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1.
Nature ; 574(7779): 581-585, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645725

RESUMO

The tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate succinate is involved in metabolic processes and plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species1. The receptor responsible for succinate signalling, SUCNR1 (also known as GPR91), is a member of the G-protein-coupled-receptor family2 and links succinate signalling to renin-induced hypertension, retinal angiogenesis and inflammation3-5. Because SUCNR1 senses succinate as an immunological danger signal6-which has relevance for diseases including ulcerative colitis, liver fibrosis7, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis3,8-it is of interest as a therapeutic target. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of rat SUCNR1 in complex with an intracellular binding nanobody in the inactive conformation. Structure-based mutagenesis and radioligand-binding studies, in conjunction with molecular modelling, identified key residues for species-selective antagonist binding and enabled the determination of the high-resolution crystal structure of a humanized rat SUCNR1 in complex with a high-affinity, human-selective antagonist denoted NF-56-EJ40. We anticipate that these structural insights into the architecture of the succinate receptor and its antagonist selectivity will enable structure-based drug discovery and will further help to elucidate the function of SUCNR1 in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Animais , Apoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y1/química , Transdução de Sinais , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo
2.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 331-339, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: PI3K pathway signaling has received attention as a molecular target in clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCOC). MDM2 is one of the AKT effectors in the PI3K pathway, which binds to and degrades p53. In this study, we aimed to clarify the prognostic significance of PIK3CA and MDM2 expression, and potential therapeutic effect of a dual inhibition of the PI3K pathway and MDM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA expression was evaluated by using microarray data using 75 samples of CCOC. DS-7423 (dual inhibitor of pan-PI3K and mTOR) and RG7112 (MDM2 inhibitor) were used on CCOC cell lines to evaluate cell proliferation, expression level of MDM2 related proteins, and apoptosis by MTT assay, western blotting, and flow cytometry. DS-7423 (3 mg/kg) and/or RG7112 (50 mg/kg) were orally administrated every day for three weeks, and the anti-tumor effect was evaluated using tumor xenografts, along with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Tumors with high expression of both PIK3CA and MDM2 showed significantly worse prognosis in expression array of 71 CCOCs (P = 0.013). Dual inhibition of the PI3K pathway by DS-7423 and MDM2 by RG7112 showed synergistic anti-proliferative effect in 4 CCOC cell lines without TP53 mutations. The combination therapy more robustly induced pro-apoptotic proteins (PUMA and cleaved PARP) with increase of sub G1 population and apoptotic cells, compared with either single agent alone. The combination therapy significantly reduced tumor volume in mice (P < 0.001 in OVISE, and P = 0.038 in RMG-I) without severe body weight loss. Immunohistochemistry from the xenograft tumors showed that the combination treatment significantly reduced vascularity and cell proliferation, with an increase of apoptotic cell death. CONCLUSION: A combination therapy targeting the PI3K pathway and MDM2 might be a promising therapeutic strategy in CCOC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Imidazolinas/farmacologia , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111590, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408808

RESUMO

Hybridization strategy is an effective strategy to obtain multi-target inhibitors in drug design. In this study, we assembled the pharmacophores of momelotinib and tandutinib to get a series of 4-piperazinyl-2-aminopyrimidine derivatives. All compounds were tested for the inhibition of JAK2 and FLT3 enzymes, of which, compounds with potent enzyme activities were assayed for antiproliferative activities against three cancer cell lines (HEL, MV4-11, and HL60). The structure-activity relationship studies were conducted through variations in two regions, the "A" phenyl ring and "B" phenyl ring. Compound 14j showed the most balanced in vitro inhibitory activity against JAK2 and FLT3 (JAK2 IC50 = 27 nM, FLT3 IC50 = 30 nM), and it also showed potent inhibition against the above tested cell lines. In the cellular context, 14j strongly induced apoptosis by arresting cell cycle in the G1/S phase, and was selected as a promising JAK2/FLT3 dual inhibitor.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(1): 144-150, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer (CC) remains a major health problem worldwide. Poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) have emerged as a promising class of chemotherapeutics in ovarian cancer. We explored the preclinical in vitro and in vivo activity of olaparib against multiple primary whole exome sequenced (WES) CC cells lines and xenografts. METHODS: Olaparib cell-cycle, apoptosis, homologous-recombination-deficiency (HRD), PARP trapping and cytotoxicity activity was evaluated against 9 primary CC cell lines in vitro. PARP and PAR expression were analyzed by Western blot assays. Finally, olaparib in vivo antitumor activity was tested against CC xenografts. RESULTS: While none of the cell lines demonstrated HRD, three out of 9 (33.3%) primary CC cell lines showed strong PARylation activity and demonstrated high sensitivity to olaparib in vitro treatment (cutoff IC50 values < 2 µM, p = 0.0012). Olaparib suppressed CC cell growth through cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and caused apoptosis (p < 0.0001). Olaparib activity in CC involved both PARP enzyme inhibition and trapping. In vivo, olaparib significantly impaired CC xenografts tumor growth (p = 0.0017) and increased overall animal survival (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: A subset of CC primary cell lines is highly responsive to olaparib treatment in vitro and in vivo. High level of PARylation correlated with olaparib preclinical activity and may represent a useful biomarker for the identification of CC patients benefitting the most from PARPi.


Assuntos
Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/enzimologia , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3173-3182, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464035

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, lipid peroxide-driven cell death caused by inhibition of the cystine/glutamate transporter, which is of importance for the survival of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Erastin is a low molecular weight chemotherapy drug that induces ferroptosis; however, poor water solubility and renal toxicity have limited its application. Exosomes, as drug delivery vehicles with low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and high efficiency, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Herein, we developed a formulation of erastin-loaded exosomes labeled with folate (FA) to form FA-vectorized exosomes loaded with erastin (erastin@FA-exo) to target TNBC cells with overexpression of FA receptors. The characterization, drug release, internalization and anti-tumor effect in vitro of erastin@FA-exo were determined. Erastin@FA-exo could increase the uptake efficiency of erastin into MDA-MB-231 cells; compared with erastin@exo and free erastin, erastin@FA-exo has a better inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, erastin@FA-exo promoted ferroptosis with intracellular depletion of glutathione and reactive oxygen species overgeneration. Western blot analyses revealed that erastin@FA-exo suppressed expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and upregulated expression of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO1). We conclude that targeting and biocompatibility of exosome-based erastin preparations provide an innovative and powerful delivery platform for anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Exossomos/química , Ácido Fólico/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Piperazinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 645, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most frequent gynecological cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis because OC progression is often asymptoma-tic and is detected at a late stage. There remains an urgent need for novel targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. As a nitric oxide prodrug, JS-K is reported highly cytotoxic to human cancer cells such as acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. This study is aim to investigate the influence of JS-K on proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and explored possible autophagy-related mechanisms, which will contribute to future ovarian cancer therapy and supply theory support that JS-K holds great promise as a novel therapeutic agent against ovarian cancer. METHODS: The cytotoxicity, extracellular ROS/RNS activity and apoptotic effect of JS-K and indicated inhibitors on ovarian cancer cells in vitro were evaluated by MTT assay, extracellular ROS/RNS assay, caspases activities assay and western blot. Further autophagy effect of JS-K and indicated inhibitors were examined by MTT assay, cell transfection, immunofluorescence analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and western blot on ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the BALB/c-nude female mice with SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells xenograft were used to examine the efficacy of JS-K treatment on tumor growth. PCNA and p62 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, induced apoptosis and cell nucleus shrinkage, enhanced the enzymatic activity of caspase-3/7/8/9, and significantly increased the production of ROS/RNS in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells, these effects were attenuated by inhibition of NAC. In addition, JS-K induced autophagy-related proteins and autophagosomes changes in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells. In vivo, JS-K inhibited tumor growth, decreased p62 protein expression and increased the expression levels of PCNA in xenograft models which were established using SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we demonstrated that ROS/RNS stress-mediated apoptosis and autophagy are mechanisms by which SKOV3 cells undergo cell death after treatment with JS-K in vitro. Moreover, JS-K inhibited SKOV3 tumor growth in vivo. An alternative therapeutic approach for triggering cell death in cancer cells could constitute a useful multimodal therapies for treating ovarian cancer, which is known for its resistance to apoptosis-inducing drugs.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(16): 8563-8580, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291457

RESUMO

Creating access to DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites in the chromatin context is an essential step during the repair process, but much remains to be determined about its regulatory mechanisms. Here, using a novel reporter cassette for simultaneous detection of homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) at the same chromosomal site, we report that the efficiency of HR but not NHEJ negatively correlates with nucleosome density. We demonstrate that PARP1 is required for HR by modulating nucleosome density at damage sites. Mechanistic studies indicate that the ATPase domain of BRG1 and the ZnF domain of SIRT1 interact with poly-ADP ribose (PAR) in response to DNA damage, and are responsible for bringing the two factors to broken DNA ends. At DNA damage sites, BRG1 and SIRT1 physically interact, whereupon SIRT1 deacetylates BRG1 at lysine residues 1029 and 1033, stimulating its ATPase activity to remodel chromatin and promote HR.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , DNA/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Sirtuína 1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cloroquina/farmacologia , DNA/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/química , Nucleossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Poli Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 180: 204-212, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306907

RESUMO

A series of 5-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives (4a-4w) has been designed as chitin synthase inhibitors and antifungal agents. The designed compounds were obtained by an environmentally benign route in four steps starting from 5-amino-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one which was offered by an easily achieved synthetic method. The synthesized compounds were tested for their inhibition potency against chitin synthase. Compounds 4a and 4c exhibited excellent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.10 mM and 0.15 mM, respectively, which is better than that of Polyoxin B whose IC50 value is 0.18 mM. Compounds 4h, 4i, 4j, 4k and 4n exerted moderate inhibition potency with IC50 values of 0.38, 0.36, 0.47, 0.47 and 0.37 mM, respectively. These synthesized compounds were also evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Crytococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus flavus. Compounds 4a, 4i and 4j exhibited the most potent antifungal activity against C. albicans with MIC of 32 µg/mL, which were similar to that of Polyoxin B. The results of antibacterial activity against selected strains showed that the designed compounds have little potency against bacteria and indicated that these compounds were chitin synthase inhibitors and have selectively antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitina Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinolonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5331-5345, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209549

RESUMO

A novel method was developed and validated for the quantification of the three approved CDK4/6 inhibitors (abemaciclib, palbociclib, and ribociclib) in both human and mouse plasma and mouse tissue homogenates (liver, kidney, spleen, brain, and small intestine) using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For all matrices, pretreatment was performed using 50 µL of sample by protein precipitation with acetonitrile, followed by dilution of the supernatant. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was done on a C18 column using gradient elution. A full validation was performed for human plasma, while a partial validation was executed for mouse plasma and mouse tissue homogenates. The method was linear in the calibration range from 2 to 200 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient (r) ≥0.996 for each analyte. For both human and mouse plasma, the accuracy and precision were within ±15% and ≤15%, respectively, for all concentrations, except for the lower limit of quantification, where they were within ±20% and ≤20%, respectively. A fit-for-purpose strategy was followed for tissue homogenates, and the accuracy and precision were within ±20% and ≤20%, respectively, for all concentrations. Stability of all analytes in all matrices at different processing and storage conditions was tested; ribociclib and palbociclib were unstable in most tissue homogenates and conditions were modified to increase the stability. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of mouse samples from preclinical studies. A new ribociclib metabolite was detected in mouse plasma samples with the same m/z transition as the parent drug.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/análise , Benzimidazóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperazinas/análise , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/análise , Purinas/análise , Piridinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia
10.
Life Sci ; 232: 116561, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247208

RESUMO

AIMS: The poor prognosis of ovarian cancer is mainly caused by chemotherapy resistance. Studies show that the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT737 can significantly improve the effect of cisplatin and induce mitochondrial pathway apoptosis. However, the mechanism of ABT737 increases sensitivity to cisplatin by regulating mitochondrial function remains unclear in ovarian cancer cells. Sirt3, as a histone deacetylase, is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function in cancers. In this study, we intend to explore the mechanistic link between Sirt3 and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ABT737 and cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells. MAIN METHODS: Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry following Annexin V and PI staining. Sirt3 activity was assessed using Sirt3 deacetylase fluorometric assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was examined by flow cytometry following JC-1 staining. Overexpression and knock-down of Sirt3 were confirmed by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics were detected by immunofluorescence staining or western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Cisplatin accompanied with ABT737 promoted apoptosis and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. ABT737 enhanced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin, which was partly achieved by activating Sirt3 to regulate the mitochondrial fission process. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified the activation of Sirt3 played an important role in increasing sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin induced by ABT737. Furthermore, Sirt3 might represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 70e-77e, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Random pattern skin flaps are applicable for reconstructing any defect in plastic surgery. However, they are difficult to apply because of necrosis. Sumatriptan, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d agonist, is routinely used to offset acute migraine attacks. Recent studies have suggested that sumatriptan may induce vasodilation at lower concentrations. The authors' aim is to investigate the effect of sumatriptan on skin flap survival and the role of nitric oxide in this phenomenon. METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. Increasing doses of sumatriptan (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally to three different groups after dorsal random pattern skin flaps were performed. To assess the exact role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d receptors, GR-127935 was administered solely and with sumatriptan. N-ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nonselective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was used to evaluate any possible involvement of nitric oxide in this study. All rats were examined 7 days later. RESULTS: The authors' results demonstrated that flap survival was increased by lower doses of sumatriptan compared to a control group for both 0.3 mg/kg (p = 0.03, mean difference = 32, SE = 8) and 0.1 mg/kg (p = 0.02, mean difference = 26, SE = 8). This protective effect was eliminated by coadministration of GR-127935 or N-ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester with sumatriptan. Histopathologic studies revealed a significant increase in capillary count and collagen deposition and a decreased amount of edema, inflammation, and degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Sumatriptan in lower concentration increases skin flap survival by means of activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d receptors. This effect is mediated through the nitric oxide synthase pathway.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Receptor 5-HT1B de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Pele , Sumatriptana/farmacologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 309: 108723, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228469

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning are common strategies to prevent lethal myocardial injury, especially nutritional preconditioning (NPC). In this study, we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (Ast), as an NPC agent, on myocardium suffered anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury. Rats received 5 mg/kg Ast daily for 3 weeks by intragastric administration. Then, hearts were harvested and underwent A/R treatment using a Langendorff apparatus. Ast- pretreatment significantly promoted functional recovery of the myocardium, reduced infarct size, and oxidative stress, and decreased the apoptotic index. Similar findings were demonstrated in H9c2 cardiomyocytes that were pretreated with Ast for 24 h. Moreover, Ast-pretreatment significantly upregulated Bcl-2 expression, especially in mitochondria. The effects of Ast treatment against A/R injury were also reflected by increased antioxidant potential, inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, increased oxygen consumption rate, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and prevented apoptosis. Selective inhibition of Bcl-2 by ABT-737 decreased myocardial injury protection of Ast. Ast-pretreatment resulted in NPC- related effects against A/R, and mitochondria may be the target of a cascade of events elicited by upregulating Bcl-2 expression, promoting translocation of Bcl-2 into mitochondria, maintaining MMP, inhibiting ROS bursts, thereby leading to recovery of mitochondrial respiration, preventing mPTP opening, decreasing cytochrome C release, preventing apoptosis, and ultimately alleviating myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Nitrofenóis/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 232-242, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185413

RESUMO

As a continuation to our research, a series of novel Bcr-Abl inhibitors incorporated with 6-phenyl-1H-indazol-3-amine as hinge binding moiety (HBM) were developed based on confirmation analysis. Biological results indicated that these compounds exhibited an enhanced inhibition against Bcr-AblWT and Bcr-AblT315I in kinases assays, along with improved anti-proliferative activities in K562 cell assays. In particular, compound Y9 displayed comparable potency with that of imatinib. It potently inhibited Bcr-AblWT and Bcr-AblT315I kinases with IC50 of 0.043 µM and 0.17 µM, respectively. Furthermore, compound Y9 inhibited the proliferation of K562 and K562R cells with IC50 of 1.65 µM and 5.42 µM, respectively. Therefore, 6-phenyl-1H-indazol-3amine as HBM, combined with flexible linker, is a successful strategy contribute to research on T315I mutant resistance, and compound Y9 could be served as a starting point for further optimization.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Indazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Drogas , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/química , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Indazóis/síntese química , Indazóis/química , Indazóis/metabolismo , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Maleabilidade , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
14.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 725-733, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140862

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Utilizing HFL1 cell line treated with transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), we investigated the relationship between ferroptosis and pulmonary fibrosis, and the function of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in them. The results indicated that α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I (COL I) mRNA expression levels increased significantly from 24 h after TGF-ß1-treatment, and further rose after TGF-ß1+erastin treatment. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde were increased, and the levels of GPX4 mRNA and protein were reduced after treatment with TGF-ß1, and all these were magnified after TGF-ß1+erastin treatment. All these changes induced by TGF-ß1 and erastin can be recovered by Fer-1 treatment. The cell viability rate was decreased significantly when treated with TGF-ß1+erastin, but no obvious variation of cell viability was found in TGF-ß1-treated group and in other groups, suggesting that ROS, lipid peroxidation, and GPX4 inhibition are not sufficient conditions for ferroptosis. Collectively, our study reveals that ROS, lipid peroxidation, and GPX4 play important roles in pulmonary fibrosis and ferroptosis induced by erastin. Erastin promoted fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation by increasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the expression of GPX4. Fer-1 may inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and ferroptosis through suppressing lipid peroxidation and enhancing GPX4 expression.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2204, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101827

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. We screened for pathways that may be responsible for the abnormal phenotype of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), a major contributor of PAH pathobiology, and identified cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as overactivated kinases in specimens derived from patients with idiopathic PAH. This increased CDK activity is confirmed at the level of mRNA and protein expression in human and experimental PAH, respectively. Specific CDK inhibition by dinaciclib and palbociclib decreases PASMC proliferation via cell cycle arrest and interference with the downstream CDK-Rb (retinoblastoma protein)-E2F signaling pathway. In two experimental models of PAH (i.e., monocrotaline and Su5416/hypoxia treated rats) palbociclib reverses the elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, reduces right heart hypertrophy, restores the cardiac index, and reduces pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results demonstrate that inhibition of CDKs by palbociclib may be a therapeutic strategy in PAH.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/cirurgia , Humanos , Indóis/toxicidade , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monocrotalina/toxicidade , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 105-115, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129449

RESUMO

Human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) plays a critical role in the glycolytic process, making the enzyme an ideal of anti-cancer drug target. Herein, we report the discovery of novel potent LDHA inhibitors by screening an in-house library. The hit-to-lead modification enabled us to identify compound 24c, which inhibited LDHA activity with an EC50 value of 90 nM, and reduced MiaPaCa-2 cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 value of 2.1 µM. In line with the in vitro anticancer activity, 24c suppressed the tumor growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg in a MiaPaCa-2 cells xenograft model, but with little effect to the mice weight. Moreover, 24c strongly inhibited MiaPaCa-2 cell colonies formation, induced MiaPaCa-2 cell apoptosis, and arrested MiaPaCa-2 cell cycle at G2 phase. In addition, the mitochondrial bioenergetics analysis suggested that 24c could reprogram cancer cell metabolic pathways from glycolysis to oxidation phosphorylation, which verified by decreasing the extracellular acidification rates and lactate formation, and increasing oxygen consumption rate in cancer cell. All these results indicate 24c is a promising metabolic modulator for the anticancer drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Pironas/síntese química , Pironas/química , Pironas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 174: 309-329, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055147

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease associated increasingly with drug resistance. Thus, new anti-tubercular agents with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required for the treatment of drug-resistant TB. In prior work, we identified compound 1 (cyclohexyl(4-(isoquinolin-5-ylsulfonyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanone) and showed that its anti-tubercular activity is attributable to inhibition of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the present study, we explored the structure-activity relationship around compound 1 by synthesizing and evaluating the inhibitory activity of analogues against M. tuberculosis IMPDH in biochemical and whole-cell assays. X-ray crystallography was performed to elucidate the mode of binding of selected analogues to IMPDH. We establish the importance of the cyclohexyl, piperazine and isoquinoline rings for activity, and report the identification of an analogue with IMPDH-selective activity against a mutant of M. tuberculosis that is highly resistant to compound 1. We also show that the nitrogen in urea analogues is required for anti-tubercular activity and identify benzylurea derivatives as promising inhibitors that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/química , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , IMP Desidrogenase/química , Isoquinolinas/síntese química , Isoquinolinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(6): 525-534, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Standard treatment for cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibiting acquired drug resistance includes tumor rebiopsy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing (e.g., for T790M mutations), and the subsequent administration of third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, rebiopsies are typically invasive, costly, and occasionally not feasible. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess rebiopsy procedures by analyzing real-world data collected by the ASTRIS study of patients with resistant NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study used statistical models to evaluate data collected by the ASTRIS trial (NCT02474355) conducted at Yonsei Cancer Center, including the rebiopsy success rate, incidence of T790M mutations in collected tissue and plasma samples, and association of administered osimertinib treatment efficacy. RESULTS: In a total of 188 screened patients, 112 underwent rebiopsy. An adequate tumor specimen was obtained in 95 of these patients, the greatest majority of whom (43.8%) were subjected to bronchoscopy. T790M mutations were detected in 53.3% of successfully EGFR-tested rebiopsy samples. A total of 88 patients received osimertinib treatment, and the objective response rate and median progression-free survival time was 44.3% and 32.7 weeks, respectively, among the treated patients overall, but 57.8% and 45.0 weeks, and 35.2% and 20.4 weeks among patients who exhibited T790M-positive tissue (n=45) and plasma (n=54) samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately 60% of patients in the analyzed real-world cohort were eligible for tissue rebiopsy upon NSCLC progression. Osimertinib activity was higher in patients in whom T790M mutations were detected in tissues rather than in plasma samples.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 171-179, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and fatal pediatric brain cancer without cure. Seeking therapeutic strategies is still a major challenge in DIPG research. Previous study has shown that dysregulation of G1/S cell cycle checkpoint was common in DIPG and this dysregulation is even more enriched in the H3.3K27 M mutant subgroup. Here we assess potential anti-tumor efficacy of palbociclib, a specific and cytostatic inhibitor of CDK4/6, on high grade H3.3-K27 M-mutant DIPGs in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We established patient-derived cell lines from treatment-naïve specimens. All the lines have H3.3K27 M mutation. We used a range of biological in vitro assays to assess the effect of palbociclib on growth of DIPGs. Palbociclib activity was also assayed in vivo against three independent DIPG orthotropic xenografts model. FINDINGS: Dysregulation of G1/S cell cycle checkpoint is enriched in these DIPGs. Then, we showed that depletion of CDK4 or CDK6 inhibits DIPG cells growth and blocks G1/S transition. Furthermore, palbociclib effectively repressed DIPG growth in vitro. Transcriptome analysis showed that palbociclib not only blocks G1/S transition, it also blocks other oncogenic targets such as MYC. Finally, palbociclib activity was assayed in vivo against DIPG orthotropic xenografts to demonstrate the high efficiency of blocking tumor growth. INTERPRETATION: Our findings thus revealed that palbociclib could be the therapeutic strategy for treatment-naïve DIPG with H3.3K27 M mutation. FUND: Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals Clinical Medicine Development of Special Funding Support, Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 221, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been related to multiple cancers, including breast cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. ERK1/2 inhibitor can suppress growth of KRAS-mutant pancreatic tumors by targeting cancer cell. However, no studies have shown the expression of ERK1/2 on pancreatic stromal and its effect on pancreatic cancer-stromal interaction. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of p-ERK1/2 in pancreatic tissues and cells. Cell viability assay was used to study IC50 of ERK inhibitor on pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and primary cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Transwell migration, invasion, cell viability assay, senescence ß-galactosidase staining were performed to determine the effect of ERK inhibitor on PCCs and PSCs in vitro and in vivo. The expression of key factors involved in autophagy and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process were evaluated by western blotting. The expression of key factors related to cell invasiveness and malignancy were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Co-transplantation of PCC Organoid and PSC using a splenic xenograft mouse model was used to evaluated combined treatment of ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining in pancreatic tumor samples and transgenetic mice detected p-ERK1/2 expression in both cancer cells and stromal cells. In pancreatic tissues, p-ERK1/2 was strongly expressed in cancer-associated PSCs compared with cancer cells and normal PSCs. PSCs were also significantly more sensitive to ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment. Inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed EMT transition in HMPCCs, upregulated cellular senescence markers, activated autophagy in cancer-associated PSCs; and suppressed cancer-stromal interaction, which enhanced invasiveness and viability of cancer cells. We also found that chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed ERK inhibition-induced autophagy and promoted PSC cellular senescence, leading to significantly decreased cell proliferation. The combination of an ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor suppressed liver metastasis in a splenic pancreatic cancer organoid xenograft mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Animais , Autofagia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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