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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105618, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937231

RESUMO

Bifenthrin is a second generation synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in Australia and worldwide. It is frequently found in urban freshwater sediments at concentrations likely to impact biota as it is highly toxic to fish and macroinvertebrates, such as chironomids. Our main goal was to evaluate if oxidative stress and hydrolase enzymes are useful biomarkers of effect of synthetic pyrethroids exposure under different scenarios. Chironomus tepperi larvae (5 days old) were exposed to sub-lethal sediment concentrations of bifenthrin for 5 days under controlled laboratory conditions. A field-based microcosm exposure with bifenthrin-spiked sediments (using the same concentrations as the laboratory exposure) was carried out at a clean field site for four weeks to allow for colonization and development of resident chironomid larvae. At the end of both experiments, Chironomus larvae (C. tepperi in the laboratory exposures and C. oppositus in the microcosm exposures) were collected and oxidative stress enzymes (Glutathione-s-Transferase, Glutathione Reductase and Glutathione Peroxidase) and hydrolase enzymes (Acetylcholinesterase and Carboxylesterase) were measured. Only the Glutathione Peroxidase activity was significantly impacted in larvae from the laboratory exposure. On the contrary, significant changes were observed in all the measured enzymes from the field-based microcosm exposure. This is likely because exposure was throughout the whole life cycle, from egg mass to fourth instar, showing a more realistic exposure scenario. Furthermore, this is the first time that changes in oxidative stress and hydrolase enzymes have been shown to occur in Australian non-biting midges exposed under field-based microcosm conditions. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of these enzymes as biomarkers of effect following bifenthrin exposure in microcosms. It also highlights the importance of using a range of different biochemical endpoints to get a more holistic understanding of pesticide effects and the pathways involved.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Chironomidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Chironomidae/enzimologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105624, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947072

RESUMO

The study was designed to evaluate the possible protective roles of dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil (OVEO) against cypermethrin (CP)-induced serum biochemical changes and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Moreover, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage in the gills and hepatic tissues were also assessed. Briefly, fish were allotted into six groups with three triplicates whereas a group fed on basal diet and did not exposed to CP and served as control (CTR), two groups were fed on diets supplemented with two levels of OVEO (0.5 % and 1.0 %), a group exposed to sub-lethal concentration of CP (1/10 of 96 h-LC50 = 0.4134 µg/L), and two other groups exposed to the same concentration of CP and fed on diets supplemented with both levels of OVEO (CP + 0.5 % OVEO, and CP + 1.0 % OVEO), respectively, for 30 days. CP induced significant elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, and creatinine levels indicating hepato-renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Besides, there was a significant decrease in serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, CP induced significant histopathologic alterations in gills, anterior kidneys, and hepatic tissues with activation of apoptosis (Caspase-3) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comet assay demonstrated significant DNA damage in gills and liver tissues of the CP-exposed group. Interestingly, a significant attenuation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, CAT, and SOD levels (P < 0.05) was noticed in CP-exposed fish and concurrently fed diets supplemented with either 0.5 % or 1.0 % OVEO. Moreover, histopathologic alterations and apoptosis were significantly reduced along with a concomitant significant decrease in DNA damage (P < 0.05) which indicated the mitigation of DNA damage. Conclusively, the study showed that OVEO is an effective counteractive treatment against CP-induced damage in exposed common carp and is recommended during the formulation of fish rations.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/genética , Dieta , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105611, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949974

RESUMO

Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in agricultural and urban sectors, and is found in watersheds worldwide. As a sodium channel blocker, at sublethal concentrations it causes off-target effects, including disruption of calcium signaling and neuronal growth. At the whole organism level, sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin cause behavioral effects in fish species, raising concerns about the neurotoxic properties of the compound on fish populations. Here we describe the application of a high-throughput behavioral system to evaluate contaminant impacts on the sensitive early-life stages of Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), a critically endangered teleost species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD), California, USA. Leveraging the natural behavior of early-larval Delta smelt, whereby they increase movement in bright light and decrease movement in the dark, we developed a test using a cycle of light and dark periods in a closed chamber to test hyper- or hypoactivity for this species. We show that early-larval Delta smelt have a significant preference to move toward light, and utilized the behavioral test to evaluate the impact of exposure to bifenthrin at concentrations found in habitats where Delta smelt reportedly spawn, ranging up to concentrations detected in tributaries to these habitats. All tested concentrations of bifenthrin (nominal 2, 10, or 100 ng/L) caused hyperactivity, over a 96 h exposure, with noted significance determined during the light period of the test. To further understand the impact of bifenthrin exposure, expression of a suite of genes relevant to neurodevelopment, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and biotransformation in exposed larvae were also measured. Following exposure to picomolar concentrations of bifenthrin, expression of genes in the mTOR signaling and neurogenesis pathways were altered alongside behavior. This study demonstrates how light and dark cycle behavioral tests can be used to assess sensitive alterations in swimming activity in Delta smelt at early developmental stages and how gene expression can complement these assays. This approach can be used to assess the impact of multiple compounds that occur within the restricted habitat of Delta smelt, thus having the potential to greatly inform conservation management strategies for this critically sensitive life stage.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Osmeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Osmeriformes/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Natação
4.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126779, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957265

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are a class of highly effective, broad-spectrum, less toxic, biodegradable synthetic pesticides. However, despite the extremely wide application of pyrethroids, there are many problems, such as insecticide resistance, lethal/sub-lethal toxicity to mammals, aquatic organisms or other beneficial organisms. The objectives of this review were to cover the main structures, synthesis, steroisomers, mechanisms of action, anti-mosquito activities, resistance, photodegradation and toxicities of pyrethroids. That was to provide a reference for synthesizing or screening novel pyrethroids with low insecticide resistance and low toxicity to beneficial organisms, evaluating the environmental pollution of pyrethroids and its metabolites. Besides, pyrethroids are mainly used for the control of vectors such as insects, and the non-target organisms are mammals, aquatic organisms etc. While maintaining the insecticidal activity is important, its toxic effects on non-target organisms should be also considered. Pyrethroid resistance is present not only in insect mosquitoes but also in environmental microorganisms, which results in anti-pyrethroids resistance (APR) strains. Besides, photodegradation product dibenzofurans is harmful to mammals and environment. Additionally, pyrethroid metabolites may have higher hormonal interference than the parents. Particularly, delivery of pyrethroids in nanoform can reduce the discharge of more toxic substances (such as organic solvents, etc.) to the environment.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores , Fotólise , Piretrinas/química , Piretrinas/metabolismo
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104686, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980070

RESUMO

New insecticides are urgently needed for the control of arthropod vectors of public health diseases. As resistance to many insecticides used for the control of public health pests is ubiquitous, all available chemistries should be evaluated for their potential to effectively control both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant strains of mosquitoes. This study aimed to evaluate p-p'-difluoro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DFDT) as a mosquito control technology and relate its activity to that of DDT. We found that topical DFDT was significantly less toxic than DDT to both pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. Direct nervous system recording from Drosophila melanogaster CNS demonstrated that DFDT is approximately 10-times less potent than DDT at blocking nerve firing, which may explain its relatively lower toxicity. DFDT was shown to be at least 4500 times more vapor-active than DDT, with an LC50 in a vapor toxicity screening assay of 2.2 µg/cm2. Resistance to DFDT was assessed in two mosquito strains that possess target-site mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel and upregulated metabolic activity. Resistance ratios for Akdr (An. gambiae) and Puerto Rico (Ae. aegypti) strains were 9.2 and 12.2, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates that DFDT is unlikely to be a viable public health vector control insecticide.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , DDT/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores , Porto Rico , Tricloroetanos
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105612, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911328

RESUMO

Lambda-cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid that mimics the structure and insecticidal properties of pyrethrin, a natural insecticide derived from chrysanthemums. In fish, it disrupts the nervous system, causing motor paralysis and several other alterations associated with varying levels of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate osmoregulatory responses and histological changes in the gills of Oreochromis niloticus chronically exposed to a sublethal dosage (0.86 µg/L) of lambda-cyhalothrin. The mean serum values for Na2+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, pH, lactate, H+, HCO3, and glucose along to degree of tissue change (DTC) at 24, 96, 168, and 240 h post-exposure (hpe) were evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin affected the neuronal motor function at 24 hpe, followed by the increase of the K+, Ca2+, H+, and glucose levels in the exposed group, compared to the control group. Lactate and H+ levels in the exposed group were higher than those in the control group at 168 and 240 hpe respectively. HCO3, and Cl- levels increased at 240 hpe, although there was no change in the pH values. DTC was higher in treated fish than in control fish, but there were no significant differences among time-exposure. The changes detected ranged from hyperemia of the branchial vasculature, eosinophilic granulocytic cell infiltration, mucous cell hyperplasia, and partial fusion of secondary lamellae at 24 hpe to vascular aneurysm formation, and necrosis of the lamellar epithelium at 240 hpe. Thus, a sublethal dosage of lambda-cyhalothrin in the long-term is toxic for Nile tilapia, characterized by hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, and respiratory alkalosis, followed by time-dependent histological changes.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Brânquias/patologia , Inseticidas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854455

RESUMO

The pyrethroid toxicants, fatal at high doses, are found as remnants of crop pesticides and ingredients of commercially available insecticides. The toxic effects of high-content insecticidal pyrethroid formulations are available in 0.05 g, 1.17 g, and 0.04 g pyrethroid-instilled products, namely burning coils, pyrethroid-soaked mats, and liquid formulations of pyrethroids that release pyrethroid vapor/smoke upon heating. They provided 5.46 g/kg, 21.15 g/kg, and 4.24 g/kg of toxicants to the experimental animals over a total of 3 weeks/5 h per os (p.o.) administration, producing necrosis, hyperemia, and fatty changes in the liver; fiber separation in cardiac muscles; atrophy, lymphatic infiltration, blood vessel congestion, and hyperemia in the heart tissues of the experimental animals. The glomerular tuft necrosis, cytoplasmic degeneration of renal tubular cells, necrotic tubules, congestion, and dilatation of blood vessels were observed in the kidney tissue of intoxicated animals. Air-space enlargement, interstitial inflammation, lymphocyte infiltration aggregates, connective tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells, and hyperemia were found in the lung tissues. The pyrethroid toxicants also produced nervous tissue degeneration and decreased neurons in the brain, which were observed through histopathological examinations of the brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, and liver. The protective effects of ascorbic acid (AA/vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (E307/vitamin E) at 100 mg/kg oral doses administered daily for the entire period of the toxicant exposure of three weeks to the experimental mice, aged between 3-4 months and weighing ≈30 g, ameliorated the tissue damage, as observed through the histopathological examinations. The ascorbic acid caused recovery of the liver, kidney, brain, and heart tissue damage, while α-tocopherol was effective at ameliorating the damage in the kidneys and lung tissue compared with the control groups. The high levels of tissue damage recovery suggested a prophylactic effect of the concurrent use of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol for the subjects under the exposure of pyrethroids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817683

RESUMO

To explain the asymmetrical abundance of native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and invasive Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in the fields, we examined differential susceptibility to pesticides and environmental conditions, i.e., nine combinations of temperatures and relative humidities (RHs). We found adult female F. intonsa to be more susceptible to most of the tested insecticides as compared to F. occidentalis. Chlorfenapyr was most toxic to both thrips' species. In the evaluation of environment conditions in the adult stage, F. intonsa survived 2.5 and 2.4-fold longer as RH increased at 20 and 25 °C, respectively, whereas F. occidentalis survived 1.8 and 1.6-fold longer, respectively. In both pupal and larval stage, no significant effect of interaction of temperatures and RHs was found between the two species. In conclusion, the insecticides tested differed considerably in their species-specific toxicity, and F. intonsa was generally more susceptible to the insecticides, while at the same time survivorship was better at higher RH conditions than F. occidentalis. Thus, differences in the relative susceptibility to changing environmental conditions, especially humidity, may be an underlying mechanism for the recent dominance of F. intonsa over F. occidentalis in the strawberry plastic greenhouse in Korea.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Tisanópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/parasitologia , Umidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0228835, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649665

RESUMO

The mosquito Culex erythrothorax Dyar is a West Nile virus (WNV) vector that breeds in wetlands with emergent vegetation. Urbanization and recreational activities near wetlands place humans, birds and mosquitoes in close proximity, increasing the risk of WNV transmission. Adult Cx. erythrothorax abundance peaked in a wetland bordering the San Francisco Bay of California (USA) during the first 3 hours after sunset (5527 ± 4070 mosquitoes / trap night) while peak adult Culex tarsalis Coquillett abundance occurred during the subsequent 3 h period (83 ± 30 Cx. tarsalis). When insecticide resistance was assessed using bottle bioassay, Cx. erythrothorax was highly sensitive to permethrin, naled, and etofenprox insecticides compared to a strain of Culex pipiens that is susceptible to insecticides (LC50 = 0.35, 0.71, and 4.1 µg/bottle, respectively). The Cx. erythrothorax were 2.8-fold more resistant to resmethrin, however, the LC50 value was low (0.68 µg/bottle). Piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity of permethrin (0.5 µg/bottle) and reduced knock down time, but a higher permethrin concentration (2.0 µg/bottle) did not have similar effects. Bulk mixed-function oxidase, alpha-esterase, or beta-esterase activities in mosquito homogenates were higher in Cx. erythrothorax relative to the Cx. pipiens susceptible strain. There was no difference in the activity of glutathione S-transferase between the two mosquito species and insensitive acetylcholine esterase was not detected. Larvicides that were applied to the site had limited impact on reducing mosquito abundance. Subsequent removal of emergent vegetation in concert with larvicide applications and reduced daily environmental temperature substantially reduced mosquito abundance. To control Cx. erythrothorax in wetlands, land managers should consider vegetation removal so that larvicide can efficiently enter the water. Vector control agencies may more successfully control adult viremic Cx. erythrothorax that enter nearby neighborhoods by applying adulticides during the 3 h that follow sunset.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , California , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos , Permetrina/toxicidade , Butóxido de Piperonila/química , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 159: 105007, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662438

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of sea lice pharmaceuticals on egg-bearing deep-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Both mortality and sub-lethal effects (behavior, embryo development, and reproductive output) were studied for each of three pharmaceuticals alone and in different sequential combinations. The most severe effect was observed for deltamethrin where 2 h exposure to 330 times diluted treatment dose (alone and in sequential application with hydrogen peroxide and azamethiphos) induced almost 100% mortality within a few days after exposure. Similar effects were not observed for hydrogen peroxide or azamethiphos. However, sequential treatment of hydrogen peroxide and azamethiphos (2 h exposure to each pharmaceutical; 500 times dilution) resulted in >40% mortality during the first week following treatment. No sub-lethal effects or loss of eggs in female shrimp could be related to exposure to the bath treatments. Future studies should investigate potential sub-lethal effects at exposure concentrations close to the no-effect concentration.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Nitrilos , Pandalidae , Piretrinas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 192-201, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693020

RESUMO

Fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is an environmental endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicant. An early report found that pubertal exposure to high-dose fenvalerate impaired cognitive and behavioral development. Here, we aimed to further investigate the effect of pubertal exposure to low-dose fenvalerate on cognitive and behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with fenvalerate (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) daily from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze. Anxiety-related activities were detected by open-field and elevated plus-maze. Increased anxiety activities were observed only in females exposed to fenvalerate. Spatial learning and memory were damaged only in females exposed to fenvalerate. Histopathology observed numerous scattered shrinking neurons and nuclear pyknosis in hippocampal CA1 region. Neuronal density was reduced in hippocampal CA1 region of fenvalerate-exposed mice. Mechanistically, hippocampal thyroid hormone receptor (TR)ß1 was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in females. In addition, TRα1 was declined only in females exposed to 5.0 mg/kg fenvalerate. Taken together, these suggests that pubertal exposure to low-dose fenvalerate impairs cognitive and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. Hippocampal TR signaling may be, at least partially, involved in fenvalerate-induced impairment of cognitive and behavioral development.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurônios/patologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais
12.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127356, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650176

RESUMO

Growth of the most important nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum is reported to be badly affected by the application of insecticides. To overcome their damaging effects, several strategies are being used. Out of these, some works on kinetin (KN, a synthetic cytokinin) has been recognized that it can overcome toxicity of insecticides in cyanobacteria. Besides this, it is now known that every hormone needs certain second messengers such as nitric oxide (NO) for its action. But implication of NO in KN-mediated regulation of insecticide toxicity is yet to be investigated. Hence in the current study, we have investigated the possible involvement of NO in KN-mediated regulation of cypermethrin toxicity in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Cypermethrin decreased growth of Nostoc muscorum which was accompanied by decreased pigment contents and altered photosystem II (PS II) photochemistry that resulted in inhibition of photosynthetic process but KN significantly ameliorated cypermethrin toxicity. Cypermethrin induced production of free radicals (in-vivo and in-vitro) and weakened defensive mechanism (enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system) which was restored by KN. Further, the results revealed that NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) worsened the effect of cypermethrin toxicity even in the presence of KN while 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, a scavenger of NO) reversed KN-mediated amelioration even in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), suggesting that endogenous NO is required for mitigation of cypermethrin toxicity. Overall, our results first time show that endogenous NO is essential for KN-mediated mitigation of cypermethrin toxicity in the Nostoc muscorum.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Nostoc muscorum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Nostoc muscorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Nostoc muscorum/metabolismo , Fotoquímica , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia
13.
Environ Res ; 188: 109739, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504851

RESUMO

Previous animal studies have reported that pyrethroids can cause dopamine system abnormalities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotypes. However, epidemiological studies investigating the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms among preschool-age children. We used data from 385 children at 4 years of age participating in the Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study. We evaluated pyrethroid exposure through questionnaires and urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) concentrations. We assessed ADHD-like symptoms using the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS). We conducted negative binomial regressions to evaluate the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms. Residential use of insecticide adhesive (ß = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.74) and insecticide spray (ß = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.59) was associated with an increase in log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA concentrations. Residential insecticide adhesive use was associated with a 51.6% increase in K-ARS scores (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3, 116.1) among boys, when compared with non-users. When compared with creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels <0.50 µg/g creatinine, creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels ≥3.80 µg/g creatinine were associated with a 58% increase in K-ARS scores (95% CI: 0.1, 150.5) among boys. We found associations of residential pyrethroid insecticide use and urinary 3-PBA concentrations with K-ARS scores among preschool-age boys. Since the present study explored cross-sectional associations in preschool-age children, the possibility of reverse causality cannot be dismissed. Further studies implementing a cohort study design are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Benzoatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Piretrinas/toxicidade
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000633, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584814

RESUMO

Mitigating the threat of insecticide resistance in African malaria vector populations requires comprehensive information about where resistance occurs, to what degree, and how this has changed over time. Estimating these trends is complicated by the sparse, heterogeneous distribution of observations of resistance phenotypes in field populations. We use 6,423 observations of the prevalence of resistance to the most important vector control insecticides to inform a Bayesian geostatistical ensemble modelling approach, generating fine-scale predictive maps of resistance phenotypes in mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex across Africa. Our models are informed by a suite of 111 predictor variables describing potential drivers of selection for resistance. Our maps show alarming increases in the prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT across sub-Saharan Africa from 2005 to 2017, with mean mortality following insecticide exposure declining from almost 100% to less than 30% in some areas, as well as substantial spatial variation in resistance trends.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , África , DDT/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 719-725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538258

RESUMO

The industrialization of the agricultural sector has significantly increased the use of chemicals such as pesticides. Therefore, exposure to them is unavoidable, which makes it necessary to assess their safety for humans at actual exposure doses. This paper aims to determine toxicity of three types of pesticides toward human immune cells (HL-60 and U-937): glyphosate (GLY), deltamethrin (DEL), and chlorothalonil (CHL). Cell viability, membrane integrity, inflammation induction, and antioxidant activity were evaluated to determine differences in cellular response to the tested plant protection agents. In experimental models, all tested substances caused increased mortality of cells after only 24 h. Cell membrane damage was recorded under DEL and CHL influences. The largest disintegration of the cell membrane was due to the action of 100 µg/mL DEL for U-937 and CHL at 1 µg/mL for HL-60. GLY at a concentration of 3,600 µg/mL caused significant peroxidation of U-937 cells' lipids. CHL-induced inflammation in both types of cells tested. DEL and GLY also induced antioxidant activity in cells. These results lead to the conclusion that the tested pesticides act cytotoxically to the cells of the human immune system in doses to which both farmers and consumers are exposed.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Agricultura , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendeiros , Glicina/toxicidade , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105518, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474292

RESUMO

An increase in urban and agricultural application of pyrethroid insecticides in the San Francisco Bay Estuary and Sacramento San Joaquin Delta has raised concern for the populations of several salmonids, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Bifenthrin, a type I pyrethroid, is among the most frequently detected pyrethroids in the Bay-Delta watershed, with surface water concentrations often exceeding chronic toxicity thresholds for several invertebrate and fish species. To better understand the mechanisms of bifenthrin-induced neurotoxicity, juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to concentrations of bifenthrin previously measured in the Delta. Non-targeted metabolomic profiles were used to identify transcriptomic changes in the brains of bifenthrin-exposed fish. Pathway analysis software predicted increased apoptotic, inflammatory, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses in Chinook following exposure to 0.15 and 1.50 µg/L bifenthrin for 96 h. These responses were largely driven by reduced levels of inosine, hypoxanthine, and guanosine. Subsequently, in the brain, the expression of caspase 3, a predominant effector for apoptosis, was significantly upregulated following exposure to 1.50 µg/L bifenthrin. This data suggests that metabolites involved in inflammatory and apoptotic responses, as well as those involved in maintaining proper neuronal function may be disrupted following sublethal exposure to bifenthrin and further suggests that additional population studies should focus on behavioral responses associated with impaired brain function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Salmão/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estuários , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Salmão/genética
17.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127162, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485514

RESUMO

Deltamethrin is used widely in Eriocheir sinensis aquaculture to remove wild fish and parasites. The residual deltamethrin greatly affects the growth and quality of E. sinensis. In this study, the LC50 of deltamethrin against E. sinensis at 24, 48 and 96 h was determined to be 6.5, 5.0 and 2.8 µg/L, respectively. The enzyme activity and gene transcription of SOD, CAT, and PO in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis after deltamethrin stimulation showed an increasing tendency, and these enzymes reached their maximum activities at 6-10 d. The MDA content accumulated with increased time of deltamethrin stress. After 15 d of deltamethrin stress, the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis was found to be damaged based on HE staining. These results showed that deltamethrin is highly toxic to E. sinensis. But the half-life of deltamethrin is long and mainly relies on biodegradation. To resolve the pollution of residual deltamethrin, a strain of deltamethrin-degrading bacteria, P-2, was isolated from the sediment of an E. sinensis culture pond. Through morphological observation, physiological and biochemical identification and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we found that this strain belonged to Paracoccus sp. When the pH was 7, the substrate concentration was low, the inoculation amount was high, and the deltamethrin degradation effect of Paracoccus sp. P-2 was good. The deltamethrin residue in the hepatopancreas and muscle of E. sinensis decreased significantly when Paracoccus sp. P-2 was added at 6.0 × 108 CFU/L. The degradation efficiency of Paracoccus sp. P-2 in the hepatopancreas and muscle was more than 70%. These results showed that Paracoccus sp. P-2, the first deltamethrin-degrading bacterium in aquaculture, could be used to remove residual deltamethrin and improve the food safety of E. sinensis.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Paracoccus/genética , Paracoccus/isolamento & purificação , Paracoccus/metabolismo , Polímeros , Piretrinas/metabolismo
18.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127383, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559491

RESUMO

The application of pesticides typically leads to lethal and sublethal exposure of non-target insects. Whereas our current understanding of these sublethal effects typically focuses on reproductive and physiological parameters, recent works emphasize that sublethal effects on behaviors such as maternal care could be of major importance in non-target species. However, it remained unknown whether these sublethal effects occur in insects. Here, we tested if exposure to sublethal doses of deltamethrin - a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in crops - alters the expression of maternal egg care in females of the European earwig Forficula auricularia, a predator insect and pest control. Our results first reveal that deltamethrin exposure impaired the expression of three forms of maternal egg care: It decreased the likelihood of mothers to gather their otherwise scattered clutch of eggs, increased the time during which the female abandoned the clutch after a predator attack and reduced egg grooming duration. These sublethal effects did not reflect a lower activity of deltamethrin-exposed females, as these females increased their expression of self-grooming, and deltamethrin exposure did not affect females' exploration and mobility. Finally, we found that the negative effects of deltamethrin on egg care did not modify egg development, hatching rate and juvenile weight, possibly due to the transient effects of deltamethrin on maternal behaviors. Overall, our results reveal that sublethal exposure to a pesticide may diminish maternal egg care in a natural pest control and call for the integration of this measurement in assays on pesticides application.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Comportamento Materno/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Insetos/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Toxicology ; 440: 152488, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387285

RESUMO

Exposure to pyrethroids, a popular insecticide class that targets voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels, has been correlated to an increase in diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), in children. Dysregulation of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) firing in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. The Nav1.6 channel is the primary molecular determinant of MSN firing and is sensitive to modification by pyrethroids. Building on previous studies demonstrating that deltamethrin (DM), a commonly used pyrethroid, leads to use-dependent enhancement of sodium currents, we characterized the effect of the toxin on long-term inactivation (LTI) of the Nav1.6 channel, a parameter known to affect neuronal firing, and characterized changes in MSN intrinsic excitability. We employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to measure sodium currents in HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav1.6 channels and intrinsic excitability of MSNs in the brain slice preparation. We found that in response to repetitive stimulation acute exposure to 10 µM DM potentiated a build-up of residual sodium currents and modified availability of Nav1.6 by inducing LTI. In the NAc, DM modified MSN intrinsic excitability increasing evoked action potential firing frequency and inducing aberrant action potentials with low amplitude and depolarized voltage threshold, phenotypes that could be explained by DM induced changes on the Nav1.6 channel. These results provide a potential initial mechanism of toxicity of DM that could lead to disruption of the NAc circuitry overtime, increasing the risk of ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Núcleo Accumbens/citologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Sódio/metabolismo
20.
Environ Res ; 187: 109646, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidences suggests an association between early exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids or carbamates and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are limited data about the other pesticide groups, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: Based on a systematic review, we aimed to assess the influence of neuro- and thyrotoxic agricultural and domestic pesticides (other than OPs, OCs, pyrethroids and carbamates) authorized in Europe on risk of ASD in children or ASD behavioral phenotypes in rodents. METHODS: Pesticides were initially identified in the Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 20 currently used (10 pesticide groups) were retained based on the higher exposure potential. Epidemiological (children) and in vivo (rodents) studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science and TOXLINE, without restriction of publication date or country (last update: November 2019). The risk of bias and level of evidence were also assessed. This systematic review is registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, registration number CRD42019145384). RESULTS: In total, two epidemiological and 15 in vivo studies were retained, focusing on the azole, neonicotinoid, phenylpyrazole and phosphonoglycine pesticide groups. No study was conducted in Europe. Glyphosate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, myclobutanil, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, thiabendazole and fipronil, globally reported an association with an increased risk of ASD in children and/or ASD behavioral phenotypes in rodents. In children, glyphosate and myclobutanil showed a "moderate level of evidence" in their association with ASD, whereas imidacloprid showed an "inadequate level of evidence". In rodents, clothianidin, imidacloprid and glyphosate showed a "high level of evidence" in their association with altered behavioral, learning and memory skills. CONCLUSION: In the framework of environmental risk factors of ASD, novel hypotheses can be formulated about early exposure to eight pesticides. Glyphosate presented the most salient level of evidence. Given their neuro- and thyrotoxic properties, additional studies are needed for the 12 other pesticides not yet studied as potential ASD risk factors according to our inclusion criteria.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade
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