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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149764, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461477

RESUMO

Intensive and indiscriminate use of insecticides in agroecosystems causes phytotoxic disturbances in non-target crops. However, the mechanisms by which plants reprogram cellular metabolites to resist and tolerate such agrochemicals remain unclear. Here, the interaction between lettuce plants with imidacloprid and fenvalerate was investigated by the complementary use of physiological and metabolomic analyses. Neither imidacloprid nor fenvalerate induced overt phytotoxicity in lettuce seedlings. The plant biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation, and membrane integrity were not significantly affected by the selected insecticides. Flavonoid content decreased by 25% in lettuce leaves under fenvalerate exposure, whereas polyphenol and flavonoid contents were not significantly altered by imidacloprid. Although the content of most of the nutrient element in the leaves remained the same following pesticide treatment, iron content decreased by 28.1% under imidacloprid exposure but increased by 22.8% under fenvalerate exposure. Metabolomic analysis revealed that the selected insecticides induced extensive metabolic reprogramming in lettuce roots and shoots. Imidacloprid dramatically increased the metabolism of several amino acids (arginine, cysteine, homoserine, and 4-hydroxyisoleucine), whereas markedly decreased the metabolism of various carbohydrates (glucose, raffinose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, and stachyose). Fenvalerate did not significantly alter amino acid metabolism but decreased carbohydrate metabolism. Additionally, the relative abundance of most organic acids and polyphenolic compounds decreased significantly after pesticide exposure. These results suggest that plants might program their primary and secondary metabolism to resist and tolerate insecticides. The findings of this study provide important information on how neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides affect the health and physiological state of plants, which are ultimately associated with crop yield and quality.


Assuntos
Alface , Piretrinas , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrilas , Nitrocompostos , Folhas de Planta , Piretrinas/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149938, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525687

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used to control agricultural pests. However, its excessive use exerts a detrimental effect on the ecological environment and human health, indicating the need to study its potential risks in detail. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of DM (0.1, 1, 10, and 25 µg/L) for 96 h to assess the alterations in the transcript levels of proteins of the estrogenic and dopaminergic pathways. In addition, its effect on zebrafish locomotor activity was studied. The mRNA expression of cyp19a1b, erα, erß2, fshr, gnrh2, gnrhr3, vtg3, dat, and dr1 significantly changed after exposing the embryos to DM. Deltamethrin at 10 and 25 µg/L significantly reduced the average swimming speed of zebrafish larvae. In addition, embryos injected with zebrafish estrogen receptor α (erα) and ß (erß) morpholinos and co-exposed to 25 µg/L DM for 96 h showed reduced expression of vtg3 mRNA compared to embryos exposed to 25 µg/L DM only. The locomotor activity of erα and erß knockdown zebrafish following DM exposure was increased significantly when compared with that of larvae exposed to 25 µg/L DM only. Our results demonstrated that DM altered the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae and the transcript levels of the components of estrogenic and dopaminergic pathways; erα and erß knockdown weakened these effects.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Humanos , Larva , Nitrilas , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150517, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794910

RESUMO

Beta-cypermethrin (ß-CYP), a widely-used pyrethroid pesticide, is considered to have anti-androgenic effects and could impair male reproduction. To ascertain whether MAPK pathways, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and miRNAs played pleiotropic roles in ß-CYP-mediated testicular dysfunction, Sprague-Dawley rats and Leydig cells were employed in this study. Results showed that plasma testosterone levels were declined, testicular histomorphology and ultrastructures were abnormally altered, and Leydig cell functions were damaged after ß-CYP exposure. JNK and p38/MAPK pathways were inactivated, accompanied by the decrease in c-Jun and Sp1 expressions. Specific activators/inhibitors of MAPK pathways and Co-IP demonstrated that DNMT3α was synergistically regulated by JNK/p38 pathways. The activity, mRNA and protein expressions of DNMT3α were all reduced by ß-CYP. ß-CYP induced expressions of intronic miR-140-5p and its host gene Wwp2, and then overexpressed miR-140-5p suppressed steroidogenic StAR, P450scc, and 3ß-HSD by directly targeting SF-1. SF-1 silencing/overexpression, ChIP, and qPCR indicated that SF-1 modulated positively StAR, P450scc, and 3ß-HSD expressions by directly binding to their promoter regions. Intriguingly, 5α-reductase expressions were downregulated after ß-CYP exposure. Collectively, ß-CYP has the anti-androgenic feature and the DNMT3α/miR-140-5p/SF-1 cascade co-regulated by JNK/p38 functions critically in ß-CYP-caused testosterone declines. The downregulation of 5α-reductases may be a potential compensatory mechanism of the organism.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Piretrinas , Animais , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 665, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545435

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is an important vector of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. The objective was to evaluate the resistance of A. aegypti exposed to insecticides with different action modes (deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and fipronil) under intense selection pressure for 10 generations in laboratory. Bioassays were conducted according to World Health Organization. Biochemical assay performed after selection with deltamethrin (Delta-SEL), fipronil (Fipro-SEL), and imidacloprid (Imida-SEL) from G1 to G10 was used for the assessment of detoxification enzymes (esterase (EST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP)). The Fipro-SEL (G10) had high resistance (77-fold), whereas Delta-SEL and Imida-SEL populations presented very high resistance with 118 and 372-fold, respectively, in comparison with unselected (UNSEL). The levels of EST, AChE, GST, ACP, and ALP enzymes amplified on application from G1 to G10. The enzymes contributing in resistance development of insecticides were as follows: GST (20.7 µmol/min/mg of protein) in Delta-SEL (G10), while AChE 9.71 µmol/min/mg of protein in Imida-SEL (G10) and the peak ACP and ALP enzyme activities 13.32 and 12.93 µmol/min/mg of protein, respectively, in Fipro-SEL (G10). The results showed that detoxification enzymes trigger insecticide resistance in A. aegypti and their suppression may aid in the resistance breakage.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilas , Nitrocompostos , Pirazóis , Piretrinas/toxicidade
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 507-516, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545442

RESUMO

Coastal marine microalgae are exposed to anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides from aquaculture/agriculture/household uses. Some microalgae species, such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum, can induce and accumulate UV-absorbing compounds (UACs) upon ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to prevent deleterious effects. Tolerance mechanisms activated by natural stressors might also protect organisms from anthropogenic stressors. This work assesses the effects of the insecticide cypermethrin (Cyp) and UVR in the marine microalgae P tricornutum. Considering the pro-oxidant properties of both stressors and UACs' induction in P tricornutum, lethal and sublethal effects of Cyp were tested in cultures with and without UVR acclimation. After a 24-h exposure to 10 µg L-1 of technical Cyp or culture medium, UACs, growth, glutathione-S-transferase activity (GST), sulfhydryl groups (SH-g), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed. Results showed differences in terms of growth between Cyp and Cyp + UVR pre-exposure. UACs' content was induced after UVR acclimation and diminished after 24 h of growth in control and UVR pre-treated cultures, while levels remained constant under Cyp exposure. A single Cyp exposure exerted GST induction, SH-g depletion, and LPO increments. In UVR-acclimatized treatments, oxidative stress responses showed similar or more pronounced effects than the single chemical exposure, suggesting a potential additive effect of the UVR acclimation. The contrasting effects of Cyp + UVR observed between growth and biochemical responses suggest different compensatory mechanisms that need to be further investigated. Also, it highlights the need to include both lethal and sublethal endpoints to understand microalgae's tolerance and its significance in the multiple stressors' context.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Piretrinas , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112792, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544022

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (CYP), an extensively-used broad-spectrum pyrethroid pesticide, is regarded as a potential environmental endocrine disruptor with the anti-androgenic characteristic. To explore underlying roles of non-coding RNAs and the Jak/Stat pathway in CYP-mediated testosterone biosynthesis suppression, SD rats and Leydig cells were employed in this work. Results displayed that ß-CYP decreased plasma testosterone levels and led to abnormal alterations of testicular histomorphology and ultrastructures. LncRNA XIST and miR-142-5p were co-localized in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells, but the expression of XIST was inhibited by ß-CYP while that of miR-142-5p was induced. Then overexpressed miR-142-5p dampened the Jak1/Stat1 pathway by directly targeting Jak1. Transcription factors NFκB and YY1 impeded by ß-CYP were positively regulated by the Jak1/Stat1 pathway. Bidirectional Co-IP and ChIP assays demonstrated that NFκB interacted with and modulated YY1 by directly binding to the promoter region of YY1. ChIP, qPCR, and YY1 knockdown/overexpression assays indicated that YY1 acted as a transcriptional activator to directly modulate steroidogenic StAR and 3ß-HSD in Leydig cells. Taken together, miR-142-5p sponged by lncRNA XIST directly targets the Jak1/Stat1 pathway, which regulates steroidogenic StAR and 3ß-HSD via NFκB and YY1, and ultimately dampens testosterone production in Leydig cells.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Piretrinas , Animais , Masculino , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética
7.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118107, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500395

RESUMO

Mites are considered the worst enemy of honey bees, resulting in economic losses in agricultural production. In apiculture, flumethrin is frequently used to control mites. It causes residues of flumethrin in colonies which may threaten honey bees, especially for larvae. Still, the impact of flumethrin-induced dysbiosis on honey bees larval health has not been fully elucidated, and any impact of microbiota for decomposing flumethrin in honey bees is also poorly understood. In this study, 2-day-old larvae were fed with different flumethrin-sucrose solutions (0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg) and the dose increased daily (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 µL) until capped, thereafter the expression level of two immune genes (hymenoptaecin, defensin1) and two detoxication-related genes (GST, catalase) were measured. Meanwhile, the effect of flumethrin on honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera) gut microbes was also explored via 16S rRNA Illumina deep sequencing. We found that flumethrin at 5 mg/kg triggered the over expression of immune-related genes in larvae, while the larval detoxification-related genes were up-regulated when the concentrations reached 50 mg/kg. Moreover, the abundance and diversity of microbes in flumethrin-treated groups (over 0.5 mg/kg) were significantly lower than control group, but it increased with flumethrin concentrations among the flumethrin-treated groups. Our results revealed that microbes served as a barrier in the honey bee gut and were able to protect honey bee larvae to a certain extent, and reduce the stress of flumethrin on honey bee larvae. In addition, as the concentration of flumethrin increases, honey bee larvae activate their immune system then detoxification system to defend against the potential threat of flumethrin. This is the first report on the impact of flumethrin on gut microbiota in honey bees larvae. The findings revealed new fundamental insights regarding immune and detoxification of host-associated microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Piretrinas , Animais , Abelhas , Larva , Piretrinas/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103749, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547448

RESUMO

We developed phospho-ERK1/2 ELISA for human and rainbow trout liver cells, employing HepG2 and RTL-W1 cell lines as models. The assay was applied to detect changes in ERK1/2 activity for nine chemicals, added over a wide concentration range and time points. Cell viability was measured to separate ERK1/2 regulation from cytotoxicity. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and carbendazim did not change ERK1/2 activity; influence on ERK1/2 due to cytotoxicity was indicated for tributyltin and cypermethrin. Mancozeb, benzo[a]pyrene, and bisphenol A stimulated ERK1/2 up to ∼2- (HepG2) and 1.5 (RTL-W1)-fold, though the kinetics differed between chemicals and cell lines. Bisphenol A and benzo[a]pyrene were the most potent concentration-wise, altering ERK1/2 activity in pM (HepG2) to nM (RTL-W1) range. While atrazine and ibuprofen increased ERK1/2 activity by ∼2-fold in HepG2, they did not initiate an appreciable response in RTL-W1. This assay proved to be a sensitive, medium- to high-throughput tool for detecting unrecognized ERK1/2-disrupting chemicals.


Assuntos
Fígado/citologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Benzimidazóis/toxicidade , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/toxicidade , Maneb/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Compostos de Trialquitina/toxicidade , Zineb/toxicidade
9.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103739, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506907

RESUMO

The kidney of Catla catla, chronically exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.24 µg/L and 0.41 µg/L) of cypermethrin revealed a significant elevation in the activity of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) after 15 days, followed by a decline of up to 45 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained elevated throughout the exposure duration. Histology presented proliferated haematopoietic tissue, tubular and glomerular degeneration. The maximum increase in the mean degree of tissue change (DTC) was observed on the 45th day of treatment. Ultra-structure study depicted cytoplasmic vacuolation, fragmented RER, the proliferation of lysosomes, mitochondrial degeneration, and degenerative changes in the epithelial lining of renal tubules. Principal component analysis (PCA) of various biomarkers generated two components PCI (SOD, GST, GSH, LPO and DTC) and PCII (CAT). These findings suggest that long term exposure to cypermethrin can lead to various pathological alterations in the fish kidney which in turn might interfere with normal renal excretory mechanism.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Água Doce , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112565, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358930

RESUMO

The impairments of maternal fenvalerate exposure have been well documented in previous study, but little was known about the effects of paternal fenvalerate exposure. The current study aimed to assess the effects of paternal fenvalerate exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampus across generations. Adult male mice (F0) were orally administered with fenvalerate (0, 2 or 20 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. F0 males were mated with untreated-females to generate F1 generation. F1 males were mated with F1 control females to generate F2 generation. For F1 and F2 adult offspring, spatial learning and memory were detected by Morris water maze. Results showed that spatial learning and memory were impaired in F1 females but not F1 males derived from F0 males exposed to 20 mg/kg FEN. Furthermore, significant impairment of spatial learning and memory were found in F2 females but not F2 males derived from F0 males exposed to 20 mg/kg FEN. As expected, histopathology showed that neural density in hippocampal CA3 region was reduced in F1 and F2 females but not F1 and F2 males derived from F0 males exposed to 20 mg/kg FEN. Mechanistically, hippocampal thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRα1) was down-regulated in F1 and F2 females derived from F0 males exposed to 20 mg/kg FEN. Correspondingly, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B and p75 neurotrophin receptor, three downstream genes of TR signaling, were down-regulated in F1 and F2 females. Taken together, the present study firstly found that paternal fenvalerate exposure transgenerationally impaired spatial cognition in a gender-dependent manner. Hippocampal TR signaling may, at least partially, contribute to the process of cognitive impairment induced by paternal fenvalerate exposure. Further exploration in the mode of action of fenvalerate is critically important to promote human health and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Animais , Cognição , Feminino , Hipocampo , Masculino , Camundongos , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378759

RESUMO

The toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, and the herbicide glyphosate on the growth, biovolume and ultrastructure of the green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum were evaluated. Concentrations between 9.37-150 mg L-1 of chlorpyrifos, 3.12-100 mg L-1 of cypermethrin and 4.7-60 mg L-1 of glyphosate were assayed along with a control culture. The assayed concentrations were prepared using commercial formulations. After 48 h all tested concentrations of the three pesticides reduced significantly the population growth. The 96 h effective concentration 50 (EC50) was 14.45 mg L-1 for chlorpyrifos, 12.37 mg L-1 for cypermethrin and 15.60 mg L-1 for glyphosate. Cells exposed to the three pesticides showed an increase in the cellular size related to the increase in pesticide concentration and exposure time. The most significant damages observed on the ultrastructure of cells exposed to the three pesticides included thylakoids and mitochondria disruption, formation of electrodense bodies, accumulation of lipids and increase in the size and number of starch granules. The present study demonstrates that the effects of pesticides also extend to non-target organisms having significant ecological implications.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103724, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416397

RESUMO

The testicular deficiency associated with exposure to three widely used insecticides in Egyptian agriculture was evaluated. Animals were orally treated with sub-lethal dose (1/50 of the oral LD50) of cypermethrin (CYP), imidacloprid (IMC), and chlorpyrifos (CPF) at 5, 9 and 1.9 mg/kg/day, respectively, five times a week for one month. The CYP, IMC, and CPF exposure resulted in a significant decline in animal body weight, sperm count, motility, normality, and viability with increased head and tail deformities. Significant reduction in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testis superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In contrast, catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) levels were significantly stimulated. Jointly, obtained results were confirmed by microscopic examination of testis sections. The present data concluded that the CYP, IMC, and CPF have a public health impact and violently interferes with male rat reproductive system.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446207

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that blockers of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 2-methoxy-N-((1-phenylcyclopentyl)methyl)benzamide (2-MPB) synergized pyrethroid toxicity as well, or better than, piperonyl butoxide. The present study assessed the involvement of different Kv channels as possible pyrethroid synergist targets in Drosophila melanogaster. Three Kv1 mutants (Sh5, Sh133, and ShM) and one Kv2 mutant (Shab3) were tested. All Kv1 mutant flies showed increased sensitivity to permethrin in topical and glass contact toxicity assays, of 2- to 11-fold. Central nervous system (CNS) recordings of larval D. melanogaster showed a similar pattern of increased sensitivity. Potentiated effects were also observed with deltamethrin on the mutants Sh5 (30- to 35-fold) and Sh133 (33- to 47-fold), but the mutant ShM showed little change in sensitivity. In contrast, the Shab3 strain showed toxicity and physiological effects of both pyrethroids that were similar to the susceptible OR strain. Thus, some K+ channel mutations mimicked the synergistic effect of channel blockers. Additional studies showed that Shab3 had the highest sensitivity to 4-AP in topical assays, and the Shaker-null mutants, ShM and Sh133 showed greater sensitivity to 2-MPB in CNS recordings of larval D. melanogaster. These results suggest that Kv1 channels are a useful synergist target for pyrethroids, as assessed both in whole insects and at the level of the nervous system. Thus, Kv1-targeting compounds can potentially serve as insect control tools to reduce pyrethroid use via synergistic action.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana , Piretrinas , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Permetrina , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Piretrinas/toxicidade
14.
Andrologia ; 53(11): e14215, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410018

RESUMO

Our purpose was to review and analyse the impact of pyrethroids and organophosphates exposure on human semen parameters. A comprehensive literature search was performed through MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus and Webscience. Only cohort studies examining semen parameters in workers or general populations exposed to pyrethroids or organophosphates were included. Ejaculate volume, sperm count, concentration, motility, viability, normal morphology and seminal pH alterations were pooled using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Method with the random effect model and expressed as weighted mean difference, risk ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Seven cross-sectional studies regarding pyrethroids were included. Four of them were eligible for meta-analysis. The only parameter affected by pyrethroid exposure was normal sperm morphology (WMD-7,61%, 95%CI -11,92 to -3,30;p = 0,0,005). Nine studies were selected to evaluate the impact of organophosphates on semen parameters with six of them eligible for meta-analysis. A significant reduction was detected for the following: ejaculate volume (WMD -0,47ml, 95%CI -0,69 to -0,25; p < 0,0001), sperm count (WMD-40,03, 95%CI -66,81 to -13,25;p = 0,003), concentration (WMD-13,69 x106/mL, 95%CI -23, 27 to-4,12;p = 0,005) and motility (WMD -5,70%, 95%CI -12,89 to 1,50;p = 0,12). Despite the increase in sperm abnormality, it has been shown that pyrethroids are unrelated to reduced sperm quality. However, the negative association of organophosphates with spermatogenesis is noteworthy.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Piretrinas , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 177: 104898, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301360

RESUMO

Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most widely used pesticides in agricultural and in household settings. The toxic effects of cypermethrin are a matter of concern, as humans are almost inevitably exposed to it in daily life. It is an urgent problem to seek natural substances from plants that can eliminate or relieve the effects of pesticide residues on human health. Proanthocyanidins are the most potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers in natural plants, and are widely available in fruits, vegetables, and seeds. We found that proanthocyanidins (1, 2.5, and 5 µg/mL) can decrease ROS generation, relieve mitochondrial membrane potential loss, repair nuclear morphology, reduce cell apoptosis, and protect neurons from cypermethrin-induced oxidative insult. The protective mechanism exerted by proanthocyanidins against cypermethrin-induced neurotoxicity is negatively regulate rather than activate the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway to maintain intracellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Piretrinas , Antioxidantes , Apoptose , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 177: 104905, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301366

RESUMO

The sulfuryl transfer reaction catalyzed by cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) is one of the major conjugating pathways responsible for the detoxification and subsequent elimination of xenobiotics, however, functional characterization of insect SULTs is still limited. In this study, cDNA encoding a cytosolic sulfotransferase, named TcSULT1, was cloned from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Sequence analysis revealed that TcSULT1 had the conserved signature sequences of SULTs, and shared moderate amino acid identities with Bombyx mori and Drosophila SULTs. Analysis of the transcription level showed that TcSULT1 was highly expressed in head, epidermis and malpighian tube, and upregulated at 4 h after exposure to deltamethrin. Knockdown of TcSULT1 significantly increased the susceptibility of beetles to deltamethrin. Both RNAi and dual-luciferase assay revealed that the transcription factor TcCncC regulates the expression of TcSULT1. These data provides insights into the function and regulatory mechanism of insect SULTs.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Tribolium , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Sulfotransferases/genética , Tribolium/genética
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 140-149, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256134

RESUMO

Most antibiotics, insecticides, and other chemicals used in agricultural and fishery production tend to persist in the environment. Fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, and ridomil are widely used in aquaculture as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs; however, their toxicity mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we herein analyzed the effects of these three drugs on the hepatopancreas of Procambarus clarkii at the transcriptome level. Twelve normalized cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA extracted from P. clarkii after treatment with fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, or ridomil and from an untreated control group, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. In the control vs fenvalerate and control vs sulfide gatifloxacin groups, 14 and seven pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. Further, the effects of fenvalerate and sulfide gatifloxacin were similar on the hepatopancreas of P. clarkii. We also found that the expression level of genes encoding senescence marker protein-30 and arylsulfatase A was downregulated in the sulfide gatifloxacin group, indicating that sulfide gatifloxacin accelerated the apoptosis of hepatopancreatocytes. The expression level of major facilitator superfamily domain containing 10 was downregulated, implying that it interferes with the ability of the hepatopancreas to metabolize drugs. Interestingly, we found that Niemann pick type C1 and glucosylceramidase-ß potentially interact with each other, consequently decreasing the antioxidant capacity of P. clarkii hepatopancreas. In the fenvalerate group, the downregulation of the expression level of xanthine dehydrogenase indicated that fenvalerate affected the immune system of P. clarkii; moreover, the upregulation of the expression level of pancreatitis-associated protein-2 and cathepsin C indicated that fenvalerate caused possible inflammatory pathological injury to P. clarkii hepatopancreas. In the ridomil group, no pathway was significantly enriched. In total, 21 genes showed significant differences in all three groups. To conclude, although there appears to be some overlap in the toxicity mechanisms of fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, and ridomil, further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Gatifloxacina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103717, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314872

RESUMO

This study assessed some important physiological biomarkers of freshwater edible fish Cyprinus carpio following exposure to 10 % (T1) and 20 % (T2) sublethal concentrations of Alpha-cypermethrin (A-cyp) over a total period of 45 days. Behavioral responses were noticed and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were prepared during acute toxicity study. Total serum protein concentration, total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total leukocytes count were decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while the blood glucose, total serum lipid concentration, and clotting time were increased significantly (p < 0.05) over control. The most affected fish group and most significantly altered biomarker under toxic stress of A-cyp were identified using integrated biomarker response (IBR). The biomarker response index (BRI) values measured the overall health status of the treated fish and indicated that moderate adverse effects were exerted on the fish group exposed to T2 for 45 days.


Assuntos
Carpas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/fisiologia , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Dose Letal Mediana
19.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117848, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332169

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of widespread contamination of freshwater ecosystems with microplastics. However, the effects of chronic microplastic ingestion and its interaction with other pollutants and stress factors on the life-history traits and the host-microbiome of aquatic invertebrates are not well understood. This study investigates the effects of exposure to sediment spiked with 1 µm polystyrene-based latex microplastic spheres, an environmentally realistic concentration of a pyrethroid pesticide (esfenvalerate), and a combination of both treatments on the life-history traits of the benthic-dwelling invertebrate, Chironomus riparius and its microbial community. The chironomid larvae were also exposed to two food conditions: abundant or limited food in the sediment, monitored for 28 and 34 days respectively. The microplastics and esfenvalerate had negative effects on adult emergence and survival, and these effects differed between the food level treatments. The microbiome diversity was negatively affected by the exposure to microplastics, while the relative abundances of the four top phyla were significantly affected only in the high food level treatment. Although the combined exposure to microplastics and esfenvalerate showed some negative effects on survival and emergence, there was little evidence for synergistic effects when compared to the single exposure. The food level affected all life-history traits and the microbiota, and lower food levels intensified the negative effects of the exposure to microplastics, esfenvalerate and their combination. We argue that these pollutants can affect crucial life-history traits such as successful metamorphosis and the host-microbiome. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration for toxicological assessment of pollutant acceptability. Our study highlights the importance of investigating possible additive and synergic activities between stressors to understand the effects of pollutants in the life story traits and host-microbiome.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Microbiota , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 9087-9096, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106693

RESUMO

Bifenthrin (BF) is a widely used pyrethroid that has been frequently detected in surface waters. Previous studies indicated that BF had antiestrogenic activity in zebrafish embryos but estrogenic activity in posthatch fish. To determine whether age-related differences in metabolism contribute to the endocrine effects in developing fish, embryos from zebrafish and Japanese medaka were exposed to BF before and after liver development. Since the commercial mixture of BF is an isomer-enriched product containing two enantiomers (1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF), enantioselective metabolism was also evaluated. The estrogenic metabolite, 4-hydroxybifenthrin (4-OH-BF) was identified in zebrafish embryos, and formation was higher in animals after liver development (>48 hpf). Treatments with ß-glucuronidase indicated that 4-OH-BF underwent conjugation in embryos. Formation was reduced by cotreatment of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitor, ketoconazole. Formation of 4-OH-BF was greater when treated with 1R-cis-BF compared to the S-enantiomer. However, metabolites were not observed in medaka embryos. These data indicate enantioselective oxidation of BF to an estrogenic metabolite occurs in zebrafish embryos and, since it is increased after liver development, may partially explain estrogenic activity observed in older animals. The lack of activity in medaka suggests species-specific effects with BF metabolism and may influence risk assessment strategies in wildlife.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Oryzias , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
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