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1.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1139-1148, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the previously reported primary analysis of this phase 3 trial, 12 months of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in significantly longer relapse-free survival than placebo in patients with resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. To confirm the stability of the relapse-free survival benefit, longer-term data were needed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 870 patients who had resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations to receive 12 months of oral dabrafenib (at a dose of 150 mg twice daily) plus trametinib (2 mg once daily) or two matched placebos. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Here, we report 5-year results for relapse-free survival and survival without distant metastasis as the site of the first relapse. Overall survival was not analyzed, since the required number of events to trigger the final overall survival analysis had not been reached. RESULTS: The minimum duration of follow-up was 59 months (median patient follow-up, 60 months for dabrafenib plus trametinib and 58 months for placebo). At 5 years, the percentage of patients who were alive without relapse was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 58) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 36% (95% CI, 32 to 41) with placebo (hazard ratio for relapse or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.61). The percentage of patients who were alive without distant metastasis was 65% (95% CI, 61 to 71) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 54% (95% CI, 49 to 60) with placebo (hazard ratio for distant metastasis or death, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.70). No clinically meaningful between-group difference in the incidence or severity of serious adverse events was reported during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In the 5-year follow-up of a phase 3 trial involving patients who had resected stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, 12 months of adjuvant therapy with dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in a longer duration of survival without relapse or distant metastasis than placebo with no apparent long-term toxic effects. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis; COMBI-AD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01682083; EudraCT number, 2012-001266-15.).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Am Heart J ; 227: 91-99, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693197

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Desenho de Prótese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
3.
Am Heart J ; 227: 100-106, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New antithrombotic strategies that reduce primary thrombosis and restenosis might improve vascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing arterial angioplasty. The study objective is to evaluate the potential benefit of apixaban plus aspirin compared with standard of care dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in reducing thrombotic restenosis and artery re-occlusion in patients undergoing endovascular infrapopliteal revascularization. STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, parallel-group, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint adjudication, proof-of-concept, exploratory trial aims to randomize 200 patients 72 hours after successful infrapopliteal angioplasty for critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily) for 12 months or clopidogrel (75 mg daily) for at least 3 months on a background of aspirin (100 mg once daily) for 12 months. The primary endpoint is the composite of target lesion revascularization (TLR), major amputation, or restenosis/occlusion (RAS) in addition to major adverse cardiovascular events - MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) at 12 months. The primary safety endpoint is the composite of major bleeding or clinically relevant non-major bleeding at 12 months. SUMMARY: This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin compared with DAPT (clopidogrel plus aspirin) in patients with CLI undergoing endovascular infrapopliteal revascularization and might prove the concept of an alternative antithrombotic regimen for these patients to be tested in a future large randomized clinical trial.


Assuntos
Angioplastia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Isquemia/cirurgia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Angioplastia/métodos , Estado Terminal , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Artéria Poplítea , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21025, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the huge burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF-related stroke in Asia, stroke prevention represents an urgent issue in this region. We herein performed a network meta-analysis to examine the role of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in Asian patients with AF. METHODS: A systematic search of the publications was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies until July 2019. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were regarded as the effect estimates. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) for the ranking probabilities was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. For comparisons of NOACs vs warfarin, dabigatran (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.86), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.81), apixaban (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.65), but not edoxaban reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, wheres dabigatran (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.76), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.86), apixaban (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.36-0.66), and edoxaban (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49) decreased the risk of major bleeding. In reducing the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, apixaban and rivaroxaban ranked the best and second best (SUCRA 0.2% and 31.4%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (50.2%), edoxaban (75.2%), and warfarin (93.0%). In reducing the risk of major bleeding, edoxaban, and apixaban ranked the best and second best (1.5% and 30.8%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (48.4%), rivaroxaban (69.2%), and warfarin (100%). CONCLUSION: NOACs were at least as effective as warfarin, but more safer in Asians with AF. Apixaban was superior to other NOACs for reducing stroke or systemic embolism, while edoxaban showed a better safety profile than other NOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1207: 569-579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671775

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive chronic inflammatory disease with a poor clinical outcome. Although pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved by FDA to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), these drugs can only slow the progression of IPF. Autophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Whether the autophagic flux is blocked or not is directly related to the development direction of pulmonary fibrosis. Defining how autophagy activity regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis will greatly advance the progression of pulmonary fibrosis therapy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Fibrose Pulmonar , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico
6.
Clin Ter ; 171(4): e283-e287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614358

RESUMO

An early identification of non-responders in oncology is of crucial importance to rapidly switch treatment regimens. Here we report a positron emission tomography, (PET)-guided switch from immunotherapy to targeted therapy in a patient affected by metastatic melanoma. We describe the case of a 78-years-old male patient diagnosed with nodular melanoma, submitted to baseline PET/CT with 18fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) that showed cutaneous and skeletal metastases (stage IV). The patients started immunotherapy with pembrolizumab. A PET/CT performed 3 months after the start of immunotherapy demonstrated progressive metabolic disease both at skeletal and cutaneous level, confirmed also by the biopsy. As patients resulted positive for BRAF V600k mutation, treatment regimen was rapidly switched to combined anti-BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. The PET/CT performed 3 months later, showed almost complete metabolic response. Ten months after the beginning of targeted therapy, the patient continues to present a durable metabolic response. PET/CT with 18F-FDG may help in monitoring the response to treatment in metastatic melanoma thus defining personalized therapeutic pathways.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 882: 173237, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525005

RESUMO

Pirfenidone (PFD), a pyridone compound, is well recognized as an antifibrotic agent tailored for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, PFD based clinical trial has also been launched for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To what extent this drug can perturb membrane ion currents remains largely unknown. Herein, the exposure to PFD was observed to depress the amplitude of hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) in combination with a considerable slowing in the activation time of the current in pituitary GH3 cells. In the continued presence of ivabradine or zatebradine, subsequent application of PFD decreased Ih amplitude further. The presence of PFD resulted in a leftward shift in Ih activation curve without changes in the gating charge. The addition of this compound also led to a reduction in area of voltage-dependent hysteresis evoked by long-lasting inverted triangular (downsloping and upsloping) ramp pulse. Neither the amplitude of M-type nor erg-mediated K+ current was altered by its presence. In whole-cell potential recordings, addition of PFD reduced the firing frequency, and this effect was accompanied by the depression in the amplitude of sag voltage elicited by hyperpolarizing current stimulus. Overall, this study highlights evidence that PFD is capable of perturbing specific ionic currents, revealing a potential additional impact on functional activities of different excitable cells.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Sódio/metabolismo
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(698): 1256-1260, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558455

RESUMO

A significant proportion - up to 40 % - of patients suffering from fibrosing interstitial pneumonia will acquire a progressive phenotype which shares genetic and pathogenic mechanisms, as well a clinical behavior similar to those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It therefore makes sense to suggest that molecules with antifibrotic properties such as pirfenidone and nintedanib could be effective in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease as they are in patients with IPF. The first studies published on this topic show encouraging results which however have to be confirmed on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warfarin is an anticoagulant medication proven effective in the initial treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. Anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants are alternatives to warfarin; however there is limited data assessing satisfaction after switching from warfarin to an anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant in patients for treatment of venous thromboembolism. OBJECTIVES: To assess medication satisfaction in patients requiring anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism after conversion from warfarin to an anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with prospective assessment of satisfaction and review of adverse events following anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant replacement of warfarin for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Out of 165 patients who had switched from warfarin to rivaroxaban or apixaban from an outpatient haematology practice, 126 patients consented for a survey of patient's relative satisfaction of anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant therapy compared with previous warfarin therapy using the Anti-Clot Burden and Benefits Treatment Scale and SWAN Score. RESULTS: The mean Anti-Clot Burden and Benefits and SWAN Score was 93% (56/60) and 83% (24.8/30) respectively reflecting high satisfaction with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants. 120 patients stated preference for anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants over warfarin. Leading perceptions driving this was the reduction in frequency of medical contact and fewer bleeding side effects. Thirteen patients (10.3%) experienced an adverse event after the anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant switch (majority were non-major bleeding) but most remained on anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant treatment after management options were implemented with continued high satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism after switching from warfarin in routine clinical practice appeared high. Improved patient convenience including reduced frequency of medical contact and fewer unpredictable side effects were perceived as significant advantages of anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Satisfação do Paciente , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(6): 377-387, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525136

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations contributing to malignancy have become a more prominent field of investigation over the past several years, as several hallmarks of cancer are substantially altered by changes in the epigenome. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), an enzyme involved in silencing the transcription of various genes, is overexpressed or mutated in multiple cancers and can lead to proliferation of dedifferentiated cells. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations have been noted in hematologic cancers, with gain-of-function mutations prevalent among non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Tazemetostat is a first-in-class EZH2 inhibitor developed to target this overexpression. Phase I trials have shown it is generally well tolerated and efficacious in solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Tazemetostat was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in epithelioid sarcoma in January 2020 on the basis of the results of a recent phase II trial, but with several clinical trials ongoing, the use of tazemetostat for hematological malignancies is a promising avenue for treatment.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Epigênese Genética , Inativação Gênica , Humanos
11.
Thromb Res ; 193: 79-82, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526545

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) has been reported in almost every country in the world. Although a large proportion of infected individuals develop only mild symptoms or are asymptomatic, the spectrum of the disease among others has been widely variable in severity. Additionally, many infected individuals were found to have coagulation markers abnormalities. This is especially true among those progressing to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure. While the incidence of venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease has been recently noted to be elevated among critically ill patients, the incidence among ambulatory and non-critically ill patients is not yet clearly defined. Herein, we present six patients who didn't have any hypercoagulable risk factors yet presented with pulmonary embolism in association with COVID 19 infection. Furthermore, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of hypercoagulability and highlight the possibility of underdiagnosing pulmonary embolism in the setting of overlapping symptoms, decreased utilization of imaging secondary to associated risks, and increased turnover times. In addition, we emphasize the role of extended thromboprophylaxis in discharged patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(9): 1513-1524, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of liver injury in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has not been previously examined using liver function tests as the primary outcome in the real-world setting. This study assessed the association between NOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) and warfarin and the risk of liver injury, as defined by laboratory tests. METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with AF and prescribed NOACs or warfarin between 2010 and 2016, identified using the Hong Kong Clinical Database and Reporting System, were matched on age, sex, health status scores, comorbidities, and medications by propensity score on a 1:1 ratio. Risk of liver injury, defined as laboratory test values >3 times the upper limit of normal of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase and >2 times the upper limit of normal of total bilirubin, was compared between NOAC and warfarin users using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 13,698 patients were included, of which 141 (2.1%) NOAC users and 232 (3.4%) warfarin users developed liver injury. The hazard ratio (HR) for NOAC vs warfarin users was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.89). When comparing individual NOACs, only dabigatran (hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.82) was associated with a lower risk of liver injury. DISCUSSION: Among patients with AF, NOACs as a group, and dabigatran alone were associated with a significantly lower risk of laboratory-based liver injury when compared with warfarin. However, liver injury occurs more frequently in real-world practice than in NOAC randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
14.
Am J Med ; 133 Suppl 1: 1-27, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362349

RESUMO

Hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during and after a hospital stay. Risk factors include physical immobilization and underlying pathophysiologic processes that activate the coagulation pathway and are still present after discharge. Strategies for optimal pharmacologic VTE thromboprophylaxis are evolving, and recommendations for VTE prophylaxis can be further refined to protect high-risk patients after hospital discharge. An early study of extended VTE prophylaxis with a parenteral agent in medically ill patients yielded inconclusive results with regard to efficacy and bleeding. In the Acute Medically Ill VTE Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) trial, extended use of betrixaban halved symptomatic VTE, decreased hospital readmission, and reduced stroke and major adverse cardiovascular events compared with standard enoxaparin prophylaxis. Based on findings from APEX, the Food and Drug Administration approved betrixaban in 2017 for extended VTE prophylaxis in acute medically ill patients. In the Reducing Post-Discharge Venous Thrombo-Embolism Risk (MARINER) study, extended use of rivaroxaban halved symptomatic VTE in high-risk medical patients compared with placebo. In 2019, rivaroxaban was approved for extended thromboprophylaxis in high-risk medical patients, thus making available a new strategy for in-hospital and post-discharge VTE prevention. To address the critical unmet need for VTE prophylaxis in medically ill patients at the time of hospital discharge, the North American Thrombosis Forum (NATF) is launching the Anticoagulation Action Initiative, a comprehensive consensus document that provides practical guidance and straightforward, patient-centered recommendations for VTE prevention during hospitalization and after discharge.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
15.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 71(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350148

RESUMO

Data concerning the impact of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on the thromboelastography (TEG) indices in venousthromboembolism (VTE) patients are limited. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of DOACs on clot properties measured in whole blood using TEG kaolin test and in plasma obtained from real-life VTE patients. We assessed 53 patients, including 20 on rivaroxaban, 20 on apixaban, and 13 on dabigatran. Using the TEG® 5000, coagulation status was evaluated in whole blood samples, while plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks) and its susceptibility to lysis (CLT) were assessed in citrated plasma. Plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban (99 [48 - 311] ng/ml) and apixaban (85 [40 - 105] ng/ml) were positively associated with Ks and inversely with CLT, while dabigatran concentrations (71 [39 - 98] ng/ml) correlated positively with Ks. Moreover, Ks was associated with clot formation times (R and K), time to maximum clot strength (TMA), coagulation index (CI) reflecting the overall coagulation status, and whole blood clot lysis time (TEG-CLT). Blood clot lysis index (CL30) was associated with plasma CLT in all patients on DOACs, while TMA correlated with CLT only in patients on apixaban. Higher DOAC concentrations were associated with longer retardation of whole blood clot formation and longer time needed to reach maximum level of its strength as well as with more permeable clots. We concluded that plasma fibrin clot properties correlate with corresponding TEG indices suggesting that TEG might be helpful in providing prognostic information about DOAC influence in VTE patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboelastografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Presse Med ; 49(2): 104025, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437841

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and devastating disease of unknown etiology, characterized by irreversible morphological changes, ultimately leading to lung fibrosis and death. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in understanding the pathogenesis of IPF. Moreover, we assisted to the conceptual change of the pathogenic hypothesis that currently considers IPF as a primarily fibrotic driven disease. However, despite the undeniable progress, the diagnosis of IPF remains still very complex requiring the presence of a team of experts to achieve the highest level of diagnostic confidence. The advent of antifibrotics has radically changed the treatment landscape of IPF and new promising drugs are currently under evaluation. Furthermore, a more extensive use of non-pharmacological treatments has also to be encouraged in all patients both to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/terapia , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/reabilitação , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Integrinas/imunologia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Pulmão , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/uso terapêutico , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Presse Med ; 49(2): 104026, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437844

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by relentlessly progressive lung function impairment that is consistently fatal in the absence of lung transplantation, as no curative pharmacological treatment exists. The pace of progression varies across patients, and acute life-threatening exacerbations occur unpredictably, causing further sharp drops in lung function. Recently introduced antifibrotic agents slow the pace of disease progression and may improve survival but fail to stop the fibrotic process. Moreover, the magnitude and kinetics of the response to these drugs cannot be predicted in the individual patient. These characteristics require that lung transplantation be considered early in the course of the disease. However, given the shortage of donor lungs, lung transplantation must be carefully targeted to those patients most likely to benefit. Current guidelines for lung transplantation listing may need reappraisal in the light of recent treatment advances. Patients with IPF often have multiple comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, frailty, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Consequently, extensive screening for and effective treatment of concomitant conditions is crucial to appropriate candidate selection and outcome optimisation. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. Pulmonologists with expertise in IPF must work closely with lung transplant teams. Careful consideration must be given to preoperative optimisation, surgical technique, and pulmonary rehabilitation to produce the best post-transplantation outcomes.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão , Fatores Etários , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Fragilidade/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/complicações , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Prognóstico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Encurtamento do Telômero
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 126: 29-36, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359718

RESUMO

It remains unknown whether the comparative effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and warfarin differs between atrial fibrillation patients with and without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Using 2012 to 2014 Medicare claims data, we identified patients newly diagnosed with AF in 2013 to 2014 who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin. We categorized patients based on a history of stroke or TIA. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models that included indicator variables for treatment groups, a history of stroke or TIA, and the interaction between them, and controlled for demographics and clinical characteristics. DOACs were generally more effective than warfarin in stroke prevention; however, there were important differences between subgroups defined by a history of ischemic stroke. In particular, the superiority of dabigatran compared with warfarin in ischemic stroke prevention was more pronounced in patients with a history of stroke or TIA (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48 to 0.85) than in patients with no history of stroke or TIA (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.16; p value for interaction = 0.034). There was no difference in the risk of stroke between apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban in patients with no history of stroke or TIA. However, in patients with a history of stroke or TIA, the risk of stroke was lower with dabigatran (HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.85) and rivaroxaban (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.87), compared with apixaban (p value for both interactions <0.05). In conclusion, the comparative effectiveness of DOACs differs substantially between patients with and without a history of stroke or TIA; specifically, apixaban is less effective in patients with a history of stroke or TIA.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3): 311-320, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333946

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Evidence for the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to prevent cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in older individuals with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is lacking. We sought to characterize the association of oral anticoagulant use with CV morbidity in elderly patients with or without reductions in eGFRs, comparing DOACs with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: All individuals 66 years or older with an initial prescription for oral anticoagulants dispensed in Ontario, Canada, from 2009 to 2016. EXPOSURE: DOACs (apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban) compared with VKAs by eGFR group (≥60, 30-59, and<30mL/min/1.73m2). OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was a composite of a CV event (myocardial infarction, revascularization, or ischemic stroke) or mortality. Secondary outcomes were CV events alone, mortality, and hemorrhage requiring hospitalization. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: High-dimensional propensity score matching of DOAC to VKA users and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: 27,552 new DOAC users were matched to 27,552 new VKA users (median age, 78 years; 49% women). There was significantly lower risk for CV events or mortality among DOAC users compared with VKA users (event rates of 79.78 vs 99.77 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.75-0.90]) and lower risk for hemorrhage (event rates of 10.35 vs 16.77 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.58-0.91]). There was an interaction between eGFR and the association of anticoagulant class with the primary composite outcome (P<0.02): HRs of 1.01 [95% CI, 0.92-1.12], 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.93], and 0.75 [95% CI, 0.51-1.10] for eGFRs of≥60, 30 to 59, and<30mL/min/1.73m2. No interaction was detected for the outcome of hemorrhage. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective observational study design limits causal inference; dosages of DOACs and international normalized ratio values were not available; low event rates in some subgroups limited statistical power. CONCLUSIONS: DOACs compared with VKAs were associated with lower risk for the composite of CV events or mortality, an association for which the strength was most apparent among those with reduced eGFRs. The therapeutic implications of these findings await further study.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Revascularização Miocárdica , Ontário/epidemiologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Trombofilia/complicações , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
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