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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(3): 365-370, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to compare the intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate of hospitalized mild/moderate COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), favipiravir, and HCQ plus favipiravir. METHODS: Single center retrospective designed observational study conducted in Ankara City Hospital. Patients who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020 and June 1, 2020 in COVID-19 inpatient clinics with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study. An inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for multiple treatment groups approach was used to balance the differences in several variables on admission. RESULTS: Among 2441 patients hospitalized with diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period, 824 were eligible for the analysis. Median age of patients was 42 (18-93 years). Among all, 347 (43.2%) of the patients had mild disease, 470 (56.8%) had pneumonia. Propensity scores ranged from 0.1841 to 0.9381 in the HCQ group, from 0.03643 to 0.29885 in the favipiravir group, and from 0.03542 to 0.56184 in the HCQ plus favipiravir group. After IPTW for multiple treatment groups was applied, all the covariates in the planned propensity score had weighted standardized effect sizes below 10% which were ranged from 0.005 to 0.092. Multivariate analysis of treatment effect (adjusted effect of treatment) was indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between HCQ, favipiravir, and HCQ plus favipiravir treatment. After using combination of SMOTE and Bootstrap resampling approach, we found no statistically significant difference between HCQ and HCQ plus favipiravir groups in terms of ICU admission. However, compared with the HCQ group, ICU admission rate was statistically significantly higher in the favipiravir group. We obtained the similar results after the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: HCQ with or without favipiravir treatment is associated with reduced risk of ICU admission compared to favipiravir alone in mild to moderate COVID-19 adult patients.


Assuntos
Amidas , Antivirais , Hidroxicloroquina , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pirazinas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 193, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this trial is to assess whether early antiviral therapy in outpatients with COVID-19 with either favipiravir plus lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir alone, or favipiravir alone, is associated with a decrease in viral load of SARS-CoV-2 compared with placebo. TRIAL DESIGN: FLARE is a phase IIA randomised, double-blind, 2x2 factorial placebo-controlled, interventional trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is being conducted in the United Kingdom, with Royal Free Hospital, London as the lead site. Participants are non-hospitalised adults with highly suspected COVID-19 within the first 5 days of symptom onset, or who have tested positive with SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within the first 7 days of symptom onset, or who are asymptomatic but tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 for the first time within the last 48 hours. Inclusion criteria are as follows: 1. Any adult with the following: Symptoms compatible with COVID-19 disease (Fever >37.8°C on at least one occasion AND either cough and/ or anosmia) within the first 5 days of symptom onset (date/time of enrolment must be within the first 5 days of symptom onset) OR ANY symptoms compatible with COVID-19 disease (may include, but are not limited to fever, cough, shortness of breath, malaise, myalgia, headache, coryza) and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within the first 7 days of symptom onset) (date/time of enrolment must be within the first 7 days of symptom onset) OR no symptoms but tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within the last 48 hours (date/time of test must be within 48 hours of enrolment) 2. Male or female aged 18 years to 70 years old inclusive at screening 3. Willing and able to take daily saliva samples 4. Able to provide full informed consent and willing to comply with trial-related procedures Exclusion criteria are as follows: 1. Known hypersensitivity to any of the active ingredients or excipients in favipiravir and matched placebo, and in lopinavir/ritonavir and matched placebo (See Appendix 2) 2. Chronic liver disease at screening (known cirrhosis of any aetiology, chronic hepatitis (e.g. autoimmune, viral, steatohepatitis), cholangitis or any known elevation of liver aminotransferases with AST or ALT > 3 X ULN)* 3. Chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or beyond) at screening: eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 * 4. HIV infection, if untreated, detectable viral load or on protease inhibitor therapy 5. Any clinical condition which the investigator considers would make the participant unsuitable for the trial 6. Concomitant medications known to interact with favipiravir and matched placebo, and with lopinavir/ritonavir and matched placebo, and carry risk of toxicity for the participant 7. Current severe illness requiring hospitalisation 8. Pregnancy and/ or breastfeeding 9. Eligible female participants of childbearing potential and male participants with a partner of childbearing potential not willing to use highly effective contraceptive measures during the trial and within the time point specified following last trial treatment dose. 10. Participants enrolled in any other interventional drug or vaccine trial (co-enrolment in observational studies is acceptable) 11. Participants who have received the COVID-19 vaccine *Considering the importance of early treatment of COVID-19 to impact viral load, the absence of known chronic liver/ kidney disease will be confirmed verbally by the participant during pre-screening and Screening/Baseline visit. Safety blood samples will be collected at Screening/Baseline visit (Day 1) and test results will be examined as soon as they become available and within 24 hours. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 using a concealed online minimisation process into one of the following four arms: Arm 1: Favipiravir + Lopinavir/ritonavir Oral favipiravir at 1800mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 400mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7 PLUS lopinavir/ritonavir at 400mg/100mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200mg/50mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7. Arm 2: Favipiravir + Lopinavir/ritonavir placebo Oral favipiravir at 1800mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 400mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7 PLUS lopinavir/ritonavir matched placebo at 400mg/100mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200mg/50mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7. Arm 3: Favipiravir placebo + Lopinavir/ritonavir Oral favipiravir matched placebo at 1800mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 400mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7 PLUS lopinavir/ritonavir at 400mg/100mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200mg/50mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7. Arm 4: Favipiravir placebo + Lopinavir/ritonavir placebo Oral favipiravir matched placebo at 1800mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 400mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7 PLUS lopinavir/ritonavir matched placebo at 400mg/100mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200mg/50mg four (4) times daily from Day 2 to Day 7. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is upper respiratory tract viral load at Day 5. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Percentage of participants with undetectable upper respiratory tract viral load after 5 days of therapy Proportion of participants with undetectable stool viral load after 7 days of therapy Rate of decrease in upper respiratory tract viral load during 7 days of therapy Duration of fever following commencement of trial medications Proportion of participants with hepatotoxicity after 7 days of therapy Proportion of participants with other medication-related toxicity after 7 days of therapy and 14 days post-randomisation Proportion of participants admitted to hospital with COVID-19 related illness Proportion of participants admitted to ICU with COVID-19 related illness Proportion of participants who have died with COVID-19 related illness Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of favipiravir Exploratory: Proportion of participants with deleterious or resistance-conferring mutations in SARS-CoV-2 RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 using a concealed online minimisation process, with the following factors: trial site, age (≤ 55 vs > 55 years old), gender, obesity (BMI <30 vs ≥30), symptomatic or asymptomatic, current smoking status (Yes = current smoker, No = ex-smoker, never smoker), ethnicity (Caucasian, other) and presence or absence of comorbidity (defined as diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (including previous myocardial infarction), other heart disease (arrhythmia and valvular heart disease), asthma, COPD, other chronic respiratory disease). BLINDING (MASKING): Participants and investigators will both be blinded to treatment allocation (double-blind). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 240 participants, 60 in each arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 4.0 dated 7th January 2021. Date of first enrolment: October 2020. Recruitment is ongoing, with anticipated finish date of 31st March 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The FLARE trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, trial identifying number NCT04499677 , date of registration 4th August 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral , Assistência Ambulatorial , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido
3.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 195-206, 2021 03.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus that causes a disease which can leads to a severe form of fatal pneumonia. At december 2020 in Italy, more than 2 million people have contracted the virus and 78,755 people have died. The scientific community is studying and testing numerous compounds that can be effective and safe for treating people with covid-19. AIM: To synthesize and evaluate the quality of evidence of efficacy and safety for the treatment. The available evidence is summarized in a living systematic review, a review that is constantly updated on the basis of the results of the new clinical studies. METHODS: A bibliographic search is launched weekly on the electronic databases and on the main clinical trial registers. Two researchers independently select the articles and assess the quality of the studies using the criteria developed by the Cochrane Collaboration, the certainty of the overall quality of the evidence is assessed using the GRADE criteria. RESULTS: At 31/12/2020, 101 randomized controlled studies were included that consider 72 different comparisons and include a total of 55,281 patients. 37 drugs are tested with respect to the standard treatment, 6 are evaluated against placebo and finally 29 compare different drugs with each other. By selecting studies that evaluate the efficacy and safety of a drug compared to standard treatment, which include at least 2 studies and which have low to high certainty of evidence, results show that corticosteroids, remdesivir, favipiravir, immunoglobulins, colchicine, and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion could reduce overall mortality. No differences for the risk of any adverse events are observed between convalescent plasma and remdesivir compared to standard treatment. Remdesivir probably reduces the risk of serious adverse events; a similar effect, although less strong, is also noted for tocilizumab and the lopinavir-ritonavir combination. In contrast, hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids and convalescent plasma transfusion are associated with safety concerns with respect to the risk of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The 101 studies included consider 72 comparisons and numerous outcomes, the results often coming from single studies and of small dimensions, and for 61% with a very low certainty of evidence, are difficult to summarize and the final result is to increase the uncertainty rather than providing useful information to the clinic and research. From all the work carried out it seems to us that the pandemic has highlighted the many shadows of scientific literature as tool to improve knowledge.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , /terapia , Terapia Combinada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pandemias , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Incerteza
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24103, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, it is unclear whether the salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen Salvia) and ligustrazine hydrochloride (Chuanxiong Chuanxiong) (SMLH) injection combined with mecobalamin can improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We conducted a systematic analysis to evaluate the clinical effects of SMLH injection combined with mecobalamin for treating DPN. METHODS: Seven databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wang Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched for systematic literature retrieval. Each database was searched up to 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials on DPN treated with SMLH injection combined with mecobalamin. We used the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 software to assess the risk of bias in the included trials. RESULTS: A total of 15 publications, including 1349 samples, were reviewed. The total effective rate of SMLH injection combined with mecobalamin was 31% higher than that of mecobalamin alone (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-1.38; P < .00001). The experimental group showed a significant increase in the motor conduction velocity (MCV) of the peroneal nerve (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 4.81, 95% CI 3.53-6.09; P < .00001). In addition, SMLH injection combined with mecobalamin showed a statistical significant effect on the sensory conduction velocity (SCV) of the peroneal nerve (WMD = 5.03, 95% CI = 4.16-5.90; P < .00001), and MCV of the median nerve (WMD = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.05-6.72; P < .00001). The WMD for the change in SCV in the median nerve was 4.89 m/s (95% CI = 3.88-5.89; P < .00001). The P-values of the Egger and Begg tests were 0.967 and 0.961, respectively, indicating no publication bias. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated that the results for MCV and SCV of the peroneal nerve and the median nerve were stable. CONCLUSION: SMLH injection combined with mecobalamin can improve DPN, compared with mecobalamin alone.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Injeções , Condução Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1261, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627640

RESUMO

ALK gene rearrangement was observed in 3%-5% of non-small cell lung cancer patients, and multiple ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been sequentially used. Multiple ALK-TKI resistance mutations have been identified from the patients, and several compound mutations, such as I1171N + F1174I or I1171N + L1198H are resistant to all the approved ALK-TKIs. In this study, we found that gilteritinib has an inhibitory effect on ALK-TKI-resistant single mutants and I1171N compound mutants in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, EML4-ALK I1171N + F1174I compound mutant-expressing tumors were not completely shrunk but regrew within a short period of time after alectinib or lorlatinib treatment. However, the relapsed tumor was markedly shrunk after switching to the gilteritinib in vivo model. In addition, gilteritinib was effective against NTRK-rearranged cancers including entrectinib-resistant NTRK1 G667C-mutant and ROS1 fusion-positive cancer.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107407, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. RESULTS: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1ß (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/sangue , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
7.
Intern Med ; 60(1): 123-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390469

RESUMO

Case 1: A 65-year-old man with novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) complicated with acute respiratory failure. On admission, the patient was started on favipiravir and corticosteroid. However, due to a lack of significant improvement, he was introduced to mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Although iliopsoas hematoma occurred as a complication, the patient recovered. Case 2: A 49-year-old man with COVID-19 had been started on favipiravir and corticosteroid. Due to progressive respiratory failure, the patient underwent mechanical ventilation and ECMO. The patient recovered without complications. We successfully treated these severe cases with a multimodal combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological supportive therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 59, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several drugs are being repurposed for the treatment of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic based on in vitro or early clinical findings. As these drugs are being used in varied regimens and dosages, it is important to enable synthesis of existing safety data from clinical trials. However, availability of safety information is limited by a lack of timely reporting of overall clinical trial results on public registries or through academic publication. We aimed to analyse the evidence gap in this data by conducting a rapid review of results posting on ClinicalTrials.gov and in academic publications to quantify the number of trials missing results for drugs potentially being repurposed for COVID-19. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for 19 drugs that have been identified as potential treatments for COVID-19. Relevant clinical trials for any prior indication were listed by identifier (NCT number) and checked for results and for timely result reporting (within 395 days of the primary completion date). Additionally, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify publications of results not listed on the registry. A second, blinded search of 10% of trials was conducted to assess reviewer concordance. RESULTS: Of 3754 completed trials, 1516 (40.4%) did not post results on ClinicalTrials.gov or in the academic literature. Tabular results were available on ClinicalTrials.gov for 1172 (31.2%) completed trials. A further 1066 (28.4%) had published results in the academic literature, but did not report results on ClinicalTrials.gov . Key drugs missing clinical trial results include hydroxychloroquine (37.0% completed trials unreported), favipiravir (77.8%) and lopinavir (40.5%). CONCLUSIONS: There is an important evidence gap for the safety of drugs being repurposed for COVID-19. This uncertainty could cause unnecessary additional morbidity and mortality during the pandemic. We recommend caution in experimental drug use for non-severe disease and urge clinical trial sponsors to report missing results retrospectively.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Relatório de Pesquisa , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , PubMed , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 15, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441177

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors, drugs utilized in cancer, are being repurposed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). Recently, BTK inhibitors acalabrutinib and ibrutinib have been found to protect against pulmonary injury in a small group of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines found in the circulation of COVID-19 patients with severe lung disease suggest the involvement of the innate immune system in this process. Understanding the potential mechanism of action of BTK inhibition in SARS-CoV-2 is clearly of importance to determine how acalabrutinib, ibrutinib and possibly other BTK inhibitors may provide protection against lung injury.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 390-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402301

RESUMO

Favipiravir is an antiviral drug that is expected to have a therapeutic effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Teratogenicity and hyperuricemia are known as the main side effects of favipiravir, but little is known about other side effects. This report describes a case of cholestatic liver injury induced by favipiravir. A 73-year-old Japanese with a history of alcoholic hepatitis was infected with SARS-CoV2. Drug therapy was instituted with lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon ß-1b. However, his condition worsened despite additional support with continuous hemodiafiltration and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We suspected complications of bacterial pneumonia and started favipiravir in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Favipiravir was administered at 6000 mg/day on the first day and 2400 mg/day for the second and subsequent days for 14 days. After the initiation of antibiotics, transaminase and total bilirubin were elevated, suggesting a transient cholestasic liver dysfunction. The liver dysfunction in this case may have been triggered by antibacterial treatment, and high dose of favipiravir may have promoted the deterioration of liver function. Monitoring of liver function is vital and close attention should be paid when using favipiravir at high doses or in patients with impaired liver function.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Colestase/etiologia , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 949-954, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492523

RESUMO

No specific antiviral drugs have been approved for the treatment of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in treatment of COVID-19. This was a multicenter randomized controlled study including 96 patients with COVID- 19 who were randomly assigned into a chloroquine (CQ) group and a favipiravir group. None of the patients in the favipiravir group needed mechanical ventilation (p = 0.129). One patient (2.3%) in the favipiravir group and two patients (4.2%) in the CQ group died (p = 1.00). Favipiravir is a promising drug for COVID-19 that decreases the hospital stay and the need for mechanical ventilation.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04351295.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440983

RESUMO

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/farmacologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferons/farmacologia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
14.
SLAS Discov ; 26(3): 311-329, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319627

RESUMO

An outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by an infection of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. This new virus belongs to the group of enveloped RNA beta-coronaviruses. Symptoms may differ in various infected persons, but major presentations include dry cough, nasal congestion, shortness of breath, fever, and general malaise. The disease appears to be more severe in patients above the age of 60 years and those with underlying conditions such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and hypertension. There is still no approved vaccine against COVID-19, but more than a hundred are at different stages of development. It is known that the development of new drugs takes a relatively long time, so several known and already-approved drugs are being repurposed for the treatment of this disease. In this review, we explore the therapeutic and vaccine options that are available for COVID-19 6 months after its outbreak. Most noteworthy among the therapeutic options are dexamethasone, remdesivir, Avigan (favipiravir) and convalescent plasma.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , /prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 249: 119241, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333412

RESUMO

The present work describes development of rapid, robust, sensitive and green spectrofluorimetric method for determination of favipiravir (FAV). Different factors affecting fluorescence were carefully studied and Box Behnken Design was applied to optimize experimental parameters. The proposed method is based on measuring native fluorescence of FAV in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 8.0) at 432 nm after excitation at 361 nm. There was a linear relationship between FAV concentration and relative fluorescence intensity over the range 40-280 ng/mL with limit of detection of 9.44 ng/mL and quantitation limit of 28.60 ng/mL. The method was successfully implemented for determination of FAV in its pharmaceutical formulation with mean % recovery of 99.26 ± 0.87. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the method allowed determination of FAV in spiked human plasma over a range of 48-192 ng/mL. The proposed spectrofluorimetric method was proved to be eco-friendly according to analytical eco-scale.


Assuntos
Amidas/sangue , Antivirais/sangue , /tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Amidas/análise , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pirazinas/análise , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110825, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to almost every corner of the world. In theory, tocilizumab and favipiravir are considered to be reliable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 with elevated IL-6. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab combined with favipiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter trial in adults with COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1:1) to a 14-day combination of favipiravir combined with tocilizumab (combination group), favipiravir, and tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the cumulative lung lesion remission rate (lung CT examination indicated absorption of lung inflammation). RESULTS: Between Feb 2 and March 15, 2020, 26 patients were recruited; 14 were randomly assigned to the combination group, 7 were assigned to the favipiravir group and 5 were assigned to the tocilizumab group. The cumulative lung lesion remission rate at day 14 was significantly higher in combination group as compared with favipiravir group (P = 0.019, HR 2.66 95 % CI [1.08-6.53]). And there was also a significant difference between tocilizumab and favipivavir (P = 0.034, HR 3.16, 95 % CI 0.62-16.10). In addition, there was no significant difference between the combination group and the tocilizumab group (P = 0.575, HR 1.28 95 %CI 0.39-4.23). Furthermore, combined therapy can also significantly relieve clinical symptoms and help blood routine to return to normal. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab combined with or without favipiravir can effectively improve the pulmonary inflammation of COVID-19 patients and inhibit the deterioration of the disease.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , /patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Imunológicos , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12593-12608, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336780

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is declared as an international emergency in 2020. Its prevalence and fatality rate are rapidly increasing but the medication options are still limited for this perilous disease. The emergent outbreak of COVID-19 triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) keeps propagating globally. The present scenario has emphasized the requirement for therapeutic opportunities to relive and overcome this latest pandemic. Despite the fact, the deteriorating developments of COVID-19, there is no drug certified to have considerable effects in the medical treatment for COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 pandemic requests for the rapid testing of new treatment approaches. Based on the evidence, hydroxychloroquine is the first medicine opted for the treatment of disease. Umifenovir, remdesivir, and fevipiravir are deemed the most hopeful antiviral agent by improving the health of infected patients. The dexamethasone is a first known steroid medicine that can save the lives of seriously ill patients, and it is shown in a randomized clinical trial by the United Kingdom that it reduced the death rate in COVID-19 patients. The current review recapitulates the existing evidence of possible therapeutic drugs, peptides, humanized antibodies, convulsant plasma, and vaccination that has revealed potential in fighting COVID-19 infections. Many randomized and controlled clinical trials are taking place to further validate these agent's safety and effectiveness in curing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , /terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
18.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 434-441, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308510

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019, the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, was first identified in the Hubei Province of China in late 2019. Currently, the only role for therapy is treatment of the disease, as opposed to postexposure prophylaxis, however multiple clinical trials are currently ongoing for both treatment and prophylaxis. Treating coronavirus disease 2019 relies on two components; the first is inhibition of the viral entrance and replication within the body and the second is inhibition of an exacerbated immune response which can be seen in patients with severe disease. Many drugs have shown in vitro antiviral activity; however, clinical trials have not been as promising. This review summarizes the current data for the most commonly used drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 and will cover the unique factors that may affect the dosing of these medications in patients with CKD. While clinical trials are ongoing, most are in patients with normal kidney function. During a pandemic, when patients with CKD are at higher risk of both infection and death, it is imperative to include patients these patients in the clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , /uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Eliminação Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
19.
Intern Med ; 59(22): 2951-2953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191372

RESUMO

We herein report the first case of a fever induced by favipiravir, a potential coronavirus disease 2019 therapeutic drug. An 82-year-old man diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia was transferred to our hospital following a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction test. He was treated with compassionate use of favipiravir. Both his oxygen demand and fever gradually improved after admission; however, his fever relapsed, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increased on day 7. We diagnosed his fever as being favipiravir-induced. The fever resolved a few days after favipiravir discontinuation, demonstrating the accuracy of the diagnosis. This case revealed that favipiravir can induce a fever.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 935, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The GETAFIX trial will test the hypothesis that favipiravir is a more effective treatment for COVID-19 infection in patients who have early stage disease, compared to current standard of care. This study will also provide an important opportunity to investigate the safety and tolerability of favipiravir, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of this drug and mechanisms of resistance in the context of COVID-19 infection, as well as the effect of favipiravir on hospitalisation duration and the post COVID-19 health and psycho-social wellbeing of patients recruited to the study. TRIAL DESIGN: GETAFIX is an open label, parallel group, two arm phase II/III randomised trial with 1:1 treatment allocation ratio. Patients will be randomised to one of two arms and the primary endpoint will assess the superiority of favipiravir plus standard treatment compared to standard treatment alone. PARTICIPANTS: This trial will recruit adult patients with confirmed positive valid COVID-19 test, who are not pregnant or breastfeeding and have no prior major co-morbidities. This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Patients must meet all of the following criteria: 1. Age 16 or over at time of consent 2. Exhibiting symptoms associated with COVID-19 3. Positive for SARS-CoV-2 on valid COVID-19 test 4. Point 1, 2, 3, or 4 on the WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity scale at time of randomisation. (Asymptomatic with positive valid COVID-19 test, Symptomatic Independent, Symptomatic assistance needed, Hospitalized, with no oxygen therapy) 5. Have >=10% risk of death should they be admitted to hospital as defined by the ISARIC4C risk index: https://isaric4c.net/risk 6. Able to provide written informed consent 7. Negative pregnancy test (women of childbearing potential*) 8. Able to swallow oral medication Patients will be excluded from the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Renal impairment requiring, or likely to require, dialysis or haemofiltration 2. Pregnant or breastfeeding 3. Of child bearing potential (women), or with female partners of child bearing potential (men) who do not agree to use adequate contraceptive measures for the duration of the study and for 3 months after the completion of study treatment 4. History of hereditary xanthinuria 5. Other patients judged unsuitable by the Principal Investigator or sub-Investigator 6. Known hypersensitivity to favipiravir, its metabolites or any excipients 7. Severe co-morbidities including: patients with severe hepatic impairment, defined as: • greater than Child-Pugh grade A • AST or ALT > 5 x ULN • AST or ALT >3 x ULN and Total Bilirubin > 2xULN 8. More than 96 hours since first positive COVID-19 test sample was taken 9. Unable to discontinue contra-indicated concomitant medications This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomised to the experimental arm of GETAFIX will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician plus favipiravir. These patients will receive a loading dose of favipiravir on day 1 of 3600mg (1800mg 12 hours apart). On days 2-10, patients in the experimental arm will receive a maintenance dose of favipiravir of 800mg 12 hours apart (total of 18 doses). Patients randomised to the control arm of the GETAFIX trial will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome being assessed in the GETAFIX trial is the efficacy of favipiravir in addition to standard treatment in patients with COVID-19 in reducing the severity of disease compared to standard treatment alone. Disease severity will be assessed using WHO COVID 10 point ordinal severity scale at day 15 +/- 48 hours. All randomised participants will be followed up until death or 60 days post-randomisation (whichever is sooner). RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomised 1:1 to the experimental versus control arm using computer generated random sequence allocation. A minimisation algorithm incorporating a random component will be used to allocate patients. The factors used in the minimisation will be: site, age (16-50/51-70/71+), history of hypertension or currently obsess (BMI>30 or obesity clinically evident; yes/no), 7 days duration of symptoms (yes/no/unknown), sex (male/female), WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity score at baseline (1/2or 3/4). BLINDING (MASKING): No blinding will be used in the GETAFIX trial. Both participants and those assessing outcomes will be aware of treatment allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): In total, 302 patients will be randomised to the GETAFIX trial: 151 to the control arm and 151 to the experimental arm. There will be an optional consent form for patients who may want to contribute to more frequent PK and PD sampling. The maximum number of patients who will undergo this testing will be sixteen, eight males and eight females. This option will be offered to all patients who are being treated in hospital at the time of taking informed consent, however only patients in the experimental arm of the trial will be able to undergo this testing. TRIAL STATUS: The current GETAFIX protocol is version 4.0 12th September 2020. GETAFIX opened to recruitment on 26th October 2020 and will recruit patients over a period of approximately six months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: GETAFIX was registered on the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) Database on 15th April 2020; Reference number 2020-001904-41 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001904-41/GB ). GETAFIX was registered on ISRCTN on 7th September 2020; Reference number ISRCTN31062548 ( https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN31062548 ). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (see Additional file 2).


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/farmacocinética , Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Segurança , Escócia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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