Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.704
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253948, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355909

RESUMO

Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.


Resumo A avaliação do efeito comparativo do biosal (fitopesticida), deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina (piretróides) foi feita contra duas pragas forrageiras, Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi, pelo método de impregnação com papel de filtro. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total, GPT (transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica) e GOT (oxaloacetato transaminase glutâmico) foram afetados em Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda cialotrina. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total em H. modestus foi 31.053%, 4.607% e 24.575%, contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total foi observada como 24.202%, 15.25% e 56,036% contra deltametrina, lambda-cialotrina e biosal, respectivamente em H. ocimumi. A atividade do GOT foi observada em 98.675% para o biosal, 33,95% para a deltametrina e 83.619% para a lambda-cialotrina em H. modestus. A atividade do GOT foi estimada em H. ocimumi como 78.831%, 47.645% e 71.287% contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A eficácia da enzima GPT contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina foi calculada como 89.26%, 73.07% e 47.58%, respectivamente em H. modestus. A H. ocimumi apresentou atividade GPT de 77.58% para biosal, 68.84% para deltametrina e 52.67% para lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , Piretrinas , Inseticidas , Heterópteros , Alanina Transaminase , Ração Animal , Nitrilas
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 735-741, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375955

RESUMO

Pesticides are a well-known family of chemicals that have contaminated water systems globally. Four common subfamilies of pesticides include organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamate insecticides which have been shown to adversely affect the human nervous system. Studies have shown a link between pesticide exposure and decreased viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of murine neural stem cells. Besides human exposure directly through water systems, additional factors such as pesticide bioaccumulation, biomagnification and potential synergism due to co-exposure to other environmental contaminants must be considered. A possible avenue to investigate the molecular mechanisms and biomolecules impacted by the various classes of pesticides includes the field of -omics. Discovery of the precise molecular mechanisms behind pesticide-mediated neurodegenerative disorders may facilitate development of targeted therapeutics. Likewise, discovery of pesticide biodegradation pathways may enable novel approaches for water system bioremediation using genetically engineered microorganisms. In this mini-review, we discuss recently established harmful impacts of various categories of pesticides on the nervous system and the application of -omics field for discovery, validation, and mitigation of pesticide neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116565, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279776

RESUMO

Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the most widely used insecticides globally, posing a severe threat to human health and the environment. In this study, we applied high-throughput organic analysis testing combined with high-volume solid-phase extraction (Hi-throat/Hi-volume SPE) to elucidate the occurrence of 11 pyrethroid insecticides in lake water (n = 37), tributary river water (n = 15), and tap water (n = 6) in the Taihu Lake Basin. Permethrin was found to be the major contributing pyrethroid insecticide (detection rate = 100%). The concentrations of pyrethroid insecticides from different lake regions were revealed in the following descending order: southern > eastern > western > northern. The principal component analysis and multiple linear regression demonstrated that landscape maintenance, agricultural cultivation, and livestock breeding were the main sources of pyrethroid insecticides in the Taihu Lake surface water. Moreover, runoff input plays an important role in their accumulation, while the surrounding rivers contribute 2292 kg of pyrethroid insecticides to Taihu Lake annually. The risk assessment analysis demonstrated that pyrethroid insecticides pose a high risk to both the ecological environment and the surrounding human populations, thereby necessitating effective countermeasures. Furthermore, the pyrethroid insecticides in the Yangtze River Delta region have to be controlled. Overall, this is the first study focused on China that revealed the residue levels in water sources and tap water.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Lagos/química , Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , China
4.
Food Chem ; 399: 134008, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037693

RESUMO

The Tyndall Effect assay (TEA) has been applied into colorimetric metal ion detection since 2019. However, the TEA-based sensor for pesticide detection has never been reported till now. Herein, a facile fluorescent organic nanoparticle (FON)-based sensor is firstly developed for fluorine-containing pesticide detection through ratiometric fluorescence assay (FLA) and TEA. For FLA, the intensity of the second-order Tyndall scattering peak (STS590nm) and the fluorescence peak of the FON-based sensor would increase and remain unchanged respectively when adding bifenthrin, flufenoxuron, and diflubenzuron. The detection limits were respectively 9.34, 6.91, and 3.60 µg/kg. For TEA, the increased STS590nm intensity displayed a bright and visible light beam. An economical, simple, and portable device was then constructed to visually monitor the analytes. The sensor was successfully used to detect the analytes in teas through FLA and TEA with the recoveries and RSD ranging from 86.27-100.00 %, and 0.00-5.68 %, respectively.


Assuntos
Diflubenzuron , Nanopartículas , Praguicidas , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fluoretos , Flúor , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piretrinas , Chá
5.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116626, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327606

RESUMO

As a major intermediate metabolite of synthetic pyrethroids, the occurrence of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid hinders the decomposition of the parent pesticide and poses uncertain risks to environmental ecology and living organisms. Strain Aspergillus oryzae M-4 was previously reported to degrade 3-PBA and several substances were identified as downstream transformation products (TPs). But the mechanism underlying the cleavage of ether bond remains largely unclear. Here, we attempted to address such concern through identifying the peripheral TPs and analyzing transcriptomics, coupled with serial batch degradation experiments. Analysis results of chromatographic/mass spectrometry suggested that 3-PBA underwent twice hydroxylation, to yield mono- and dihydroxylated 3-PBA successively. In parallel, a mutual transformation between 3-PBA and 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (3-PBOH) also existed. The proposal of peripheral pathway represents an important advance towards fully understanding the whole 3-PBA metabolism in M-4. A specific altered metabolization was found for the first time, that is, resting cells of M-4 skipped the reduction step and initiate hydroxylation directly, by comparison with growing cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 3-PBA induced the up-regulation of genes related to energy investment, oxidative stress response, membrane transport and DNA repair. In-depth functional interpretation of differential expression genes suggested that the generation 3-PBOH and hydroxylated 3-PBA may be due to the participation of flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450), respectively. This study provides new insight to reveal the biodegradation mechanism of 3-PBA by A. oryzae M-4.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae , Piretrinas , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 324, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Broflanilide is a newly discovered insecticide with a novel mode of action targeting insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. The efficacy of VECTRON™ T500, a wettable powder formulation of broflanilide, was assessed for IRS against wild pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in experimental huts in Benin. METHODS: VECTRON™ T500 was evaluated at 100 mg/m2 in mud and cement-walled experimental huts against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) in Covè, southern Benin, over 18 months. A direct comparison was made with Actellic® 300CS, a WHO-recommended micro-encapsulated formulation of pirimiphos-methyl, applied at 1000 mg/m2. The vector population at Covè was investigated for susceptibility to broflanilide and other classes of insecticides used for vector control. Monthly wall cone bioassays were performed to assess the residual efficacy of VECTRON™ T500 using insecticide susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu and pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.l. Covè strains. The study complied with OECD principles of good laboratory practice. RESULTS: The vector population at Covè was resistant to pyrethroids and organochlorines but susceptible to broflanilide and pirimiphos-methyl. A total of 23,171 free-flying wild pyrethroid-resistant female An. gambiae s.l. were collected in the experimental huts over 12 months. VECTRON™ T500 induced 56%-60% mortality in wild vector mosquitoes in both cement and mud-walled huts. Mortality with VECTRON™ T500 was 62%-73% in the first three months and remained > 50% for 9 months on both substrate-types. By comparison, mortality with Actellic® 300CS was very high in the first three months (72%-95%) but declined sharply to < 40% after 4 months. Using a non-inferiority margin defined by the World Health Organization, overall mortality achieved with VECTRON™ T500 was non-inferior to that observed in huts treated with Actellic® 300CS with both cement and mud wall substrates. Monthly in situ wall cone bioassay mortality with VECTRON™ T500 also remained over 80% for 18 months but dropped below 80% with Actellic® 300CS at 6-7 months post spraying. CONCLUSION: VECTRON™ T500 shows potential to provide substantial and prolonged control of malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant mosquito vectors when applied for IRS. Its addition to the current list of WHO-approved IRS insecticides will provide a suitable option to facilitate rotation of IRS products with different modes of action.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos , Resistência a Inseticidas
7.
J Insect Sci ; 22(6)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374481

RESUMO

Oedaleus asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) is an economically devastating locust species found in grassland and pastoral areas of the Inner Mongolia region of northern China. In this study, resistance to three frequently used insecticides (beta-cypermethrin, matrine, and azadirachtin) was investigated in six field populations of O. asiaticus using the leaf-dip bioassay method. The inhibitory effects of synergists and the activities of detoxification enzyme activities in the different populations were determined to explore potential biochemical resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the field populations SB (resistance ratio [RR] = 7.85), ZB (RR = 5.64), and DB (RR = 6.75) had developed low levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin compared with a susceptible control strain. Both the SB (RR = 5.92) and XC (RR = 6.38) populations had also developed low levels of resistance against matrine, with the other populations remaining susceptible to both beta-cypermethrin and matrine. All field populations were susceptible to azadirachtin. Synergism analysis showed that triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) increased the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin significantly in the SB population, while the synergistic effects of TPP, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and DEM on the toxicity of matrine were higher in SB (SR 3.86, 4.18, and 3.07, respectively) than in SS (SR 2.24, 2.86, and 2.29, respectively), but no synergistic effects of TPP, PBO, and DEM on azadirachtin were found. Biochemical assays showed that the activities of carboxylesterases (CarEs) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were significantly raised in all field populations of O. asiaticus, with a significant positive correlation observed between beta-cypermethrin resistance and CarE activity. The activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) and multi-function oxidases (MFO) were elevated in all six field populations, and P450 activity displayed strong positive correlations with the three insecticides. Our findings suggest that resistance to beta-cypermethrin in O. asiaticus may be mainly attributed to elevated CarE and GST activities, while P450 plays an important role in metabolizing matrine and azadirachtin. Our study provides insights that will help improve insecticide resistance management strategies.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , China
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19228, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357409

RESUMO

The hormetic effect may cause disease control measures to fail due to inadequate treatment of human disease vectors such as houseflies. Age-stage, two-sex life table is used for accurate estimation of the hermetic impacts on insects as it allows to study sub-lethal or transgenerational effects. Pyrethroids insecticides are primarily used for the management of houseflies. This study used lambda-cyhalothrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) to quantify its transgenerational impacts on houseflies. Life table parameters of a progeny of adult houseflies exposed to LC10, LC30, and LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin were computed. Statistically higher fecundity (71.31 per female) was observed in control treatment, while it was the adults exposed to LC50 recorded the lowest progeny. Significantly higher values for intrinsic rate of growth (r), limiting rate of growth (λ), and net reproductive rate (Ro) (0.16, 1.16, and 31.38 per day, respectively) were recorded for the control treatment of the study. Contrarily, lower values for λ, Ro, and r were (0.10, 1.10, and 9.24 per day, respectively) were noted in the LC50 treatment. Decreased population parameters suggest that lambda-cyhalothrin can be successfully used in indoor environments to control houseflies.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas , Inseticidas , Muscidae , Piretrinas , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19077, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352066

RESUMO

The persistence of malaria and the increasing of resistance of Anopheles gambiae species to chemicals remain major public health concerns in sub-Saharan Africa. Faced to these concerns, the search for alternative vector control strategies as use of essential oils (EOs) need to be implemented. Here, the five EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Lippia multiflora, Ocimum americanum obtained by hydro distillation were tested according to World Health Organization procedures on An. gambiae "Kisumu" and field strains collected in "Vallée du Kou". Also, the binary combinations of C. nardus (Cn) and O. americanum (Oa) were examined. As results, among the EOs tested, L. multiflora was the most efficient on both An. gambiae strains regarding KDT50 (50% of mosquitoes knock down time) and KDT95 and rate of morality values. Our current study showed that C8 (Cn 80%: Oa 20%) and C9 (Cn 90%: Oa 10%), were the most toxic to An. gambiae strain "Vallée de Kou" (VK) with the mortality rates reaching 80.7 and 100% at 1% concentration, respectively. These two binary combinations shown a synergistic effect on the susceptible population. However, only C9 gave a synergistic effect on VK population. The bioactivity of the two EOs, C. nardus and O. americanum, was improved by the combinations at certain proportions. The resistance ratios of all EOs and of the combinations were low (< 5). The combinations of C. nardus and O. americanum EOs at 90: 10 ratio and to a lesser extent L. multiflora EO, could be used as alternative bio-insecticides against malaria vectors resistant to pyrethroids in vector control programmes.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Cymbopogon , Inseticidas , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Piretrinas , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 426, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is essential for evidence-based control of mosquito-borne diseases. While widespread pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles and Aedes species has been described in many countries, data for Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited. Available data indicate that the local Anopheles populations in PNG remain pyrethroid-susceptible, making regular IR monitoring even more important. In addition, Aedes aegypti pyrethroid resistance has been described in PNG. Here, Anopheles and Aedes IR monitoring data generated from across PNG between 2017 and 2022 are presented. METHODS: Mosquito larvae were collected in larval habitat surveys and through ovitraps. Mosquitoes were reared to adults and tested using standard WHO susceptibility bioassays. DNA from a subset of Aedes mosquitoes was sequenced to analyse the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) region for any resistance-related mutations. RESULTS: Approximately 20,000 adult female mosquitoes from nine PNG provinces were tested. Anopheles punctulatus sensu lato mosquitoes were susceptible to pyrethroids but there were signs of reduced mortality in some areas. Some Anopheles populations were also resistant to DDT. Tests also showed that Aedes. aegypti in PNG are resistant to pyrethroids and DDT and that there was also likelihood of bendiocarb resistance. A range of Vssc resistance mutations were identified. Aedes albopictus were DDT resistant and were likely developing pyrethroid resistance, given a low frequency of Vssc mutations was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is highly pyrethroid resistant and also shows signs of resistance against carbamates in PNG. Anopheles punctulatus s.l. and Ae. albopictus populations exhibit low levels of resistance against pyrethroids and DDT in some areas. Pyrethroid-only bed nets are currently the only programmatic vector control tool used in PNG. It is important to continue to monitor IR in PNG and develop proactive insecticide resistance management strategies in primary disease vectors to retain pyrethroid susceptibility especially in the malaria vectors for as long as possible.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Arbovírus , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , DDT/farmacologia , Papua Nova Guiné , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Anopheles/genética , Malária/prevenção & controle , Larva , Inseticidas/farmacologia
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421176

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (CYP) is an insecticide in the pyrethroid family and is used widely in agriculture and for public health purposes. However, CYP has been shown to have negative impacts on reproduction, immunity and nerves in mammals. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CYP was prepared and used to establish an indirect competitive immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) and colloidal gold lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the quantitative and qualitative determination of CYP residues in agricultural products. The half inhibition concentration of the ic-ELISA was 2.49 ng/mL, and the cut-off value and visual limit of detection of the LFIA were 0.6 and 0.3 µg/mL, respectively. The recovery rates of the ic-ELISA ranged from 78.8% to 87.6% in tomato, cabbage and romaine lettuce. The qualitative results of LFIA and quantitative results of ic-ELISA and HPLC were in good agreement in blind samples. Overall, the established ic-ELISA and LFIA proved to be accurate and rapid methods for the determination of CYP in agricultural products.


Assuntos
Coloide de Ouro , Piretrinas , Animais , Coloide de Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Agricultura , Mamíferos
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422169

RESUMO

Chlorfenapyr is a new contact and stomach insecticide derived from natural pyrroles secreted by Streptomyces spp. It is a pro-insecticide and acts after metabolic transformation to its active metabolite tralopyril. Tralopyril is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of the target insects and of experiment animals, leading to the disruption of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and death. Several fatal human poisonings had been reported and no blood chlorfenapyr or tralopyril measurements were available. The treatment remains supportive. A 32-year-old healthy man ingested 200 mL of 10% chlorfenapyr as a suicide attempt. Unfortunately, he succumbed at 157 h post-ingestion, shortly after having fever and seizures. His serum level of chlorfenapyr at 4 h post-exposure was 77.4 ng/mL, and was undetectable at 113 and 156 h, respectively. The serum levels of tralopyril were 723.6, 14,179, and 9654.2 ng/mL at 4, 113, and 156 h post-ingestion, respectively. The delay in the rise of serum tralopyril levels was noticeable, which seems to correlate with the patient's signs and symptoms. The information may have therapeutic implications in the management of this deadly poisoning.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275825, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a public health challenge in endemic countries of the world. The use of Long-lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is one of the major ways of malaria vector control. Recent evidence however suggests some LLINs are unable to maintain their effectiveness over their useful life span. This study assessed the bio-efficacy, physical integrity, use and attrition at 6 and 12-months post-distribution of LLINs (LifeNet). METHODS: Following a mass distribution of LLINs in the West Mamprusi District of the North-East region of Ghana in 2018, a total of 147 LLINs were sampled for physical integrity and attrition assessment using hole size and the number of holes as a measure of the proportionate hole index (pHI). Bioassays were conducted on sixty randomly selected LLINs using the WHO guidelines for bio-efficacy testing (cone tests), (20 each at baseline, midline and endline) over a one-year study period. Bed net ownership and use as well as malaria vector resistance status were also assessed. RESULTS: Findings indicate high bio-efficacy of approximately 100% average mortalities of mosquitoes at baseline, 6-months and 12-months post-distribution. A small proportion of LLINs (0.8% and 5.6% at the 6 and 12-months surveys respectively) were damaged beyond maintenance while 62.4% and 62.7% of LLINs were used the night before the survey for 6 and 12-months post-distribution respectively. Households with electricity were less likely to use LLINs compared to those without electricity (P-value = 0.016, OR = 0.39). There were 20 fewer LLINs recovered at the 12-months relative to the 6-months resulting in 14.3% attrition rate. Susceptibility testing showed high pyrethroid and organochlorine resistance (18%, 67.5% and 3.8%) to local malaria vectors respectively), whereas organophosphates and carbamates recorded vector susceptibility of 100% for pirimiphos-methyl and 98.7% for bendiocarb. CONCLUSION: Biological efficacy, physical integrity and net attrition during the study period were in conformity with respect to the WHOPES one year net use. LLINs remained effective after one-year of usage. Net ownership was high in the study households. There should be continuous and regular distribution campaigns to maintain high coverage.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Carbamatos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Organofosfatos
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 375, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses worldwide. The first record of Ae. aegypti in southwestern Saudi Arabia was in 1956. However, the first outbreak and cases of dengue fever were reported in 1994, and cases have increased in recent years. Vector control for Ae. aegypti mainly uses pyrethroid insecticides in outdoor and indoor space spraying. The constant use of pyrethroids has exerted intense selection pressure for developing target-site mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene in Ae. Aegypti against pyrethroids-mutations that have led to knockdown resistance (kdr). METHODS: Aedes aegypti field populations from five regions (Jazan, Sahil, Makkah, Jeddah and Madinah) of southwestern Saudi Arabia were genotyped for known kdr mutations in domains IIS6 and IIIS6 of the vgsc gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. We estimated the frequency of kdr mutations and genotypes from Saudi Arabia as well as from other countries, Thailand, Myanmar (Southeast Asia) and Uganda (East Africa). We constructed haplotype networks to infer the evolutionary relationships of these gene regions. RESULTS: The three known kdr mutations, S989P, V1016G (IIS6) and F1534C (IIIS6), were detected in all five regions of Saudi Arabia. Interestingly, the triple homozygous wild genotype was reported for the first time in two individuals from the highlands of the Jazan region and one from the Al-Quoz, Sahil region. Overall, nine genotypes comprising four haplotypes were observed in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The median-joining haplotype networks of eight populations from Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia and East Africa for both the IIS6 and IIIS6 domains revealed that haplotype diversity was highest in Uganda and in the Jazan and Sahil regions of Saudi Arabia, whereas haplotype diversity was low in the Jeddah, Makkah and Madinah regions. Median-joining haplotype networks of both domains indicated selection acting on the kdr-mutation containing haplotypes in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of wild type haplotypes without any of the three kdr mutations, i.e. that are fully susceptible, in Saudi Arabia indicates that further consideration should be given to insecticide resistance management strategies that could restore pyrethroid sensitivity to the populations of Ae. aegypti in Saudi Arabia as part of an integrative vector control strategy.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Arábia Saudita , Alelos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Mutação , Uganda , Zika virus/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275775, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251636

RESUMO

Hearing loss (HL) is a global health problem with a high prevalence and profound socioeconomic impact. Pyrethroids are one of the most commonly used insecticides. Although previous studies have reported the relationship between pyrethroids and neurotoxicity, little is known about the effect of pyrethroid exposure on the auditory system among the general population. This study is aimed to investigate the association of pyrethroid exposure with hearing threshold shifts of adults in the United States. A total of 726 adults, aged from 20 to 69 years from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were included in the study. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a general pyrethroid metabolite, was used as a biomarker for pyrethroid exposure. HL was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz ≥ 20 dB in the better ear. Analyses by using multivariate linear regressions were conducted to explore the associations of urinary 3-PBA with PTA hearing threshold shifts. There were no statistically significant correlations between Ln-transformed 3-PBA and either low-frequency or high-frequency hearing thresholds after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, firearm noise exposure, occupational noise exposure, recreational noise exposure, serum cotinine, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes. However, associations of 3-PBA with both low-frequency and high-frequency hearing thresholds depended on age (P interaction < 0.0396 and 0.0017, respectively). Positive associations between Ln-transformed 3-PBA and both low-frequency and high-frequency hearing thresholds were observed in participants aged 20-39 years after adjusting confounders (ß = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.04-3.01, and ß = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.99-5.29, respectively) with the highest tertile (≥ 0.884 µg/g creatinine) of 3-PBA compared with the lowest tertile (< 0.407 µg/g creatinine). The possibility of interaction between 3-PBA and age on the hearing threshold shifts indicated that pyrethroid insecticides were prone to be more toxic to auditory system in younger adults than in older ones. Further studies will be required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Adulto , Idoso , Benzoatos , Cotinina , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Audição , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 890, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241946

RESUMO

A sensitive, selective, and simple spectrofluorimetric method for the detection and determination of cypermethrin (CYP) in various samples based on thioglycolic acid-caped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (TGA@Mn-ZnS-QDs) is reported. These quantum dots were synthesized using the Gonzalez method. The synthesized quantum dots were structurally characterized with the help of different spectroscopic techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques and fluorescence spectroscopy. The quantum dots were used for spectrofluorimetric detection and determination of CYP. The emission peak of these quantum dots at 632 nm showed a linear quenching with increasing the concentration of CYP, noticing an excellent linear relationship between F°/F values and CYP in the range of 0.5-12 µg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.992. The influence of different physiochemical parameters such as time, pH, the concentration of quantum dots, and other pesticides interference on the fluorescence quenching was investigated. The detection limit was calculated to be 0.132 µg mL-1. The developed method was successfully applied for the detection and determination of CYP in various spiked samples (tomato, okra, pea, spinach, soil, and water) using the spike and recovery methods. The percent recoveries of CYP from these samples were found to be 77 ± 0.05% to 95 ± 0.12% at various levels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Solo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Sulfetos/análise , Água/química , Compostos de Zinco
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234887

RESUMO

Rapid emergence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations is among the main factors affecting malaria vector control in Cameroon, but there is still not enough data on the exact pyrethroid resistance status across Cameroon. The present study assessed pyrethroid resistance profile in different eco-epidemiological settings in Cameroon. Susceptibility bioassay tests were performed with F0 An. gambiae females aged three to five days. Mosquito susceptibility to both permethrin and deltamethrin was assessed. Species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex were identified using molecular diagnostic tools. Target site mutations conferring resistance were detected using Taqman assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) 3-plex TaqMan® assays were used for the quantification of detoxification genes implicated in pyrethroid resistance. An. gambiae, An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis were identified in the different settings. An. gambiae was dominant in Santchou, Kékem, Bélabo, Bertoua and Njombé, while An. coluzzii was abundant in Tibati and Kaélé. High frequencies of the kdr L1014F allele ranging from 43% to 100% were recorded in almost all sites. The L1014S kdr allele was detected at low frequency (4.10-10%) only in mosquito populations from Njombé and Tibati. The N1575Y mutation was recorded in Kaélé, Santchou, Tibati and Bertoua with a frequency varying from 2.10% to 11.70%. Six Cytochrome P450 genes (Cyp6p3, Cyp6m2, Cyp9k1, Cyp6p4, Cyp6z1, and Cyp4g16) were found to be overexpressed in at least one population. Analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon lipids indicated a significant increase in CHC content in mosquito populations from Kaélé and Njombé compared to Kékem, Bélabo and Bertoua populations. The study indicated high pyrethroid resistance across different ecological settings in Cameroon with different profile of resistance across the country. The present situation calls for further actions in order to mitigate the impact of insecticide resistance on vector control measures.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Camarões/epidemiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lipídeos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Permetrina/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292608

RESUMO

Despite the contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission, there is still not enough information on their susceptibility status to insecticides. The present study assesses the resistance profile of Anopheles pharoensis to DDT. WHO tube tests were used to screen mosquito populations collected from the far-north region of Cameroon for susceptibility to 4% DDT. High DDT resistance in An. pharoensis populations from Maga, Simatou and Yangah with mortality rates ranging from 62.79% to 80% was recorded. Direct sequencing (Sanger) of the VGSC gene was undertaken to search for kdr L1014F/S mutations. However, no kdr allele was detected in the resistant samples. We then looked for cuticle alterations and CHC identification and quantitation were undertaken using GC-MS and GC-FID. High production of cuticular hydrocarbon was recorded in the populations of Yangah and Simatou, with 2420.9 ± 265 and 2372.5 ± 225 ng CHCs/mg dry weight, respectively. The present findings are the first ever describing the development of cuticle resistance in An. pharoensis. The data suggest the need to expand surveillance activities on other vector species.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , DDT/farmacologia , Camarões , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(20): 14649-14659, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201633

RESUMO

Resistance alleles within the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) have been correlated with pyrethroid resistance in wild populations of the nontarget amphipod, Hyalella azteca from California (CA), U.S.A. In the present study, we expand upon the relationship between land use and the evolution of pesticide resistance in H. azteca to develop a quantitative methodology to target and screen novel populations for resistance allele genotypes in a previously uninvestigated region of the U.S. (New England: NE). By incorporating urban land development and toxicity-normalized agricultural pesticide use indices into our site selection, we successfully identified three amino acid substitutions associated with pyrethroid resistance. One of the resistance mutations has been described in H. azteca from CA (L925I). We present the remaining two (vgsc I936F and I936V) as novel pyrethroid-resistance alleles in H. azteca based on previous work in insects and elevated cyfluthrin resistance in one NE population. Our results suggest that urban pesticide use is a strong driver in the evolution of resistance alleles in H. azteca. Furthermore, our method for resistance allele screening provides an applied framework for detecting ecosystem impairment on a nationwide scale that can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment decisions.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Anfípodes/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293043

RESUMO

Pyrethrins are a mixture of terpenes, with insecticidal properties, that accumulate in the aboveground parts of the pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Numerous studies have been published on the positive role of MYB transcription factors (TFs) in terpenoid biosynthesis; however, the role of MYB TFs in pyrethrin biosynthesis remains unknown. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a T. cinerariifolium&nbsp;MYB gene encoding a R3-MYB protein, TcMYB8, containing a large number of hormone-responsive elements in its promoter. The expression of the TcMYB8 gene showed a downward trend during the development stage of flowers and leaves, and was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA). Transient overexpression of TcMYB8 enhanced the expression of key enzyme-encoding genes, TcCHS and TcGLIP, and increased the content of pyrethrins. By contrast, transient silencing of TcMYB8 decreased pyrethrin contents and downregulated TcCHS and TcGLIP expression. Further analysis indicated that TcMYB8 directly binds to cis-elements in proTcCHS and proTcGLIP to activate their expression, thus regulating pyrethrin biosynthesis. Together, these results highlight the potential application of TcMYB8 for improving the T. cinerariifolium germplasm, and provide insight into the pyrethrin biosynthesis regulation network.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium , Piretrinas , Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/genética , Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...