to conduct pharmacokinetics-toxicity correlation study. BPMH was prospectively performed by the hospital pharmacist at each trial inclusion, followed by a contact to the patient's community pharmacy to complete the collected data. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on blood samples collected at day 15 of cycle 1 of palbociclib treatment. RESULTS: Pharmacist interventions indicated that at inclusion, current medications were incomplete for 63% of the enrolled patients (32/51). It allowed the real-time management of high-risk DDI detected in third of patients. The palbociclib Ctrough geometric median (min-max) was significantly higher in cohort with potential DDI [106 ng/mL (66.7-113)], than cohort without potential DDI [70.1 ng/mL (54.1-89.7)], p = 0.0284. CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective study evaluating the relevance of proactive BPMH by pharmacist with contact to the community pharmacy during the inclusion step of a clinical trial to ensure the efficacy and safety of the investigated drug. This investigation was thus able to highlight the statistically significant impact of these DDI on palbociclib plasma concentration variation during the clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT04025541.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Papel Profissional , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/farmacocinética
11.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(7): 891-903, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir(DTG)/lamivudine(3TC) is the first 2-drug regimen recommended as an initial treatment for people living with HIV (PLHIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness and potential budget impact of DTG/3TC in the US healthcare setting. METHODS: A previously published hybrid decision-tree and Markov cohort state transition model was adapted to estimate the incremental costs and health outcome benefits over a patients' lifetime. DTG/3TC was compared with current standard of care in treatment naive and treatment experienced virologically suppressed PLHIV. Health states included in the model were based upon virologic response and CD4 cell count, with death as an absorbing state. Clinical data was informed by the Phase III GEMINI 1 and 2 clinical trials, a published network meta-analysis (NMA) in treatment-naive patients and the Phase III TANGO clinical trial in treatment experienced patients. Costs and utilities were informed by published data and discounted annually at a rate of 3%. A separate 5-year budget impact analysis was conducted assuming 5%-15% uptake in eligible treatment naive and 10%-30% uptake in eligible treatment experienced patients. RESULTS: In the treatment naive analyses based on GEMINI 1 and 2, DTG/3TC dominated, i.e., was less costly and more effective, than all comparators. DTG/3TC resulted in 0.083 incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at a cost saving of $199,166 compared with the DTG + tenofovir disoproxil(TDF)/emtricitabine(FTC) comparator arm. The incremental QALY and cost savings for DTG/3TC compared with DTG/abacavir(ABC)/3TC, cobicistat-boosted darunavir(DRV/c)/tenofovir alafenamide(TAF)/FTC, and bictegravir (BIC)/TAF/FTC, based on NMA results were 0.465, 0.142, and 0.698, and $42,948, $122,846, and $44,962, respectively. In the analyses of treatment-experienced virologically suppressed patients based on TANGO, DTG/3TC offered slightly lower QALYs (-0.037) with an estimated savings of $78,730 when compared with continuation of TAF-based regimen (TBR). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that these conclusions were relatively insensitive to alternative parameter estimates. The budget impact analysis estimated that by 5th year a total of 70,240 treatment naive patients and 1,340,480 treatment experienced patients could be eligible to be prescribed DTG/3TC. The estimated budget savings over 5 years ranged from $1.12b to $3.35b (corresponding to 27,512 to 82,536 on DTG/3TC by year 5) in the lowest and highest uptake scenarios, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, DTG/3TC with its comparable efficacy and lower drug acquisition costs, has the potential to offer significant cost savings to US healthcare payers for the initial treatment of treatment naive patients and as a treatment switching option for virologically suppressed patients. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded in full by ViiV healthcare, Brentford, UK. Medical writing to support this study was also funded in full by ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK. Butler, Hayward, and Jacob are employees of HEOR Ltd, the company performing this study funded by ViiV Healthcare. Anderson is an employee of GlaxoSmithKline and owns shares in the company. Punekar, Evitt, and Oglesby are employees of ViiV Healthcare and own stocks in GlaxoSmithKline.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/economia , Lamivudina/economia , Oxazinas/economia , Piperazinas/economia , Piridonas/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(25): 2371-2381, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sotorasib showed anticancer activity in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced solid tumors in a phase 1 study, and particularly promising anticancer activity was observed in a subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a single-group, phase 2 trial, we investigated the activity of sotorasib, administered orally at a dose of 960 mg once daily, in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced NSCLC previously treated with standard therapies. The primary end point was objective response (complete or partial response) according to independent central review. Key secondary end points included duration of response, disease control (defined as complete response, partial response, or stable disease), progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Exploratory biomarkers were evaluated for their association with response to sotorasib therapy. RESULTS: Among the 126 enrolled patients, the majority (81.0%) had previously received both platinum-based chemotherapy and inhibitors of programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). According to central review, 124 patients had measurable disease at baseline and were evaluated for response. An objective response was observed in 46 patients (37.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.6 to 46.2), including in 4 (3.2%) who had a complete response and in 42 (33.9%) who had a partial response. The median duration of response was 11.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to could not be evaluated). Disease control occurred in 100 patients (80.6%; 95% CI, 72.6 to 87.2). The median progression-free survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2), and the median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% CI, 10.0 to could not be evaluated). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 88 of 126 patients (69.8%), including grade 3 events in 25 patients (19.8%) and a grade 4 event in 1 (0.8%). Responses were observed in subgroups defined according to PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and co-occurring mutations in STK11, KEAP1, or TP53. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 2 trial, sotorasib therapy led to a durable clinical benefit without new safety signals in patients with previously treated KRAS p.G12C-mutated NSCLC. (Funded by Amgen and the National Institutes of Health; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12874, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145371

RESUMO

In animal models, neonatal exposure of general anaesthetics significantly increases apoptosis in the brain, resulting in persistent behavioural deficits later in adulthood. Consequently, there is growing concern about the use of general anaesthetics in obstetric and paediatric practice. JM-1232(-) has been developed as a novel intravenous anaesthetic, but the effects of JM-1232(-) on the developing brain are not understood. Here we show that neonatal administration of JM-1232(-) does not lead to detectable behavioural deficits in adulthood, contrarily to other widely-used intravenous anaesthetics. At postnatal day 6 (P6), mice were injected intraperitoneally with a sedative-equivalent dose of JM-1232(-), propofol, or midazolam. Western blot analysis of forebrain extracts using cleaved poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase antibody showed that JM-1232(-) is accompanied by slight but measurable apoptosis 6 h after administration, but it was relatively small compared to those of propofol and midazolam. Behavioural studies were performed in adulthood, long after the neonatal anaesthesia, to evaluate the long-term effects on cognitive, social, and affective functions. P6 administration to JM-1232(-) was not accompanied by detectable long-term behavioural deficits in adulthood. However, animals receiving propofol or midazolam had impaired social and/or cognitive functions. These data suggest that JM-1232(-) has prospects for use in obstetric and paediatric practice.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoindóis/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Isoindóis/efeitos adversos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Social
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(25): 2394-2405, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors target cancers with defects in homologous recombination repair by synthetic lethality. New therapies are needed to reduce recurrence in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation-associated early breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized trial involving patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and high-risk clinicopathological factors who had received local treatment and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to 1 year of oral olaparib or placebo. The primary end point was invasive disease-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 1836 patients underwent randomization. At a prespecified event-driven interim analysis with a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 3-year invasive disease-free survival was 85.9% in the olaparib group and 77.1% in the placebo group (difference, 8.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 13.0; hazard ratio for invasive disease or death, 0.58; 99.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.82; P<0.001). The 3-year distant disease-free survival was 87.5% in the olaparib group and 80.4% in the placebo group (difference, 7.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.0 to 11.1; hazard ratio for distant disease or death, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.39 to 0.83; P<0.001). Olaparib was associated with fewer deaths than placebo (59 and 86, respectively) (hazard ratio, 0.68; 99% CI, 0.44 to 1.05; P = 0.02); however, the between-group difference was not significant at an interim-analysis boundary of a P value of less than 0.01. Safety data were consistent with known side effects of olaparib, with no excess serious adverse events or adverse events of special interest. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with high-risk, HER2-negative early breast cancer and germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, adjuvant olaparib after completion of local treatment and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer survival free of invasive or distant disease than was placebo. Olaparib had limited effects on global patient-reported quality of life. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca; OlympiA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02032823.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26243, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160387

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eszopiclone, sold under the brand name Lunesta, is a new type of non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Eszopiclone is a zopiclone dextrorotation, which is classified as a cyclopyrrolone. It functions by binding gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Compared with benzodiazepines hypnotics, eszopiclone has higher selectivity for certain subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. So far, there are no reports about the elevation of serum enzymes or severe liver injury caused by eszopiclone. Here, we present a case report of acute liver injury following eszopiclone treatment in a patient with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 53-year-old female with a 36-year history of positive HBV markers. Due to poor sleep, the patient took trazodone hydrochloride orally for 1 year. After hospital admission for positive hepatitis B pathogenic markers, abdominal distension, fatigue, and aggravation, she was treated with eszopiclone under the guidance of the mental health department. DIAGNOSES: Her transaminase levels increased abnormally after eszopiclone treatment and rapidly decreased after drug withdrawal. This was determined to be an acute liver injury event. liver-protecting treatment was maintained. Considering the patient's anxiety and depression, the patient's family members refused a liver biopsy. OUTCOMES: Transaminase levels decreased rapidly within one week, and the patient continued to take trazodone hydrochloride after discharge. No adverse events occurred in the follow-up period. LESSONS: Sleep disorders are more common in patients with chronic diseases, especially patients with chronic liver disease. Recently, it has become common for patients with hepatitis B and C to use antidepressants along with antiviral treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C may have a threefold risk of liver dysfunction after receiving antituberculosis treatment.[1,2] A proinflammatory environment induced by actively replicating the hepatitis virus may alter the detoxication process and increase drug toxicity.[3] At this time, the safety of other drugs should be reevaluated. Although hepatitis and liver injury are listed as rare adverse reactions of eszopiclone, this case is the first to report the eszopiclone-involved acute liver injury.


Assuntos
Compostos Azabicíclicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/imunologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia
16.
Drugs ; 81(9): 1079-1100, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Centhaquine (Lyfaquin®) showed significant safety and efficacy in preclinical and clinical phase I and II studies. METHODS: A prospective, multicentric, randomized phase III study was conducted in patients with hypovolemic shock, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 90 mmHg, and blood lactate levels ≥ 2 mmol/L. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the centhaquine group (n = 71) or the control (saline) group (n = 34). Every patient received standard of care (SOC) and was followed for 28 days. The study drug (normal saline or centhaquine 0.01 mg/kg) was administered in 100 mL of normal saline infusion over 1 h. The primary objectives were to determine changes (mean through 48 h) in SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood lactate levels, and base deficit. The secondary objectives included the amount of fluids, blood products, and vasopressors administered in the first 48 h, duration of hospital stay, time in intensive care units, time on ventilator support, change in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and the proportion of patients with 28-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The demographics of patients and baseline vitals in both groups were comparable. The cause of hypovolemic shock was trauma in 29.4 and 47.1% of control group and centhaquine group patients, respectively, and gastroenteritis in 44.1 and 29.4%, respectively. Shock index (SI) and quick sequential organ failure assessment at baseline were similar in the two groups. An equal amount of fluids and blood products were administered in both groups during the first 48 h of resuscitation. A lesser amount of vasopressors was needed in the first 48 h of resuscitation in the centhaquine group. An increase in SBP from baseline was consistently higher up to 48 h (12.9% increase in area under the curve from 0 to 48 h [AUC0-48]) in the centhaquine group than in the control group. A significant increase in pulse pressure (48.1% increase in AUC0-48) in the centhaquine group compared with the control group suggests improved stroke volume due to centhaquine. The SI was significantly lower in the centhaquine group from 1 h (p = 0.032) to 4 h (p = 0.049) of resuscitation. Resuscitation with centhaquine resulted in a significantly greater number of patients with improved blood lactate (control 46.9%; centhaquine 69.3%; p = 0.03) and the base deficit (control 43.7%; centhaquine 69.8%; p = 0.01) than in the control group. ARDS and MODS improved with centhaquine, and an 8.8% absolute reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality was observed in the centhaquine group. CONCLUSION: Centhaquine is an efficacious resuscitative agent for treating hypovolemic shock. The efficacy of centhaquine in distributive shock is being explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry, India; ctri.icmr.org.in, CTRI/2019/01/017196; clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04045327.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(10): 1835-1846, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fenebrutinib (GDC-0853) is a noncovalent, oral, and highly selective inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). The efficacy, safety, and pharmacodynamics of fenebrutinib in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were assessed in this phase II, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: Patients who had moderately to severely active SLE while receiving background standard therapy were randomized to receive placebo, fenebrutinib 150 mg once daily, or fenebrutinib 200 mg twice daily. Glucocorticoid taper was recommended from weeks 0 to 12 and from weeks 24 to 36. The primary end point was the SLE Responder Index 4 (SRI-4) response at week 48. RESULTS: Patients (n = 260) were enrolled from 44 sites in 12 countries, with the majority from Latin America, the US, and Western Europe. The SRI-4 response rates at week 48 were 51% for fenebrutinib 150 mg once daily (P = 0.37 versus placebo), 52% for fenebrutinib 200 mg twice daily (P = 0.34 versus placebo), and 44% for placebo. British Isles Lupus Assessment Group-based Combined Lupus Assessment response rates at week 48 were 53% for fenebrutinib 150 mg once daily (P = 0.086 versus placebo), 42% for fenebrutinib 200 mg twice daily (P = 0.879 versus placebo), and 41% for placebo. Safety results were similar across all arms, although serious adverse events were more frequent with fenebrutinib 200 mg twice daily. By week 48, patients treated with fenebrutinib had reduced levels of a BTK-dependent plasmablast RNA signature, anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibodies, total IgG, and IgM, as well as increased complement C4 levels, all relative to placebo. CONCLUSION: While fenebrutinib had an acceptable safety profile, the primary end point, SRI-4 response, was not met despite evidence of strong pathway inhibition.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Complemento C4/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 2005-2012, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012253

RESUMO

Depressive episodes, the most frequent episodes in bipolar disorder, contribute in large part to poor functional outcomes. Very few treatments, however, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bipolar depression. Cariprazine, a broad-spectrum dopamine antagonist/partial agonist with dopamine D3/D2 (preferring D3) and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist properties, was recently approved. A review of the literature suggests that it is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for bipolar depression.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Agonismo Parcial de Drogas , Humanos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacologia
19.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 88(1): 131-141, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase 1, open-label, single-arm clinical trial evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety, and biomarker activity of palbociclib-letrozole as first-line treatment for estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) in postmenopausal Chinese women to support palbociclib approval in China. METHODS: Patients received palbociclib 125 mg once daily (3/1 schedule) plus letrozole 2.5 mg once daily. Blood samples were collected predose and ≤ 120 h after single and multiple doses of palbociclib. The incidence and severity of adverse events were reported. Skin biopsy tissues and blood samples were collected for biomarker assessments. RESULTS: By 31 July 2018, 26 patients were enrolled. After single and multiple dosing, palbociclib maximum plasma concentration was 82.14 and 139.7 ng/mL, apparent clearance was 52.40 and 49.97 L/h, AUCτ was 1217 and 2501 ng∙h/mL, and t½ was 23.46 and 27.26 h, respectively. Levels of Ki67, retinoblastoma protein, and thymidine kinase decreased after palbociclib treatment. A similar safety profile as previously reported was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of palbociclib were well characterized in Chinese patients with ABC. Despite higher exposure, pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those of a previously studied non-Asian population. No palbociclib dose adjustment based on Chinese ethnicity is needed. Palbociclib-letrozole had a manageable safety profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02499146.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/farmacocinética , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet ; 397(10281): 1276-1292, 2021 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is important for both maternal health and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission; however adequate data on the safety and efficacy of different ART regimens that are likely to be used by pregnant women are scarce. In this trial we compared the safety and efficacy of three antiretroviral regimens started in pregnancy: dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate; dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; and efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 22 clinical research sites in nine countries (Botswana, Brazil, India, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the USA, and Zimbabwe). Pregnant women (aged ≥18 years) with confirmed HIV-1 infection and at 14-28 weeks' gestation were eligible. Women who had previously taken antiretrovirals in the past were excluded (up to 14 days of ART during the current pregnancy was permitted), as were women known to be pregnant with multiple fetuses, or those with known fetal anomaly or a history of psychiatric illness. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using a central computerised randomisation system. Randomisation was done using permuted blocks (size six) stratified by gestational age (14-18, 19-23, and 24-28 weeks' gestation) and country. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg, and once-daily oral fixed-dose combination emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate 25 mg; once-daily oral dolutegravir 50 mg, and once-daily oral fixed-dose combination emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg; or once-daily oral fixed-dose combination of efavirenz 600 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of participants with viral suppression, defined as an HIV-1 RNA concentration of less than 200 copies per mL, at or within 14 days of delivery, assessed in all participants with an HIV-1 RNA result available from the delivery visit, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of -10% in the combined dolutegravir-containing groups versus the efavirenz-containing group (superiority was tested in a pre-planned secondary analysis). Primary safety outcomes, compared pairwise among treatment groups, were the occurrence of a composite adverse pregnancy outcome (ie, either preterm delivery, the infant being born small for gestational age, stillbirth, or spontaneous abortion) in all participants with a pregnancy outcome, and the occurrence of grade 3 or higher maternal and infant adverse events in all randomised participants. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03048422. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Feb 8, 2019, we enrolled and randomly assigned 643 pregnant women: 217 to the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate group, 215 to the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group, and 211 to the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group. At enrolment, median gestational age was 21·9 weeks (IQR 18·3-25·3), the median HIV-1 RNA concentration among participants was 902·5 copies per mL (152·0-5182·5; 181 [28%] of 643 participants had HIV-1 RNA concentrations of <200 copies per mL), and the median CD4 count was 466 cells per µL (308-624). HIV-1 RNA concentrations at delivery were available for 605 (94%) participants. Of these, 395 (98%) of 405 participants in the combined dolutegravir-containing groups had viral suppression at delivery compared with 182 (91%) of 200 participants in the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (estimated difference 6·5% [95% CI 2·0 to 10·7], p=0·0052; excluding the non-inferiority margin of -10%). Significantly fewer participants in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate group (52 [24%] of 216) had a composite adverse pregnancy outcome than those in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (70 [33%] of 213; estimated difference -8·8% [95% CI -17·3 to -0·3], p=0·043) or the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (69 [33%] of 211; -8·6% [-17·1 to -0·1], p=0·047). The proportion of participants or infants with grade 3 or higher adverse events did not differ among the three groups. The proportion of participants who had a preterm delivery was significantly lower in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate group (12 [6%] of 208) than in the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (25 [12%] of 207; -6·3% [-11·8 to -0·9], p=0·023). Neonatal mortality was significantly higher in the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (ten [5%] of 207 infants) than in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate group (two [1%] of 208; p=0·019) or the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (three [2%] of 202; p=0·050). INTERPRETATION: When started in pregnancy, dolutegravir-containing regimens had superior virological efficacy at delivery compared with the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen. The dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate regimen had the lowest frequency of composite adverse pregnancy outcomes and of neonatal deaths. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Institute of Mental Health.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
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