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1.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(8): 531-539, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025948

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has historically been an aggressive disease with poor long-term survival. In the last decade, Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition has emerged as a new treatment strategy for MCL, especially in the relapsed/refractory (r/r) setting. Zanubrutinib, a second-generation BTK inhibitor, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late 2019 for r/r MCL on the basis of combined overall response rate of 84% in a total of 118 patients from two multicenter clinical trials, BGB-3111-AU-003 and BGB-3111-206. Duration of response was 14-18 months. Although 57% of patients developed grade 3 and 4 adverse side effects including anemia, pneumonia and neutropenia, only 8% discontinued treatment suggesting zanubrutinib monotherapy was fairly well tolerated. As compared to first-generation ibrutinib, zanubrutinib has higher BTK selectivity which may result in fewer off-target effects and improved potential for combination with other targeted therapies. In addition to a confirmatory phase III trial, there are multiple ongoing studies evaluating zanubrutinib as part of two- and three-drug regimens in MCL and other B-cell malignancies. These current results and areas of further interest indicate an exciting future for zanubrutinib in the treatment of MCL.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081459

RESUMO

Donepezil is the most commonly used drug of the group of cholinesterase inhibitors. It is recommended for tretament of Alzheimer's disease. Donepezil is also used to treat dementia in Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, and vascular dementia. In Russia, donepezil is not used as often, which is facilitated by the concern of doctors about the possibility of serious side-effects. Clinical studies demonstrate the safety and good tolerability of donepezil. Our study included 62 patients with dementia due to various neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia). Thirty-seven patients (59.7%) started to receive donepezil. Side-effects, including bradycardia, hypertension, aggressive behavior, increased tremor, were observed in 7 patients (18.9%). There was no correlation between the development of side-effects and polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 and MDR1 genes.


Assuntos
Donepezila , Indanos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indanos/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Federação Russa
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22504, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031288

RESUMO

In clinical trials of tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Japanese and Korean patients had higher incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) than subjects from elsewhere; however, post-market data from Asia are lacking. Hence, we investigated the incidence of HZ and its risk factors in Taiwanese RA patients receiving tofacitinib. At a medical center in Taichung, Taiwan, we enrolled patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib between January 4, 2015 and December 9, 2017, following unsuccessful methotrexate therapy and no tofacitinib exposure RA patients as a control group. Demographic characteristics, interferon-gamma levels, and lymphocyte counts were compared. Among 125 tofacitinib-treated RA patients, 7 developed HZ, an incidence rate of 3.6/100 person-years. Patients with HZ had shorter disease duration than those without, but higher frequency of prior HZ. Baseline interferon-gamma levels and HLA-DR activated T cell counts were positively correlated and significantly lower in patients with HZ than without. Strikingly, 5/7 HZ cases occurred within 4 months of starting tofacitinib therapy. Incidence of HZ in tofacitinib-treated Taiwanese RA patients is lower than rates in Japan or Korea, and commensurate with the global average. HZ may occur soon after commencing tofacitinib therapy. The role of interferon-gamma and activated T cells in tofacitinib-related HZ deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Interferon gama/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0007857, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866170

RESUMO

Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is currently treated with a daily combination of rifampin and either injectable streptomycin or oral clarithromycin. An intermittent oral regimen would facilitate treatment supervision. We first evaluated the bactericidal activity of newer antimicrobials against M. ulcerans using a BU animal model. The imidazopyridine amine telacebec (Q203) exhibited high bactericidal activity whereas tedizolid (an oxazolidinone closely related to linezolid), selamectin and ivermectin (two avermectine compounds) and the benzothiazinone PBTZ169 were not active. Consequently, telacebec was evaluated for its bactericidal and sterilizing activities in combined intermittent regimens. Telacebec given twice a week in combination with a long-half-life compound, either rifapentine or bedaquiline, sterilized mouse footpads in 8 weeks, i.e. after a total of only 16 doses, and prevented relapse during a period of 20 weeks after the end of treatment. These results are very promising for future intermittent oral regimens which would greatly simplify BU treatment in the field.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Úlcera de Buruli/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium ulcerans/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Diarilquinolinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oxazolidinonas , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/análogos & derivados , Tetrazóis
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 109-112, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871524
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973818

RESUMO

The spread of the novel human respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health emergency. There is no known successful treatment as of this time, and there is a need for medical options to mitigate this current epidemic. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and is primarily trophic for the lower and upper respiratory tract. A number of current studies on COVID-19 have demonstrated the substantial increase in pro-inflammatory factors in the lungs during infection. The virus is also documented in the central nervous system and, particularly in the brainstem, which plays a key role in respiratory and cardiovascular function. Currently, there are few antiviral approaches, and several alternative drugs are under investigation. Two of these are Idelalisib and Ebastine, already proposed as preventive strategies in airways and allergic diseases. The interesting and evolving potential of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitors, together with Ebastine, lies in their ability to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α, by T cells. This may represent an optional therapeutic choice for COVID-19 to reduce inflammatory reactions and mortality, enabling patients to recover faster. This concise communication aims to provide new potential therapeutic targets capable of mitigating and alleviating SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Butirofenonas/farmacologia , Butirofenonas/uso terapêutico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21943, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925726

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Antimelanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody (anti-MDA5 Ab)-positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (cADM) is frequently complicated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and has a poor prognosis. Although the short-term prognosis of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM is poor, it has been suggested that the recurrence rate is not higher than that of anti-MDA5 Ab-negative dermatomyositis. Combination therapy with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide is the gold standard for the remission induction therapy at the onset. Recently, it has been reported that tofacitinib (TOF) could be effective for refractory anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. Although initial remission induction therapy has been established, therapeutic strategies for relapse cases have not yet been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old woman who was diagnosed with anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM complicated with ILD. In October 2016, she was treated with prednisolone (PSL), tacrolimus (TAC), and cyclophosphamide (CY). These treatments were successful, and PSL could be tapered. However, she developed strong nausea and general fatigue as adverse events of CY. In April 2018, PSL was discontinued, and maintenance therapy was given with TAC. In July 2018, Gottron's sign and ILD recurred. Skin lesions on the finger were partially ulcerated and ILD was also worsening. We proposed a remission reinduction therapy including CY. However, she was rejected CY from experience with past adverse event of CY. DIAGNOSIS: Based on skin lesions and chest computed tomography (CT) findings, the diagnosis was a recurrence of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment by TOF 10 mg and PSL 22.5 mg (0.5 mg/kg equivalent) was introduced in November 2018. OUTCOMES: After introducing TOF and PSL, her skin lesions and chest CT findings of ILD gradually improved. Six months after the induction of TOF, the skin ulcer was epithelialized. One year after the introduction of TOF, PSL was decreased to 9 mg, and the disease activity did not re-exacerbate. LESSONS: This case report is the first report suggesting the effectiveness of TOF for recurrent case of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. TOF might be an effective therapeutic option for treating recurrent case of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/imunologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Dermatomiosite/sangue , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
9.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(4): 419-424, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985153

RESUMO

Narcolepsy is the most common cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) following obstructive sleep apnea. Its treatment aims to reduce EDS and cataplexy, improve nighttime sleep disturbance, sleep paralysis and sleep-related hallucinations. Pitolisant (a histamine H3 receptor antagonist) and solriamfetol (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) have recently been approved effective for narcolepsy in the United States and the European Union. Pitolisant has proved to be effective for both EDS and cataplexy. Besides being effective on EDS, solriamfetol seems to have advantages in abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome. As potential treatments for EDS and cataplexy associated with narcolepsy, several new drugs are being developed and tested. These new drugs include new hydroxybutyrate preparations (controlled release sodium hydroxybutyrate FT218, low sodium hydroxybutyrate JZP-258), selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (AXS-12), and modafinil combined with astroglial junction protein inhibitor (THN102). This paper reviews the recently approved drugs and potential treatments for narcolepsy.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Narcolepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Cataplexia/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Fenilalanina/uso terapêutico
12.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609446

RESUMO

With recent advancements in the understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have emerged as a promising new treatment modality, but their effects remain incompletely elucidated. Tofacitinib, an oral JAK 1/3 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has previously been shown to induce significant re-pigmentation in vitiligo. However, as with other novel targeted therapies, cutaneous adverse effects have been observed. We report a 36-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, refractory to multiple pharmacotherapies, who was initiated on tofacitinib and subsequently developed progressive depigmented patches consistent with new-onset vitiligo. Although definitive causation cannot be established in this case without additional studies, it is important to note that many targeted therapies have the potential to induce paradoxical effects, that is, the occurrence or exacerbation of pathologic conditions that have been shown to respond to these medications. Paradoxical findings with other targeted therapies include the occurrence of melanoma during treatment with BRAF inhibitors, keratoacanthomas with PD-1 inhibitors, vitiligo and psoriasis with TNF-alpha inhibitors, and hidradenitis suppurativa with various biologic agents. Although JAK inhibitors hold therapeutic promise in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, further research is warranted to more fully comprehend their effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Vitiligo/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ceratoacantoma/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/induzido quimicamente , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21004, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629718

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Choroidal metastasis is a rare metastatic location although the most common intraocular neoplasm. In general, choroidal metastases respond favorably to systemic therapy targeted toward the primary neoplasm. In patients with choroidal metastasis of ALK rearranged non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), targeted therapy using Alk inhibitors gradually replaced radiotherapy as the best treatment. Alectinib is a second-generation ALK inhibitors. Here we describe 2 clinical cases of patients with choroidal metastasis of ALK rearranged NSCLC who received Alectinib as first-line therapy achieving disease control and quality of life improvement. PATIENTS CONCERNS: In case report 1, 62-year-old man presented with scintillated scotomas at the level of the right eye; in case report 2, 69-year-old man presented with respiratory distress, persistent cough resistant to medical therapy, pain, and blurred vision. DIAGNOSES: In case report 1, fundus and ultrasonographic examination showed circumscribed choroid thickening with dome-like appearance compatible with repetitive lesion. Computed tomographic/y (CT) showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodular formations and adenocarcinoma of the lung was diagnosed by a transbronchial biopsy.In case report 2, CT showed a primary lesion of 36 × 27 mm in the middle lobe with bilateral lung metastases and lymphadenopathies. Multiple hepatic metastases and minor suspicious bone repetitions. A liver biopsy made a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma compatible with pulmonary primitiveness. An ocular fluoroangiography evidenced a left choroidal metastasis. INTERVENTIONS: Case report 1, 2, medical treatment with Alectinib 1200 mg/day was initiated. OUTCOMES: In case report 1, a few days after beginning the treatment, both systemic symptoms like respiratory distress and low vision were palliated. Reassessment by CT confirmed treatment response. In case report 2, clinically, visus disorders had already improved 2 weeks after beginning treatment. CT showed pulmonary, nodal, and hepatic response. Stability of bone metastases occurred after 2 months. In addition, ocular ultrasonography documented the regression of previously reported lesions confirmed treatment response. LESSONS: Alectinib works very well in intracranial metastases and is assumed to be so on the ocular ones as well, with benefit for the patient in quality of life.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Neoplasias da Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Coroide/secundário , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Coroide/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Life Sci ; 257: 118104, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679143

RESUMO

Halofuginone (HF) from Dichroa febrifuga has shown therapeutic potential in hepatocellular, lung and colorectal cancer cell models. Evidence has also indicated that HF plays roles in caustic induced esophageal strictures and oxidative injury. However, the role of HF in esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated HF actions and mechanisms during ESCC cell apoptosis. We observed different HF concentrations (5, 10 and 20 nM) inhibited ESCC cell survival in a time and dose-dependent manner. HF treatment markedly induced KYSE-30 and TE-1 cell apoptosis, and caspase-3 activity. Apoptosis related protein Bax expression was dramatically increased, whereas Bcl-2 levels were reduced in KYSE-30 and TE-1 cells, after HF exposure. Also, we showed that HF treatment induced DNA damage by promoting γH2AX, pATM and pATR expression. HF treatment also reduced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) expression in KYSE-30 and TE-1 cells. We also showed that HF inhibited FOXO3a expression, but this was dependent on HIF-1α inhibition. Finally, FOXO3a overexpression reversed HF induced cell survival inhibition, cell apoptosis and DNA damage. FOXO3a knockdown enhanced the effects of HF on cell survival, cell apoptosis and DNA damage. In summary, HF plays inhibitory roles in ESCC cell apoptosis, via HIF-1α-FOXO3a-dependent signaling. These data support the notion that HF could act as an effective therapeutic reagent towards ESCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Humanos
15.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1835-1844, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IMspire150 aimed to evaluate first-line combination treatment with BRAF plus MEK inhibitors and immune checkpoint therapy in BRAFV600 mutation-positive advanced or metastatic melanoma. METHODS: IMspire150 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study done at 112 institutes in 20 countries. Patients with unresectable stage IIIc-IV, BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to 28-day cycles of atezolizumab, vemurafenib, and cobimetinib (atezolizumab group) or atezolizumab placebo, vemurafenib, and cobimetinib (control group). In cycle 1, all patients received vemurafenib and cobimetinib only; atezolizumab placebo was added from cycle 2 onward. Randomisation was stratified by lactate dehydrogenase concentration and geographical region. Blinding for atezolizumab was achieved by means of an identical intravenous placebo, and blinding for vemurafenib was achieved by means of a placebo tablet. The primary outcome was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. This trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02908672) is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2017, and April 26, 2018, 777 patients were screened and 514 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the atezolizumab group (n=256) or control group (n=258). At a median follow-up of 18·9 months (IQR 10·4-23·8), progression-free survival as assessed by the study investigator was significantly prolonged with atezolizumab versus control (15·1 vs 10·6 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0·78; 95% CI 0·63-0·97; p=0·025). Common treatment-related adverse events (>30%) in the atezolizumab and control groups were blood creatinine phosphokinase increased (51·3% vs 44·8%), diarrhoea (42·2% vs 46·6%), rash (40·9%, both groups), arthralgia (39·1% vs 28·1%), pyrexia (38·7% vs 26·0%), alanine aminotransferase increased (33·9% vs 22·8%), and lipase increased (32·2% vs 27·4%); 13% of patients in the atezolizumab group and 16% in the control group stopped all treatment because of adverse events. INTERPRETATION: The addition of atezolizumab to targeted therapy with vemurafenib and cobimetinib was safe and tolerable and significantly increased progression-free survival in patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive advanced melanoma. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche and Genentech.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Vemurafenib/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012906, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin is still the recommended first-line glucose-lowering drug for people with T2DM. Despite this, the effects of metformin on patient-important outcomes are still not clarified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of metformin monotherapy in adults with T2DM. SEARCH METHODS: We based our search on a systematic report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and topped-up the search in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, we searched the reference lists of included trials and systematic reviews, as well as health technology assessment reports and medical agencies. The date of the last search for all databases was 2 December 2019, except Embase (searched up 28 April 2017). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one year's duration comparing metformin monotherapy with no intervention, behaviour changing interventions or other glucose-lowering drugs in adults with T2DM. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors read all abstracts and full-text articles/records, assessed risk of bias, and extracted outcome data independently. We resolved discrepancies by involvement of a third review author. For meta-analyses we used a random-effects model with investigation of risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effect estimates. We assessed the overall certainty of the evidence by using the GRADE instrument. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs with multiple study arms (N = 10,680). The percentage of participants finishing the trials was approximately 58% in all groups. Treatment duration ranged from one to 10.7 years. We judged no trials to be at low risk of bias on all 'Risk of bias' domains. The main outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events (SAEs), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cardiovascular mortality (CVM), non-fatal myocardial infarction (NFMI), non-fatal stroke (NFS), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two trials compared metformin (N = 370) with insulin (N = 454). Neither trial reported on all-cause mortality, SAE, CVM, NFMI, NFS or ESRD. One trial provided information on HRQoL but did not show a substantial difference between the interventions. Seven trials compared metformin with sulphonylureas. Four trials reported on all-cause mortality: in three trials no participant died, and in the remaining trial 31/1454 participants (2.1%) in the metformin group died compared with 31/1441 participants (2.2%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Three trials reported on SAE: in two trials no SAE occurred (186 participants); in the other trial 331/1454 participants (22.8%) in the metformin group experienced a SAE compared with 308/1441 participants (21.4%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Two trials reported on CVM: in one trial no CVM was observed and in the other trial 4/1441 participants (0.3%) in the metformin group died of cardiovascular reasons compared with 8/1447 participants (0.6%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Three trials reported on NFMI: in two trials no NFMI occurred, and in the other trial 21/1454 participants (1.4%) in the metformin group experienced a NFMI compared with 15/1441 participants (1.0%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). One trial reported no NFS occurred (very low-certainty evidence). No trial reported on HRQoL or ESRD. Seven trials compared metformin with thiazolidinediones (very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes). Five trials reported on all-cause mortality: in two trials no participant died; the overall RR was 0.88, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.39; P = 0.57; 5 trials; 4402 participants). Four trials reported on SAE, the RR was 0,95, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.09; P = 0.49; 3208 participants. Four trials reported on CVM, the RR was 0.71, 95% CI 0.21 to 2.39; P = 0.58; 3211 participants. Three trial reported on NFMI: in two trials no NFMI occurred and in one trial 21/1454 participants (1.4%) in the metformin group experienced a NFMI compared with 25/1456 participants (1.7%) in the thiazolidinedione group. One trial reported no NFS occurred. No trial reported on HRQoL or ESRD. Three trials compared metformin with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (one trial each with saxagliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin with altogether 1977 participants). There was no substantial difference between the interventions for all-cause mortality, SAE, CVM, NFMI and NFS (very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes). One trial compared metformin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue (very low-certainty evidence for all reported outcomes). There was no substantial difference between the interventions for all-cause mortality, CVM, NFMI and NFS. One or more SAEs were reported in 16/268 (6.0%) of the participants allocated to metformin compared with 35/539 (6.5%) of the participants allocated to a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue. HRQoL or ESRD were not reported. One trial compared metformin with meglitinide and two trials compared metformin with no intervention. No deaths or SAEs occurred (very low-certainty evidence) no other patient-important outcomes were reported. No trial compared metformin with placebo or a behaviour changing interventions. Four ongoing trials with 5824 participants are likely to report one or more of our outcomes of interest and are estimated to be completed between 2018 and 2024. Furthermore, 24 trials with 2369 participants are awaiting assessment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear evidence whether metformin monotherapy compared with no intervention, behaviour changing interventions or other glucose-lowering drugs influences patient-important outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
17.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 66, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine has been recognized as one of common diseases in the world whose current treatment options are not ideal. Lasmiditan, an oral 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)1F receptor agonist, appears more promising for the acute treatment of migraine because of considerably better effect profiles with no severe adverse events (AEs). This review aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of lasmiditan from the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase were searched on lasmiditan for the acute treatment of migraine from inception of the databases to Feb 1, 2020. Pain free and pain relief, global impression (very much/much better), and no/mild disability at 2 h in efficacy; total treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), dizziness, nausea, fatigue, paraesthesia and somnolence in safety were extracted from the included studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager Software version 5.3 (RevMan 5.3). RESULTS: Four RCTs with a total of 4960 subjects met our inclusion criteria. The overall effect estimate showed that lasmiditan was significantly superior to placebo in terms of pain free (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.55-1.87), pain relief (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.33-1.47), global impression (very much/much better) (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.44-1.67), and no/mild disability (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) at 2 h. For the safety, significant number of patients experienced TEAEs with lasmiditan than with placebo (RR 2.77, 95% CI 2.53-3.03), most TEAEs were central nervous system (CNS)-related and included dizziness (RR 5.81, 95% CI 4.72-7.14), nausea (RR 2.58, 95% CI 1.87-3.57), fatigue (RR 5.38, 95% CI 3.78-7.66), paraesthesia (RR 4.48, 95% CI 3.33-6.02), and somnolence (RR 2.82, 95% CI 2.18-3.66). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that lasmiditan is effective for the acute treatment of migraine with a higher incidence of CNS-related adverse reactions compared with placebo. Long-term, open-label, multi-dose trials are required to verify the current findings.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Serotonina/fisiologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vertigem/induzido quimicamente
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-435835
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(3): 130-134, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378628

RESUMO

Recently, topics related to substance dependence and behavioral addiction have been reported through the media. Therapeutic treatment for substance dependence and behavioral addiction is one of the challenges in a clinical practice. This is because there is no therapeutic treatment for a complete cure, and reuses and repetitive hospitalization occur in patients. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop new treatments for substance dependence and behavioral addiction. In the present review, we outline associations between dependence and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels which we focus on as therapeutic targets, and introduce ongoing clinical study using an inhibitor of GIRK channels. Previous studies including animals and patients have accumulated the results that GIRK channels have a key role for mediating signals from addictive substances. GIRK channels are expressed in various rodent brain regions including the reward system. The activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activates GIRK channels through G-protein ßγ subunits and activated GIRK channels contribute to control of neuronal excitability. Pretreatment with ifenprodil that is one of the GIRK channel blockers suppressed addictive substance-induced behaviors in animals. Ifenprodil is safe and broadly used as a cerebral circulation/metabolism ameliorator that is covered by medical insurance in Japan. The authors reported that ifenprodil treatment for 3 months decreased alcohol use scores in patients with alcohol dependence compared with patients who received the control medication. We currently conduct a clinical trial to investigate the outcomes of ifenprodil treatment for methamphetamine dependence. In the future, we will expand clinical studies using ifenprodil for patients with other substance dependence and behavioral addiction.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Japão , Metanfetamina , Neurônios , Recompensa
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12029-12040, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404427

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a uniformly fatal condition that is especially prevalent in skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems. A wide gap exists between our knowledge of the disease and a promising treatment or cure. The aim of this study was to first characterize the musculoskeletal phenotype of the homozygous G608G BAC-transgenic progeria mouse model, and to determine the phenotype changes of HGPS mice after a five-arm preclinical trial of different treatment combinations with lonafarnib, pravastatin, and zoledronic acid. Microcomputed tomography and CT-based rigidity analyses were performed to assess cortical and trabecular bone structure, density, and rigidity. Bones were loaded to failure with three-point bending to assess strength. Contrast-enhanced µCT imaging of mouse femurs was performed to measure glycosaminoglycan content, thickness, and volume of the femoral head articular cartilage. Advanced glycation end products were assessed with a fluorometric assay. The changes demonstrated in the cortical bone structure, rigidity, stiffness, and modulus of the HGPS G608G mouse model may increase the risk for bending and deformation, which could result in the skeletal dysplasia characteristic of HGPS. Cartilage abnormalities seen in this HGPS model resemble changes observed in the age-matched WT controls, including early loss of glycosaminoglycans, and decreased cartilage thickness and volume. Such changes might mimic prevalent degenerative joint diseases in the elderly. Lonafarnib monotherapy did not improve bone or cartilage parameters, but treatment combinations with pravastatin and zoledronic acid significantly improved bone structure and mechanical properties and cartilage structural parameters, which ameliorate the musculoskeletal phenotype of the disease.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Progéria , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Glicosaminoglicanos/análise , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/patologia , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fenótipo , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pravastatina/uso terapêutico , Progéria/tratamento farmacológico , Progéria/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico
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