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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 305: 123130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173260

RESUMO

In this study, three types of biomass were first pretreated with an aqueous phase bio-oil instead of traditional acid washing. Then, the washed samples were pretreated with drying (100 â„ƒ, 30 min) and torrefaction (250 â„ƒ, 30 min) using a parabolic-trough solar receiver system. The subsequent pyrolysis was performed at 550 â„ƒ for 10 min using a parabolic-dish solar receiver system. Results showed that the solar energy can effectively ensure the temperature required for biomass drying, torrefaction, and pyrolysis, having thus a potential to replace the conventional electric heating or fossil fuel heating. Such a strategy combines the advantages of the independent pretreatments, i.e., leaching out of metallic species and reduction of oxygen content. Consequently, the high heating value of bio-oil increased remarkably, the generation of acids was strongly inhibited, whereas the formation of phenols and anhydrosugars was promoted. Therefore, the method proposed herein is promising for upgrading of biomass and bio-oil.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Pirólise , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis
2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110190, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148266

RESUMO

Quality of soils of the arid zones with low organic matter can be improved through the application of natural amendments especially biochar from various available feedstocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of corn residue and poultry manure and their biochars on soil organic carbon (SOC), hot-water soluble carbohydrates (HWSC), basal soil respiration (BSR),and structural stability determined by HEMC (high-energy moisture characteristic). A sandy loam soil in pots were thoroughly mixed with 1, 2 and 4% w/w of corn residues (CR) and poultry manure (PM) feedstock and their biochars prepared at 350 and 650 °C of slow pyrolysis. Maize seeds were planted in pots and grown until physiological maturity when soil characteristics were measured. Treatments considerably altered the means of studied soil quality indicators, and increased SOC (1.5-10 times) and HWSC (1-7 times), and HEMC indices: volume of drainable pores ratio (VDPR, 1.5- 3.5 times), and stability ratio (SR, 1-3 times). Increasing pyrolysis temperature, regardless of the type and rate of feedstock, significantly decreased the SOC, BSR and percent of water-stable aggregates, and consequently structural stability indices. Contribution of both PM feedstock and its biochars was less effective than the CR ones (particularly the biochar produced at higher pyrolysis temperature), due to elevated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) associated with higher slaking, physico-chemical dispersion and lower aggregate and structural stability.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Waste Manag ; 105: 18-26, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014796

RESUMO

The co-feeding of scrap tires pyrolysis oil (STPO) on the catalytic cracking of vacuum gasoil (VGO) has been investigated with the aim of exploring the capacity of the refinery fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit to upgrade discarded tires at large-scale. The runs have been carried out in a CREC (Chemical Reactor Engineering Centre) riser simulator reactor that mimics the behavior of the industrial unit at the following conditions: 500-560 °C; catalyst/oil ratio, 3-7 gcat goil-1; contact time, 6 s. Obtained results with the blend of 20 wt% STPO in VGO have been compared with those obtained in the cracking of the pure streams, i.e., STPO and VGO, to get a proper idea of the synergetic effects that could be involved in the co-feeding. This way, when the STPO is co-fed with the VGO the production of naphtha (C5-C12) and light cycle oil (C13-C20) lumps are maximized, as the over-cracking reactions that convert them into gaseous products (C1-C4) are mitigated. Consequently, the co-feeding promotes the production of high-interest hydrocarbons for refineries. Additionally, the naphtha obtained in the cracking of the blend shows a lower content of paraffins and naphthenes than that obtained with the VGO, and higher of olefins and aromatics.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Rios , Catálise , Óleos , Vácuo
4.
Waste Manag ; 105: 102-109, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044548

RESUMO

Cork is light, porous, carbon-rich, and renewable, which leads to competitive advantages in the preparation of biochar, as compared to other biomass material. In this work, we propose to convert cork powder into cork-based biochar as Cu (II) adsorbent via slow pyrolysis, thereby providing a reliable and simple method for recycling cork industrial waste. The physicochemical properties of cork-based biochar prepared under different pyrolysis temperatures (450, 550, 650, and 750 °C) and pyrolysis time (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 h) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption and SEM. The adsorption capacity of cork-based biochar on heavy metal ions was further evaluated by Cu ion adsorption testing. Results showed that the cork-based biochar produced under conditions of higher pyrolysis temperature and time, has higher aromaticity and lower polarity, larger specific surface area, and enhanced Cu ion adsorption capacity. The maximum specific surface area of cork-based biochar prepared at 750 °C for 0.5 h was 392.5 m2/g, which surpasses most other biochars reported in previous studies, which are beneficial to the application of wastewater management. The SEM image demonstrated that the biochar retains the special hollow polyhedral cell structure of raw material cork. Furthermore, a large number of pores formed on the cell wall after high temperature pyrolysis, and the cells are connected with each other through these open pores. Finally, cork-based biochar exhibits superior Cu ion adsorption capacity (18.5 mg/g) with a shorter equilibrium time (4 h), which gives it a competitive advantage to similar adsorbents.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Pirólise , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Waste Manag ; 105: 233-239, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088569

RESUMO

The EU's publication of the 2017 End-of-Life Vehicle Recycling and Recovery results reported that the UK failed to meet its targets. The Commission's data showed that the UK only achieved a rate of 94.1% falling short of the 95% target. The treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR) using pyrolysis technologies offers a potential solution to this shortfall. The pyrolysis products could contribute to the target as well as supporting the circular economy package. However, there are questions about their hazardous nature and whether they qualify as secondary products. ASR, from a commercial plant, was processed through a pilot-scale pyrolysis unit, which separated the char into two fractions: coarse ≥0.1 mm and fine ≤0.1 mm. These were chosen as potential commercial products. Chars were produced from two processing temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. These temperatures maximise gas production and produce the best "quality" char in terms of limiting organic contamination. It was found that the toxicity of the chars changed with both processing temperature and size fraction; with the maximum total PAHs concentration in the fine fraction at 800 °C. The coarse fractions were shown to be non-hazardous. It is suggested that some form of post-separation may be required to remove the hazardous component. The implication was that non-separated char could be classified as hazardous even if its overall characteristics were not, due to the role of dilution. If there were any questions about the status of the char this could prevent the use of ASR to meet the higher ELV target.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Automóveis , Pirólise , Reciclagem
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123002, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078904

RESUMO

This study studied the change of functionalities in the biochar formed in pyrolysis of poplar wood in a wide range of temperature. The in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy characterization indicated that aldehydes and ketones functionalities formation initiated at 100 °C, dominated at 300 to 500 °C. Carboxyl group was less stable than carbonyls. Cellulose crystal in poplar decomposed slightly at 300 °C and significantly at 350 °C. The temperature from 250 to 350 °C significantly affected biochar yields, while the drastic fusion of the ring structures in biochar occurred from 550 to 650 °C, making biochar more aliphatic while less more aromatic. High pyrolysis temperature also created more defective structures in the biochar and favored the absorption of the CO2 generated during the pyrolysis. The results provide the reference information for understanding the structural configuration and evolution of the functionalities during in pyrolysis of poplar biomass.


Assuntos
Populus , Pirólise , Carvão Vegetal , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122991, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078906

RESUMO

In this work, the pyrolysis behavior of lignite, Chinese herb residues (CHR) and their blends were explored by thermogravimetric analysis. The co-pyrolysis improved the pyrolysis characteristic of lignite, leading to an increment of index D. Analysis results showed that 30%-50% of CHR add ratio was the appropriate choice for co-pyrolysis with lignite. It was clarified that synergetic effects between lignite with CHR occurred during the co-pyrolysis treatment. And the promoting effects were dominated at 240 °C to 310 °C, while it turned to inhibiting effects at 315 °C to 355 °C. The pyrolysis kinetic evolution was adapted by a new general distributed activation energy model with four pseudo-components. The simulation results demonstrated an excellent match with the adjusted coefficients Radj2 over 99.97%. In addition, G-DAEM further considered A-E kinetic compensatory effect. The outcomes enriched the applicability of this model in thermal process of other fuels.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Termogravimetria
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123020, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088630

RESUMO

Production of sustainable clean energy can be achieved by co-pyrolysis of agricultural residues and wastewater sludge. Herein, non-additive thermal behaviour of co-pyrolysis of pharmaceutical sludge and ginkgo biloba leaf residues was investigated. Synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis was not obvious at elevated temperatures. Further, kinetics of co-pyrolysis was studied by fitting Coats-Redfern integration method to thermogravimetric (TG) curve. The change of heat and mass transfer in the reactor caused the change of dynamic parameters. Moreover, hybrid particle swarm optimization and gradient boosting decision tree (PSO-GBDT) algorithm was designed to boost the energy production at full-scale pyrolysis plant by monitoring TG curves. PSO-GBDT model well predicts mass loss rate of the mixture at different heating rates confirming that co-pyrolysis of PS and GBLR can results in high energy production by increasing PS pyrolysis. Designing PSO-GBDT model help to reduced waste production by resourceful treatment of waste in to energy.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Esgotos , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Ginkgo biloba , Cinética , Pirólise , Termogravimetria
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136832, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018976

RESUMO

This paper investigates the adsorption of organic compounds in aqueous solution to biochar adsorbent, using methylene blue as an indicator for adsorption. Biochar was produced by the pyrolysis of mixed municipal discarded material in an innovative heat pipe reactor, the pyrolysis temperature was held at 300°C for 12 h. Biochar produced under these conditions was found to have oxygen containing functional groups that are beneficial to the adsorption of methylene blue as well as graphitic structures suggesting potential sites for π-π interactions with methylene blue. Methylene Blue followed the pseudo second order kinetic model with higher R2 values than both the pseudo first order kinetic and intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption also closely fit the Langmuir isotherm rather than the Freundlich model, suggesting monolayer adsorption rather than multilayer adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacity was observed at 7.2 mg/g for initial concentration of 100 mg/l Methylene blue in aqueous solution. The amount of Methylene blue adsorbed increased with increasing initial concentration as expected. The adsorption mechanisms are likely π-π interactions between methylene blue and the graphitic structures in the biochar which are shown to be present in Raman spectroscopy, as well as electrostatic attraction and ionic bonding between negatively charged surface sites on the char and the positive charge on the dissolved methylene blue molecules. The results show that biochar obtained from mixed waste could be employed as a low-cost and effective tool in water treatment for the removal of basic dyes and potentially other organic impurities.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Azul de Metileno , Pirólise , Soluções , Poluentes Químicos da Água
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122843, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006926

RESUMO

The composite catalysts were synthesized with SiC powder and ZSM-5 and were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, pyridine-infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The catalysts showed a high heating rate and excellent catalytic performance for pyrolysis vapors, and the product fractional distribution and chemical compositions of bio-oil in a tandem system (microwave pyrolysis and microwave ex-situ catalytic reforming) was examined. Experimental results confirmed the quality of bio-oil produced by the microwave-induced catalytic reforming was better than that product through electric heating. Additionally, 36.94 wt% of bio-oil was obtained using the catalyst with 20%ZSM-5/SiC under the following conditions: feed-to-catalyst ratio, 2:1; pyrolysis temperature, 550 °C; and catalytic temperature, 350 °C. The selectivities of hydrocarbons reached up to 75.88%. After five cycles, the activity of the regenerated composite catalyst was retained at 95% of the original catalyst.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Soja , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Pirólise
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122850, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007849

RESUMO

This study analyzed the chemical speciation, leaching ability, and environmental risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in cow manure biochar (CMBC) pyrolyzed at various temperatures. The total content, chemical speciation, and leaching ability of the heavy metals were determined through microwave digestion, modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure, and leaching solution systems (TCLP, distilled water, and SPLP). The risk assessment code, Muller geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index, and germination index were used to evaluate the environmental safety and ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Significant differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of CMBCs. The heavy metal contents in CMBCs were higher than those in CM. The bioavailable fraction of heavy metals was transformed into a relatively stable fraction with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the potential risks and ecotoxicity of biochar were reduced, thus improving environmental safety. The study results provide important data for biochar applications.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Pirólise , Medição de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122876, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007854

RESUMO

Co-pyrolysis and steam co-gasification of wheat straw (WS) and lignite coal (LC) were studied in a tube furnace between 700 °C and 900 °C. Synergistic effect in co-pyrolysis is not always apparent. However, with the introduction of H2O vapor, synergetic effect is more obvious. Gas volume generated by co-gasification was higher than the prediction in all cases. Meanwhile, temperature played an important role and had a linear relationship with the excess gas volume when it exceeded 800 °C. These findings can be explained by that sufficient H2O vapor could enhance synergy according raising catalytic effect of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs), promoting free radical generated and increasing reactivity of half-chars. Moreover, co-gasification of WS and LC with several blending ratios were studied at 850 °C. It found H2O vapor could promote free radical formation stronger with higher ratio of WS during co-gasification, thus showing an enhancing effect on the reactivity of WS-derived chars.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Vapor , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Triticum
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122680, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918292

RESUMO

Magnetic biochar was usually prepared using ferrous and ferric compounds as precursor of magnetic medium. Ferrate, which could be an internal oxidative modifier, was less explored for preparing magnetic biochar. Here, a magnetic biochar was prepared through K2FeO4-promoted pyrolysis of pomelo peel for adsorption of hexavalent chromium. Oxygen-containing groups and single phase ɤ-Fe2O3 were simultaneously introduced into biochar matrix at 300 °C. The magnetic biochar exhibited 209.64 mg/g maximum adsorption capability at 45 °C, outperformed the best magnetic biochar with 142.86 mg/g maximum adsorption capability at 40 °C in the literature. Moreover, a good magnetism was obtained, facilitating separation of the magnetic biochar from aqueous solution by a magnet. The removal of hexavalent chromium was contributed to the hybrid adsorption of ɤ-Fe2O3 and biochar matrix by reduction, electrostatic interaction and complexation. This method was attractive, required neither extra modifiers nor multiple operations for preparation of highly adsorptive magnetic biochar.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122700, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918293

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behavior of cellulose and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and examine the kinetics of the processes by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with FT-IR spectrometry. For this purpose, non-isothermal experiments were carried out using different heating rates and three prominent iso-conversional methods were used to obtain kinetic parameters at various extents of conversions from 0.1 to 0.9. Blending PMMA with cellulose had a marked effect on the process. The results of co-pyrolysis using a blending ratio of 50 wt% PMMA indicated that the highest rate of pyrolytic transformation was achieved at a conversion degree of 0.5 while activation energy ranged from 188.1 to 364.3 kJ/mol. The most intensive gas release during cellulose pyrolysis was CO2. Co-pyrolysis was more complicated than that of pyrolysis of cellulose and PMMA due to depolymerization and radical interactions.


Assuntos
Celulose , Polimetil Metacrilato , Cinética , Pirólise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122665, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918303

RESUMO

Microalgae bio-oil production is related to the sustainable use of world energy in the future. In the present work, catalytic pyrolysis and liquefaction behavior of microalgae for bio-oil production were investigated. The results show that the rare earth compounds as catalysts contributed to significantly accelerating the pyrolysis of microalgae via reducing the activation energy of pyrolysis process. Ce(II)/HZSM-5 presented the optimal catalytic pyrolysis and liquefaction effects by helping cut the microalgae molecule chains. The maximum bio-oil yield amounted to 49.71 wt% at the catalyst concentration of 5 wt%. The chemical components of the Spirulina bio-oil were composed of carboxylic acids, ketones, olefins, amides, ethers, esters, and partially cyclic N-containing compounds. Although the combustion performances of the Spirulina bio-oil are worse than those of the diesel fuel, it is superior to the reported rice husk bio-oil, suggesting a promising potential application prospect.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Pirólise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136433, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954240

RESUMO

In recent years, the application of biochar has increased significantly for sustainable and efficient carbon sequestration, improving soil quality and enhancement of plant growth. The biochar is mostly made from agricultural residues and waste materials. The objective of this study was to assess the changes in physicochemical, surface morphology, and mineral composition of different biochars with varying pyrolysis temperature. Eighteen different types of biochars were prepared through pyrolysis of feedstock at four different temperatures (350 °C, 450 °C, 550 °C and 650 °C). The feedstock used for the preparation of biochar were organic waste materials such as pine saw dust, rice husk, food waste, poultry litter and paper sludge. Pyrolysis temperatures and feedstock types significantly influenced biochar properties. For instance, pH of poultry litter and paper sludge biochar has increased from 6.2 to 10.3, BET surface area of saw dust and rice husk increased from 3.39 to 443.79 m2 g-1 and 11.61 to 280.97 m2 g-1 while cation exchange capacity value decreased with the increase in temperature. Paper sludge and poultry litter had the highest ash content value (57.20 ± 0.02 and 44.10 ± 0.02) whereas saw dust, rice husk and food waste biochar have highest fixed carbon value (55.31 ± 0.15, 48.47 ± 0.31 and 58.85 ± 0.22) at 650 °C. Degree of aromaticity increased and polarity reduced significantly with pyrolysis temperature. Rice husk and saw dust biochar prepared at higher temperature were more stable among all and thus recalcitrant in nature. X-ray diffraction results revealed mineral like quartz in saw dust and poultry litter biochar, sylvite, potassium iodate, calcium sulfide in food waste biochar and calcium carbonate in paper sludge biochar. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed increase in number of pores as well as pore size specially for the saw dust, and rice husk biochar. This study suggested that biochar prepared at higher temperature (550 °C and 650 °C) are more suitable for carbon sequestration and agricultural purpose.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Animais , Eliminação de Resíduos , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122775, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986334

RESUMO

Rice straw and sugarcane bagasse were co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene and polystyrene using microwaves, and the pyrolysis vapors were catalytically upgraded using HZSM-5 catalyst. The product yields, composition and properties of bio-oil from pyrolysis of individual feedstocks and equal composition mixtures before and after catalytic upgradation were thoroughly investigated. The pyrolysis oil yields from polypropylene (82 wt%) and polystyrene (98 wt%) were high compared to that from rice straw (26 wt%) and bagasse (29 wt%). Catalytic upgradation at weight hourly space velocity of 11 h-1 resulted in higher selectivity to unsaturated aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Properties of upgraded bio-oil from biomass-polypropylene mixtures were similar to that of light fuel oil with high calorific value (43 MJ/kg), low viscosity (1 cP), optimum density (0.850 g/cm3) and flash point (70 °C). Oxygen content in catalytically upgraded co-pyrolysis bio-oil was low (<5%) as compared to upgraded pyrolysis bio-oil (14-18%), and pyrolysis bio-oil without upgradation (20-24%).


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Micro-Ondas , Biomassa , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Plásticos , Pirólise
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122841, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000134

RESUMO

Solid digestate generated in the anaerobic digestion of food wastes was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biochar preparation by pyrolysis in this study. To understand the pyrolysis mechanism, thermogravimetric experiments were firstly implemented at different heating rates, then apparent activation energy during pyrolysis was calculated by using the Starink isoconversional method, ranging from 144.64 kJ/mol to 293.36 kJ/mol with the conversion increasing in the region from 0.10 to 0.90. The evolutions of released volatiles were accurately and continuously analyzed by TG-FTIR-MS. Results show that dehydration and CO2 emission were the main reasons for mass loss, and light hydrocarbons were released in step II of the pyrolysis process. Elemental compositions and surface properties of the biochars obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures were characterized by EA, XRF and BET. The obtained results provide an alternative strategy for disposing waste generated in anaerobic digestion of food waste.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122712, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911316

RESUMO

This study proposes a sustainable waste-to-energy/biochar platform using a toxic microalgal biomass waste. In particular, CO2-feeding pyrolysis of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) waste was investigated, focusing on the analysis of gaseous pyrolysates and properties of biochar with a construction of mass balance. Also, the catalytic capability of biochar produced from M. aeruginosa was explored to reinforce the mechanistic impact of CO2 on the pyrolysis process within the overall process level. Ni impregnated biochar composite was further synthesized and used as a catalyst to promote syngas formation in the CO2-feeding pyrolysis process of M. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Níquel , Pirólise
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122739, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945683

RESUMO

Fast pyrolysis of corn stalk (CS) was performed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and the product distribution was measured as a function of temperature, time, and catalyst. The types and yields of product compounds were influenced dramatically by temperature, while the duration of the reaction had little effect on the type of compound. Three primary components in the biomass interacted during pyrolysis. The maximum proportions of aldehydes (27.26%), furans (5.93%), and olefins (6.46%), and the minimum proportions of alcohols (0%) and carbohydrates (0.74%) were obtained over MCM-41. HZSM-5 improved the selectivity of aromatic hydrocarbons while inhibiting acid formation. The proportion of N-compounds was maximal (23.39%) over ZrO2. ZnCl2 tended to generate the least amounts of ketones (2.02%), phenols (9.08%), and esters (2.16%), but the greatest amount of carbohydrates (37.31%). K2SO4 promoted the formation of acids, ketones, alcohols, and phenols, while reducing the production of N-compounds and aldehydes.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Zea mays , Biomassa , Catálise , Temperatura Alta
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