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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624954

RESUMO

In order to improve the clinical attention to the poisoning of chlorfenapyr, the diagnosis and treatment strategy of chlorfenapyr poisoning were discussed. This paper collected 4 cases of chlorfenapyr in the emergency department of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University and 4 cases of literature review, summarized the clinical characteristics of pesticide poisoning cases containing chlorfenapyr in China, and summarized and analyzed the clinical data of the cases. Seven of the 8 patients died from poisoning by chlorfenapyr. Exposure to chlorfenapyr through respiratory tract and digestive tract showed high mortality. Fever, hyperhidrosis, elevated muscle enzymes and progressive central nerve damage were its prominent clinical characteristics. Most of the initial symptoms of exposure were not serious. Some patients, especially those with low exposure dose, had a relatively stable stage with or without clinical diagnosis and treatment. In case of sweating, obvious fever and disturbance of consciousness, the condition would deteriorate rapidly, respiratory and circulatory failure and eventually die. With the increase of production capacity and market launch, people have more opportunities to be exposed to chlorfenapyr. It is urgent to strengthen the basic and clinical research of chlorfenapyr poisoning; Attention should be paid to the observation and treatment in the initial stable stage of poisoning, which can be used as a reference for the treatment of oxidative phosphoric acid dissolving coupling agent (sodium pentachlorophenol) poisoning.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Piretrinas , China/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104500, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509563

RESUMO

Ladybird beetles present as key predator of many agricultural pests. Among them, Eriopis connexa stands out due some important traits for pest management programs such as common occurrence, population selected for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, and possibility to be commercially available by rearing using alternative prey. Despite that, little is known about the role of polyandry and its effect on paternity in this species. Ladybird beetles engage in multiple matings, raising questions about the benefits of polyandry and paternity. We studied the selection of mating pair, sperm precedence, and offspring paternity by performing experiments on (1) the age of sexual maturity, (2) the frequency and refractory mating behavior within a photophase period, (3) the preference of insecticide-susceptible females to mate with either susceptible or resistant male phenotypes; and (4) the effect of multiple matings, on progeny paternity. Sexual maturity in E. connexa was found to begin within 3 days of adult emergence for both sexes, but fully developed after 5 days. The highest frequency of mating exhibited by sexual mature pairs occurred within first hour of pairing and the phenotype for insecticide resistance did not affect the choice of a mating partner. The resistance trait marker in the resistant beetle phenotype indicates that progeny paternity results from a mixture of available sperm and do not depend on mating order. These data suggest that released beetles would have a simple prospect for progeny production for both insecticide resistant and susceptible beetles.


Assuntos
Besouros , Piretrinas , Animais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Espermatozoides
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 507-516, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545442

RESUMO

Coastal marine microalgae are exposed to anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides from aquaculture/agriculture/household uses. Some microalgae species, such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum, can induce and accumulate UV-absorbing compounds (UACs) upon ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to prevent deleterious effects. Tolerance mechanisms activated by natural stressors might also protect organisms from anthropogenic stressors. This work assesses the effects of the insecticide cypermethrin (Cyp) and UVR in the marine microalgae P tricornutum. Considering the pro-oxidant properties of both stressors and UACs' induction in P tricornutum, lethal and sublethal effects of Cyp were tested in cultures with and without UVR acclimation. After a 24-h exposure to 10 µg L-1 of technical Cyp or culture medium, UACs, growth, glutathione-S-transferase activity (GST), sulfhydryl groups (SH-g), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed. Results showed differences in terms of growth between Cyp and Cyp + UVR pre-exposure. UACs' content was induced after UVR acclimation and diminished after 24 h of growth in control and UVR pre-treated cultures, while levels remained constant under Cyp exposure. A single Cyp exposure exerted GST induction, SH-g depletion, and LPO increments. In UVR-acclimatized treatments, oxidative stress responses showed similar or more pronounced effects than the single chemical exposure, suggesting a potential additive effect of the UVR acclimation. The contrasting effects of Cyp + UVR observed between growth and biochemical responses suggest different compensatory mechanisms that need to be further investigated. Also, it highlights the need to include both lethal and sublethal endpoints to understand microalgae's tolerance and its significance in the multiple stressors' context.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Piretrinas , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582329

RESUMO

Strain SJQ9T, an aerobic bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected in Shanghai, PR China, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. It grew optimally at pH 7.0, 30-35 °C and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SJQ9T fell within the genus Aquabacterium. The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain SJQ9T were Aquabacterium citratiphilum DSM 11900T (98.6 % sequence similarity) and Aquabacterium commune DSM 11901T (96.4 %). Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and positive for oxidase activity and negative for catalase. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain SJQ9T were consistent with those of the genus Aquabacterium: the major fatty acid was summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω7c). The isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 65.7 mol%. Strain SH9T exhibited a DNA-DNA relatedness level of 34±2 % with A. citratiphilum DSM 11900T and 28±3 % with A. commune DSM 11901T. Based on the obtained data, strain SJQ9T represents a novel species of the genus Aquabacterium, for which the name Aquabacterium soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SJQ9T (=JCM 33106T=CCTCC AB 2018284T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Burkholderiales , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Piretrinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1181: 338886, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556223

RESUMO

A facile and rapid strategy for preparation of covalent organic framework (COF) coated fibers at ambient temperature is urgently needed for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technology. In this work, an in situ room-temperature rapid growth strategy was developed to high-efficiently fabricate imine-linked COF (TPB-DVA) coated fibers in as little as 30 min at room temperature, and the thickness of the coating reached 9 µm. The prepared TPB-DVA coated fiber offer high thermal and chemical stability, and outstanding service lifetime. Moreover, we generalize this strategy to other two imine-linked COF (TPB-DMTP and TFPB-TAPB) coated fibers and the fibers were fabricated at room temperature for 3 h and 12 h, respectively, which demonstrate the applicability of this strategy. Subsequently, a SPME-GC-MS/MS analytical method was developed for trace pyrethroids (PYs) detection, which exhibited high enhancement factors (EFs, 2700-13195), wide linear range (0.08-800 ng L-1), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.02-0.20 ng L-1), and good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.5%, n = 6). Furthermore, the developed analytical method was applied to tea samples and trace PYs (1.31-4.32 ng L-1) were found with satisfactory recovery (80.2-119.8%). The above results demonstrated that the feasibility of the developed strategy for the facile and rapid fabrication of imine-linked COF coated fibers.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Iminas , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(8): 1158-1164, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether procyanidin B2 (PCB2) regulates the P13K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway to protect neurons from oxidative stress induced by cypermethrin (CYP). METHODS: Primary cultures of cerebral cortex neurons from C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group (cultured in serum-free neurobasal-B27 medium), PCB2 treatment group(treated with 5 µg/mL PCB2 for 24 h), CYP exposure group(treated with 50 µmol/L CYP for 24 h), PCB2 pretreatment group(pretreated with 5 µg/mL PCB2 for 30 min followed by exposure to 50 µmol/L CYP for 24 h), and LY294002 treatment group (pretreated with 20 µmol/L LY294002 for 30 min before treatment with PCB2 for 30 min and then CYP for 24 h).CCK-8 assay was used to analyze the neuronal viability after the treatments.Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cells was detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and flow cytometry.The changes in nuclear morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were examined with Hoechst 33342 and JC-1 staining, respectively.Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, p-Akt and Akt in the cells. RESULTS: In CYP exposure group, the cells showed significantly decreased viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with obvious apoptotic morphological changes and abnormal ROS production.By comparison, the cells in PCB2 preconditioning group showed improved cell survival rate, reduced abnormalities in nuclear morphology, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and lowered intracellular ROS production.CYP exposure caused Nrf2 nuclear translocation and up-regulated Nrf2, HO-1, p-Akt protein expressions in the cells, which were inhibited by PCB2 pretreatment.Inhibition of the P13K/Akt signaling pathway obviously neutralized the protective effect of PCB2 against CYP-induced neuronal injury. CONCLUSIONS: PCB2 regulates the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway by activating the P13K/Akt signaling pathway to protect mouse cerebral cortical neurons against oxidative injury induced by cypermethrin.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Apoptose , Biflavonoides , Catequina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proantocianidinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piretrinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(3): e21842, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499777

RESUMO

Glyphodes pyloalis Walker has become one of the most significant mulberry pests, and it has caused serious economic losses in major mulberry growing regions in China. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are responsible for initiating and regulating immune signalling pathways in insects. However, their roles responding to chemical pesticides is still less known. This study aimed to investigate the possible detoxication function of GpPGRP-S2 and GpPGRP-S3 in G. pyloalis in response to chlorfenapyr and phoxim. The chlorfenapyr and phoxim treatment significantly induced the expression level of GpPGRP-S3 at 48 h. In addition, the expression levels of GpPGRP-S2 and GpPGRP-S3 in the chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment group were significantly higher in midgut than those in the control group at 48 h. The results of the survival experiment showed that silencing either GpPGRP-S2 or GpPGRP-S3 would not influence the survival rate of G. pyloalis which treated with phoxim, however, silencing GpPGRP-S2 or GpPGRP-S3 would cause G. pyloalis to be more easily killed by chlorfenapyr. The expression of carboxylesterase GpCXE1 was significantly induced by chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment, while it was suppressed once silenced GpPGRP-S2 followed with chlorfenapyr treatment or silenced GpPGRP-S3 followed with phoxim treatment. These results might suggest that under the chlorfenapyr/phoxim treatment condition, the connection between GpPGRPs and detoxification genes in insect was induced to maintain physiological homeostasis; and these results may further enrich the mechanisms of insects challenged by insecticides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia
8.
Anal Chem ; 93(40): 13658-13666, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591463

RESUMO

Currently, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) are the primary methods used to detect pesticides and their metabolites for biomonitoring of exposure. Although GC-MS and LC-MS can provide accurate and sensitive measurements, these techniques are not suitable for point-of-care or in-field biomonitoring applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smartphone-based dual-channel immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) for on-site biomonitoring of exposure to cypermethrin by simultaneous detection of cypermethrin and its metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). Polymer carbon dots (PCDs) with ultrahigh fluorescent brightness were synthesized and used as a signal amplifier in ICTS assay. Cypermethrin (a representative pyrethroid pesticide) and its major metabolite 3-PBA were simultaneously detected to provide more comprehensive analysis of cypermethrin exposure. After competitive immunoreactions between the target sample and the coating antigens preloaded on the test line, the tracer antibody (PCD-conjugated antibody) was quantitatively captured on the test lines. The captured PCDs were inversely proportional to the amount of the target compound in the sample. The red fluorescence on the test line was then recorded using a smartphone-based device capable of conducting image analysis and recording. Under optimal conditions, the sensor showed excellent linear responses for detecting cypermethrin and 3-PBA ranging from 1 to 100 ng/mL and from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL, respectively, and the limits of detection were calculated to be ∼0.35 ng/mL for cypermethrin and ∼0.04 ng/mL for 3-PBA. The results demonstrate that the ICTS device is promising for accurate point-of-care biomonitoring of pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Pontos Quânticos , Benzoatos , Polímeros , Smartphone
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 460, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542704

RESUMO

The chemical-based tick management method is gradually losing its clutch due to the establishment of resistant ticks. For development of region-specific tick management strategies, the present study was aimed to evaluate the comparative resistance profile of Rhipicephalus microplus isolates collected from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, a northern state of India. Comparative analysis of the dose-response data using adult immersion test (AIT) against coumaphos, malathion, deltamethrin, ivermectin, and fipronil revealed that all the isolates were resistant to discriminating concentration of deltamethrin having LC50 of 295.12-436.52 ppm with a resistance ratio of 22.02-32.58. An emerging low level of ivermectin resistance (resistance ratio, RR50 = 1.03-2.26) with LC50 in the range of 22.39-48.98 ppm was found across the isolates. The coumaphos was highly effective against all except Amethi (AMT) isolate. Similarly, malathion was efficacious against most of the isolates except Pratapgarh (PRT) and Sultanpur (SUL) isolates showing LC50 of 5128.61 and 5623.41 ppm, respectively. All the isolates were responsive to fipronil. Comparative detoxifying enzymes profiles revealed a significant correlation between the increased activity of esterase and deltamethrin resistance. The GST activity was 51.2% correlated with RR50 of malathion while esterase activity was significantly correlated (68.9%) with RR50 of coumaphos. No correlation between the ivermectin resistance and enzyme activity was established. Multiple sequence analysis of S4-5 linker region of the sodium channel gene of all the isolates revealed a point mutation at 190th position (C190A) which is associated with deltamethrin resistance. The possible tick management strategies in this part of the country are discussed.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Piretrinas , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cumafos , Índia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Pirazóis , Piretrinas/farmacologia
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 665, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545435

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is an important vector of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. The objective was to evaluate the resistance of A. aegypti exposed to insecticides with different action modes (deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and fipronil) under intense selection pressure for 10 generations in laboratory. Bioassays were conducted according to World Health Organization. Biochemical assay performed after selection with deltamethrin (Delta-SEL), fipronil (Fipro-SEL), and imidacloprid (Imida-SEL) from G1 to G10 was used for the assessment of detoxification enzymes (esterase (EST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP)). The Fipro-SEL (G10) had high resistance (77-fold), whereas Delta-SEL and Imida-SEL populations presented very high resistance with 118 and 372-fold, respectively, in comparison with unselected (UNSEL). The levels of EST, AChE, GST, ACP, and ALP enzymes amplified on application from G1 to G10. The enzymes contributing in resistance development of insecticides were as follows: GST (20.7 µmol/min/mg of protein) in Delta-SEL (G10), while AChE 9.71 µmol/min/mg of protein in Imida-SEL (G10) and the peak ACP and ALP enzyme activities 13.32 and 12.93 µmol/min/mg of protein, respectively, in Fipro-SEL (G10). The results showed that detoxification enzymes trigger insecticide resistance in A. aegypti and their suppression may aid in the resistance breakage.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilas , Nitrocompostos , Pirazóis , Piretrinas/toxicidade
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 387-395, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes of small molecular metabolites in the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of Anopheles sinensis following exposure to deltamethrin, so as to provide the scientific basis for investigating the metabolic pathway and screening metabolic markers of deltamethrin in An. sinensis. METHODS: The 50% and 75% lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC75) of deltamethrin against the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis were calculated in laboratory. The type and content of An. sinensis larvae metabolites were detected using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following exposure to deltamethrin at LC50 and LC75 for 30 min and 24 h, and the changes of metabolites were analyzed. RESULTS: The LC50 and LC75 values of deltamethrin were 4.36 × 10-3 µg/mL and 1.12 × 10-2 µg/mL against thelarvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis. Following exposure of the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis to deltamethrin at LC50 and LC75 for 30 min, the differential metabolites mainly included organic oxygen compounds, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, fatty acyl and pyrimidine nucleotides, with reduced glucose levels. Following exposure for 24 h, the differential metabolites mainly included organic oxygen compounds, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, aliphatic acyl and purine nucleotides, with increased glucose level detected. CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, fatty acyls, amino acids and their derivatives may play important roles in deltamethrin metabolism in the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Larva , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15647-15658, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532728

RESUMO

Nanocapsules are a promising controlled release formulation for foliar pest control. However, the complicated process and high cost limit widespread use in agriculture, so a simpler and more convenient preparation system is urgently needed. Meanwhile, under complex field conditions, the advantageous mechanism of the nanosize effect and sustained release have no quantitative and detailed study. In this study, a reactive emulsifier (OP-10) is used to participate in the interfacial polymerization of the nanoemulsion, and polymer nanocapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin (NCS@LC) are quickly and easily prepared to study the efficacy and synergistic mechanism of foliar pest control. As a result, the nanocapsule is about 150 nm with a stable core-shell structure. The nanoscale state increases the distribution and adhesion of the particles on the leaf surface, which increases the contact efficiency of pesticides under the different physiological stages and behavioral activities of the target organism. The shell structure provides sustained release characteristics and increases the UV resistance by about 2.5 times for pesticides. Compared with microcapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin (CS@LC), NCS@LC not only shows rapid and synergistic insecticidal efficacy but also provides sustained insecticidal efficacy. The mortality of NCS is 3.4 times that of the nanosized emulsion in water (NEW) at the lowest concentration (0.5 mg L-1), and the control efficacy remained 77.3% after 7 days. Compared with NEW, NCS@LC provides excellent field efficacy, while LC50 for zebrafish is only 0.68 times without increasing the aquatic toxicity risk.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nanocápsulas , Piretrinas , Animais , Nanocápsulas/toxicidade , Nitrilas , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1179: 338837, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535250

RESUMO

Pyrethroid pesticides residues will not only pollute the environment, but also cause high toxicity to the human body. It is significant to establish an efficient and accurate method for pyrethroid detection in food. Considering that the common biomolecules like antibody is complicated and easy to inactivate, it is urgent to find a new type of biomolecule to specifically recognize pyrethroid pesticides. This study proposed the Capture-SELEX strategy to firstly select λ-cyhalothrin aptamer by immobilizing random ssDNA library. High-throughput sequencing was performed on the enriched ssDNA library through multiple Capture-SELEX rounds. Comprehensively inspecting structural similarity and homology, six sequences were chosen from five families for further analysis. The results showed that the aptamer (named LCT-1) could specifically recognize λ-cyhalothrin with the strongest affinity (Kd = 50.64 ± 4.33 nmol L-1). Molecular docking results revealed that the binding sites between λ-cyhalothrin and LCT-1 aptamer are mainly related to the bases A-5, C-6, C-28, A-29, C-30, G-31 and G-32. The LCT-1 aptamer was truncated to a shorter sequence (named as LCT-1-39) by removing other irrelevant bases, and its Kd value was determined as (10.27 ± 1.33) nmol·L-1 by Microscale Thermophoresis (MST). Both LCT-1 and LCT-1-39 aptamers were employed as recognition molecules to establish the colorimetric aptasensors for λ-cyhalothrin detection, which displayed good repeatability and reproducibility. The detection limit of the aptasensors were individually calculated as 0.0197 µg ml-1 and 0.0186 µg ml-1, and their recovery rate of λ-cyhalothrin in pear and cucumber samples was in the range of 82.93-95.50%. This article provides a promising application for the detection of λ-cyhalothrin.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Piretrinas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nitrilas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112716, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478975

RESUMO

As a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin (DM) causes serious health problems to aquatic organisms. However, the comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of DM on aquatic organisms has received limited attention. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0 (control group), 0.2 and 2 µg/L DM for 96 h. The kidney transcriptome and intestinal microbiota were investigated. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 270 and 711 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in goldfish kidneys after exposure to 0.2 and 2 µg/L DM, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the apoptosis pathway was markedly regulated and the regulation of programmed cell death was significantly enriched by the GO analysis. Several apoptosis-related genes including cathepsin L and cytochrome c were also detected. These results indicated that apoptosis occurred in the goldfish kidney after acute exposure to sublethal concentration of DM. Besides, some immune and drug metabolism-related DEGs were identified, indicating that exposure to DM caused immunotoxicity and metabolic disruption in goldfish. Additionally, 16 S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed a remarkable alteration in the composition of the intestinal microbial community of DM-treated goldfish. At the phylum level, the abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria was increased, whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes was reduced significantly after DM exposure. At the genus level, the abundance of Aeromonas, Cetobacterium, Dielma and Pseudorhodobacter was reduced, whereas Akkermansia was increased after DM exposure. In summary, exposure to DM could induce apoptosis and immunotoxicity in goldfish kidneys and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota in goldfish. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the adverse effect of DM exposure on the goldfish and will be helpful for understanding the toxicological mechanisms of DM in fish.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carpa Dourada , Animais , Carpa Dourada/genética , Rim , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Transcriptoma
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112792, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544022

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (CYP), an extensively-used broad-spectrum pyrethroid pesticide, is regarded as a potential environmental endocrine disruptor with the anti-androgenic characteristic. To explore underlying roles of non-coding RNAs and the Jak/Stat pathway in CYP-mediated testosterone biosynthesis suppression, SD rats and Leydig cells were employed in this work. Results displayed that ß-CYP decreased plasma testosterone levels and led to abnormal alterations of testicular histomorphology and ultrastructures. LncRNA XIST and miR-142-5p were co-localized in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells, but the expression of XIST was inhibited by ß-CYP while that of miR-142-5p was induced. Then overexpressed miR-142-5p dampened the Jak1/Stat1 pathway by directly targeting Jak1. Transcription factors NFκB and YY1 impeded by ß-CYP were positively regulated by the Jak1/Stat1 pathway. Bidirectional Co-IP and ChIP assays demonstrated that NFκB interacted with and modulated YY1 by directly binding to the promoter region of YY1. ChIP, qPCR, and YY1 knockdown/overexpression assays indicated that YY1 acted as a transcriptional activator to directly modulate steroidogenic StAR and 3ß-HSD in Leydig cells. Taken together, miR-142-5p sponged by lncRNA XIST directly targets the Jak1/Stat1 pathway, which regulates steroidogenic StAR and 3ß-HSD via NFκB and YY1, and ultimately dampens testosterone production in Leydig cells.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Piretrinas , Animais , Masculino , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502147

RESUMO

Tetramethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is commonly used worldwide. The toxicity of this insecticide into the living system is an important concern. In this study, a novel tetramethrin-degrading bacterial strain named A16 was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans. Strain A16 exhibited superior tetramethrin degradation activity, and utilized tetramethrin as the sole carbon source for growth in a mineral salt medium (MSM). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the A16 strain was able to completely degrade 25 mg·L-1 of tetramethrin after 9 days of incubation. Strain A16 effectively degraded tetramethrin at temperature 20-40 °C, pH 5-9, and initial tetramethrin 25-800 mg·L-1. The maximum specific degradation rate (qmax), half-saturation constant (Ks), and inhibition constant (Ki) were determined to be 0.4561 day-1, 7.3 mg·L-1, and 75.2 mg·L-1, respectively. The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize degradation conditions, and maximum degradation was observed at pH 8.5 and a temperature of 38 °C. Five intermediate metabolites were identified after analyzing the degradation products through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which suggested that tetramethrin could be degraded first by cleavage of its carboxylester bond, followed by degradation of the five-carbon ring and its subsequent metabolism. This is the first report of a metabolic pathway of tetramethrin in a microorganism. Furthermore, bioaugmentation of tetramethrin-contaminated soils (50 mg·kg-1) with strain A16 (1.0 × 107 cells g-1 of soil) significantly accelerated the degradation rate of tetramethrin, and 74.1% and 82.9% of tetramethrin was removed from sterile and non-sterile soils within 11 days, respectively. The strain A16 was also capable of efficiently degrading a broad spectrum of synthetic pyrethroids including D-cyphenothrin, chlorempenthrin, prallethrin, and allethrin, with a degradation efficiency of 68.3%, 60.7%, 91.6%, and 94.7%, respectively, after being cultured under the same conditions for 11 days. The results of the present study confirmed the bioremediation potential of strain A16 from a contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotransformação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos
17.
Talanta ; 235: 122731, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517599

RESUMO

In this work, for the first time, a microchip device integrating liquid-liquid-solid phase microextraction is presented. As a novel approach to microchip systems, liquid-liquid-solid microextraction was performed in a sandwiched microchip device. The microchip device consisted of three poly(methyl methacrylate) layers along with a double "Y"-shaped microchannel. As the stationary phase, polyacrylonitrile-C18 was synthesized and immobilized in the upper channel, while the beneath channel was used as a reservoir for the stagnant volume ratio of sample-to-extraction solvent phase. In this way, analytes were extracted from an aqueous sample through an organic phase into the stationary phase. The analytes were finally desorbed with a minimum amount of acetonitrile as the desorption solvent. Permethrin and cypermethrin were selected as the model analytes for extraction and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Under optimum conditions (extraction solvent; n-hexane, sample -to-extraction solvent volume ratio; 2:1, extraction time; 20 min, desorption solvent; acetonitrile, desorption volume; 200 µL, and desorption time; 15 min) detection limits were 3.5 and 6.0 ng mL-1 for permethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day reproducibility were below 8.3%. Device-to-device precision was in the range of 8.1-9.6%. The proposed microchip device was successfully applied to determine permethrin and cypermethrin in water samples with recoveries in the range of 73-96%.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Permetrina , Limite de Detecção , Piretrinas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103724, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416397

RESUMO

The testicular deficiency associated with exposure to three widely used insecticides in Egyptian agriculture was evaluated. Animals were orally treated with sub-lethal dose (1/50 of the oral LD50) of cypermethrin (CYP), imidacloprid (IMC), and chlorpyrifos (CPF) at 5, 9 and 1.9 mg/kg/day, respectively, five times a week for one month. The CYP, IMC, and CPF exposure resulted in a significant decline in animal body weight, sperm count, motility, normality, and viability with increased head and tail deformities. Significant reduction in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testis superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In contrast, catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) levels were significantly stimulated. Jointly, obtained results were confirmed by microscopic examination of testis sections. The present data concluded that the CYP, IMC, and CPF have a public health impact and violently interferes with male rat reproductive system.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 239: 105940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455205

RESUMO

Non-biting midges are dominant species in aquatic systems and often used for studying the toxicological researches of insecticides. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent the largest known members in detoxification genes but is little known about their function in non-biting midges. Here, we selected Propsilocerus akamusi, widespread in urban streams, to first uncover the gene structure, location, characteristics, and phylogenetics of chironomid ABC transporters at genome-scale. Fifty-seven ABC transporter genes are located on four chromosomes, including eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). The ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies experienced the duplication events to different degrees. The study showed that expression of the PaABCG17 gene is uniquely significantly elevated, with deltamethrin concentration increasing (1, 4, and 20 ug/L) both in RNA-seq and qPCR results. Additionally, the ABC transporter members of other six chironomids with assembled genomes are first described and used to investigate the characteristic of those living in the different adverse habitats. The ABC transporter frame for Propsilocerus akamusi and its transcriptomic results lay an important foundation for providing valuable resources for understanding the ABC transporter function in insecticide toxification of this species as well as those of other non-biting midges. The PaABCG17 gene is shown to play an important role in deltamethrin detoxification, and it functions need to be further investigated and might be used in the management of insecticide-resistance in chironomid adults.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Nitrilas , Filogenia , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149496, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388647

RESUMO

The separation of the four isomers of tetramethrin was performed for the first time using a cyclodextrin-micellar electrokinetic chromatography methodology. Using sodium deoxycholate and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-CD as chiral selectors, tetramethrin isomers were separated with resolution values of 1.7 and 1.1 for trans- and cis-isomers, respectively, in analysis times lower than 12.5 min. Once developed and optimized, the analytical method was applied to the analysis of an antiparasitic commercial formulation and to the evaluation of the stability and ecotoxicity of tetramethrin. Using measured concentrations, the stability was assessed at enantiomeric level and the ecotoxicological parameters on Daphnia magna were determined. Tetramethrin presents toxicity on aquatic microinvertebrates, with EC50 (t = 72 h) of 1.8 mg/L. The acute toxicity of tetrametrin was attributed to the trans-1 enantiomer. The first evidence of oxidative stress-mediated mode of action for tetramethrin on Daphnia magna is reported in the present work.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Ciclodextrinas , Agroquímicos , Piretrinas , Estereoisomerismo
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