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2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1021, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical effectiveness and safety data of pazopanib in patients with advanced or mRCC in real-world setting from Asia Pacific, North Africa, and Middle East countries are lacking. METHODS: PARACHUTE is a phase IV, prospective, non-interventional, observational study. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients remaining progression free at 12 months. Secondary endpoints were ORR, PFS, safety and tolerability, and relative dose intensity (RDI). RESULTS: Overall, 190 patients with a median age of 61 years (range: 22.0-96.0) were included. Most patients were Asian (70%), clear-cell type RCC was the most common (81%), with a favourable (9%), intermediate (47%), poor (10%), and unknown (34%) MSKCC risk score. At the end of the observational period, 78 patients completed the observational period and 112 discontinued the study; 60% of patients had the starting dose at 800 mg. Median RDI was 82%, with 52% of patients receiving < 85%. Of the 145 evaluable patients, 56 (39%) remained progression free at 12 months, and the median PFS was 10 months (95% CI: 8.48-11.83). 19% of patients (21/109) were long-term responders (on pazopanib for ≥18 months). The best response per RECIST 1.1 was CR/PR in 24%, stable disease in 44%, and PD in 31%. Most frequent (> 10%) TEAEs related to pazopanib included diarrhoea (30%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (15%), and hypertension (14%). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the PARACHUTE study support the use of pazopanib in patients with advanced or mRCC who are naive to VEGF-TKI therapy. The safety profile is consistent with that previously reported by pivotal and real-world evidence studies.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , África do Norte , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etnologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/etnologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26975, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414970

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), induces pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, information on other TKIs is limited.We retrospectively analyzed PH prevalence by reviewing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings in a population of Korean CML patients treated with TKI at a single hospital between 2003 and 2020. PH was defined as a high PH probability according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) guidelines.Of the 189 patients treated with TKI(s) during the study period, 112 (59.3%) underwent TTE. Among the 112 patients treated with a TKI for a median of 40.4 months (range: 1.1-167.2 months), PH was found in 12 (10.7%), most frequently in those treated with dasatinib (ie, in 3 [7.5%] of 40 of those treated with imatinib, 1 [3.1%] of 32 of those treated with nilotinib, and 8 [21.6%] of 37 of those treated with dasatinib). PH resolved in 4 (50.0%) of the 8 dasatinib-treated patients after discontinuation of the agent. One nilotinib-treated and all three imatinib-treated patients recovered from PH. In multivariate analyses, age >60 years, dasatinib treatment, and positive cardiopulmonary symptoms/signs at the time of transthoracic echocardiography were statistically significant risk factors for developing PH.These results show that PH is induced not only by dasatinib, but also by imatinib and nilotinib. Careful screening for PH during any TKI treatment may thus be warranted in patients with CML.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 22(5): 693-707, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pivotal phase III studies demonstrated that abrocitinib, an oral, once-daily, JAK1-selective inhibitor, is effective treatment for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) as monotherapy and in combination with topical therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of abrocitinib 200 mg and 100 mg in an integrated analysis of a phase IIb study, four phase III studies, and one long-term extension study. METHODS: Two cohorts were analyzed: a placebo-controlled cohort from 12- to 16-week studies and an all-abrocitinib cohort including patients who received one or more abrocitinib doses. Adverse events (AEs) of interest and laboratory data are reported. RESULTS: Total exposure in the all-abrocitinib cohort (n = 2856) was 1614 patient-years (PY); exposure was ≥ 24 weeks in 1248 patients and ≥ 48 weeks in 606 (maximum 108 weeks). In the placebo-controlled cohort (n = 1540), dose-related AEs (200 mg, 100 mg, placebo) were nausea (14.6%, 6.1%, 2.0%), headache (7.8%, 5.9%, 3.5%), and acne (4.7%, 1.6%, 0%). Platelet count was reduced transiently in a dose-dependent manner; 2/2718 patients (200-mg group) had confirmed platelet counts of < 50 × 103/mm3 at week 4. Incidence rates (IRs) were 2.33/100PY and 2.65/100 PY for serious infection, 4.34/100PY and 2.04/100PY for herpes zoster, and 11.83/100PY and 8.73/100PY for herpes simplex in the 200-mg and 100-mg groups, respectively. IRs for nonmelanoma skin cancer, other malignancies, and major adverse cardiovascular events were < 0.5/100PY for both doses. Five venous thromboembolism events occurred (IR 0.30/100PY), all in the 200-mg group. There were three deaths due to gastric carcinoma (diagnosed at day 43), sudden death, and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Abrocitinib, with proper patient and dose selection, has a manageable tolerability and longer-term safety profile appropriate for long-term use in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. TRIAL REGISTRIES: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02780167, NCT03349060, NCT03575871, NCT03720470, NCT03627767, NCT03422822.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Acne Vulgar/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Contagem de Plaquetas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(10): 803-815, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options are sparse for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma after progression on first-line gemcitabine-based therapy. FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements occur in 10-16% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Infigratinib is a selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity of infigratinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, FGFR2 alterations, and previous gemcitabine-based treatment. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study recruited patients from 18 academic centres and hospitals in the USA, Belgium, Spain, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had histologically or cytologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements, and were previously treated with at least one gemcitabine-containing regimen. Patients received 125 mg of oral infigratinib once daily for 21 days of 28-day cycles until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or death. Radiological tumour evaluation was done at baseline and every 8 weeks until disease progression via CT or MRI of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The primary endpoint was objective response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response of a confirmed complete or partial response, as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. The primary outcome and safety were analysed in the full analysis set, which comprised all patients who received at least one dose of infigratinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02150967, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2014, and March 31, 2020, 122 patients were enrolled into our study, of whom 108 with FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements received at least one dose of infigratinib and comprised the full analysis set. After a median follow-up of 10·6 months (IQR 6·2-15·6), the BICR-assessed objective response rate was 23·1% (95% CI 15·6-32·2; 25 of 108 patients), with one confirmed complete response in a patient who only had non-target lesions identified at baseline and 24 partial responses. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of any grade were hyperphosphataemia (n=83), stomatitis (n=59), fatigue (n=43), and alopecia (n=41). The most common ocular toxicity was dry eyes (n=37). Central serous retinopathy-like and retinal pigment epithelial detachment-like events occurred in 18 (17%) patients, of which ten (9%) were grade 1, seven (6%) were grade 2, and one (1%) was grade 3. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Infigratinib has promising clinical activity and a manageable adverse event profile in previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma harbouring FGFR2 gene fusions or rearrangements, and so represents a potential new therapeutic option in this setting. FUNDING: QED Therapeutics and Novartis.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/induzido quimicamente , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/secundário , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfosfatemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Radiossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/induzido quimicamente , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Segurança , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 197, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib and baricitinib in patients with RA in a real-world setting. METHODS: A total of 242 patients with RA who were treated with tofacitinib (n = 161) or baricitinib (n = 81) were enrolled. We evaluated efficacy and safety between tofacitinib and baricitinib using multivariable analyses to avoid confounding. Their clinical disease activity and AEs were evaluated for 24 weeks. RESULTS: The mean (SD) DAS28-ESR change from baseline to 24 weeks was 1.57 (1.55) (tofacitinib) and 1.46 (1.36) (baricitinib). There was no significant difference in the clinical response between the two groups (adjusted mean difference, 0.04; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.28). The efficacy was not significantly changed in the patients without concomitant MTX use in both groups, but the concomitant MTX use showed better clinical efficacy in the cases of baricitinib treatment. In both groups, the most common AE was herpes zoster infection, and the AE rates were similar between the two groups. However, the predictive factors contributing to clinical response as revealed by a multivariable logistic analysis differed. The concomitant oral steroid use was independently associated with the achievement of DAS-low disease activity in the tofacitinib group, whereas in the baricitinib group, the number of biological and/or targeted synthetic DMARDs previously used was associated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that tofacitinib and baricitinib had comparable continuing efficacies and safety profiles. However, there is a possibility that the influence of clinical characteristics on the treatment response differs. The comparison provides useful information to the optimal use of JAK inhibitors in real-world settings.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Azetidinas , Humanos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas , Pirazóis , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 427-435, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neuromuscular disease characterized by an onset at 6 months of age or younger, an inability to sit without support, and deficient levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. Risdiplam is an orally administered small molecule that modifies SMN2 pre-messenger RNA splicing and increases levels of functional SMN protein in blood. METHODS: We conducted an open-label study of risdiplam in infants with type 1 SMA who were 1 to 7 months of age at enrollment. Part 1 of the study (published previously) determined the dose to be used in part 2 (reported here), which assessed the efficacy and safety of daily risdiplam as compared with no treatment in historical controls. The primary end point was the ability to sit without support for at least 5 seconds after 12 months of treatment. Key secondary end points were a score of 40 or higher on the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP-INTEND; range, 0 to 64, with higher scores indicating better motor function), an increase of at least 4 points from baseline in the CHOP-INTEND score, a motor-milestone response as measured by Section 2 of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE-2), and survival without permanent ventilation. For the secondary end points, comparisons were made with the upper boundary of 90% confidence intervals for natural-history data from 40 infants with type 1 SMA. RESULTS: A total of 41 infants were enrolled. After 12 months of treatment, 12 infants (29%) were able to sit without support for at least 5 seconds, a milestone not attained in this disorder. The percentages of infants in whom the key secondary end points were met as compared with the upper boundary of confidence intervals from historical controls were 56% as compared with 17% for a CHOP-INTEND score of 40 or higher, 90% as compared with 17% for an increase of at least 4 points from baseline in the CHOP-INTEND score, 78% as compared with 12% for a HINE-2 motor-milestone response, and 85% as compared with 42% for survival without permanent ventilation (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common serious adverse events were pneumonia, bronchiolitis, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving infants with type 1 SMA, risdiplam resulted in higher percentages of infants who met motor milestones and who showed improvements in motor function than the percentages observed in historical cohorts. Longer and larger trials are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of risdiplam in infants with type 1 SMA. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; FIREFISH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02913482.).


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Azo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/mortalidade , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia
8.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2925-2934, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309636

RESUMO

The phase 2, open-label study (DIALOG) of nilotinib in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) met its coprimary end points, showing sustained nilotinib efficacy in patients with newly diagnosed (ND) or imatinib/dasatinib resistant/intolerant (R/I) CML. This update assessed growth and safety profiles in patients who had completed ≥48, 28-day treatment cycles of nilotinib 230 mg/m2 twice daily, or previously discontinued the study. Height was assessed regularly and reported using standard deviation scores (SDSs) based on World Health Organization growth charts. All data were summarized descriptively (cutoff, 6 March 2019). Overall, 33 patients in the R/I cohort and 25 patients in the ND cohort received nilotinib. Each cohort showed a negative slope in height SDS over the course of the study, indicating attenuated growth rates during nilotinib treatment: overall median change from baseline in height SDS after 48 cycles was -0.54 SDS (range, - 1.6 to 0.4) and -0.91 SDS (-1.4 to -0.1) in R/I and ND cohorts, respectively. Patients in the R/I cohort were shorter at baseline than those in the ND cohort, and remained so throughout the study. The most common all-cause adverse events were increased blood bilirubin (53.4%), headache (46.6%), pyrexia (37.9%), and increased alanine transferase (36.2%). Apart from the impact on growth, the safety profile of nilotinib was generally consistent with previous reports. This study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov at #NCT01844765.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Pirimidinas , Criança , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
9.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(9): 903-911, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uterine myomas and endometriosis are benign hormone-dependent diseases affecting women of reproductive age. Substantial efforts have been made to develop innovative medical options for treating these gynecologic diseases. Elagolix and relugolix have been approved in some countries for treating endometriosis and myomas, respectively; however, linzagolix (OBE 2109, KLH 2109) is a new oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in phase II-III trials. Treatment options for women with contraindications for hormonal therapies or who refuse particular options, are the driving force behind the development of new drugs in this area. AREA COVERED: This drug evaluation highlights definitive and preliminary results from previous and ongoing studies of linzagolix for the treatment of endometriosis and myomas. EXPERT OPINION: Linzagolix showed a dose-dependent and rapidly reversible action on the pituitary-gonadal axis. In a recent phase II trial (EDELWEISS), linzagolix significantly reduced pain related to endometriosis and improved quality of life at single daily doses of 75-200 mg. The preliminary results of international, double-blind phase III trials (PRIMROSE 1 and 2) reported its efficacy in treating heavy menstrual bleeding related to myomas with a good safety profile. Further studies will determine the necessity of add-back therapy during long-term use of linzagolix.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/administração & dosagem , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Carboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Humanos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
11.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(7): 975-977, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267040

RESUMO

Pazopanib is an anti-angiogenic multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for treating soft tissue sarcomas and renal cell carcinoma. Although the occurrence of pneumothorax during pazopanib treatment has been recognized as an adverse event, there have been no reports of pneumothorax in patients treated with pazopanib. Here, we present the case of a 71- year-old male patient who developed pneumothorax during adjuvant pazopanib therapy after surgery for metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Left hilar and mediastinal lymph node swelling was detected in the postoperative surveillance after surgery, and radiological findings showed lymph node metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Consequently, left upper lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection were performed, and subsequent pathological examination confirmed the aforementioned diagnosis. Pazopanib was administered as an adjuvant therapy. However, the patient developed left pneumothorax on day 101. Although chest tube drainage was performed, massive air leak continued. A surgery was performed to repair the persistent air leak. This case demonstrates that pneumothorax should be recognized as an adverse event of pazopanib.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Pneumotórax , Sarcoma , Idoso , Humanos , Indazóis , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas
12.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 57(7): 417-431, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268530

RESUMO

Acalabrutinib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment-naive (TN) and relapsed/refractory (R/R) use for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in November 2019 following the phase III ASCEND and ELEVATE-TN registration trials. Acalabrutinib is a second-generation Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) that was developed after ibrutinib, the first-in-class BTKi. Ibrutinib is usually well tolerated and provides durable remissions; however, some patients experience toxicities from the off-target effects that lead to treatment discontinuation. A recent press release of the phase III ELEVATE-RR trial comparing acalabrutinib to ibrutinib in relapsed high-risk CLL reported noninferior progression-free survival and statistically significantly lower rates of atrial fibrillation; however, publication of this data is pending. There is currently 53 months of follow-up for patients receiving acalabrutinib compared with 8 years for those on ibrutinib. Acalabrutinib is approved as monotherapy in the R/R or TN setting, and in the TN setting can be combined with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. The data for acalabrutinib development and clinical use are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Benzamidas , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
13.
N Engl J Med ; 384(25): 2371-2381, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sotorasib showed anticancer activity in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced solid tumors in a phase 1 study, and particularly promising anticancer activity was observed in a subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a single-group, phase 2 trial, we investigated the activity of sotorasib, administered orally at a dose of 960 mg once daily, in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced NSCLC previously treated with standard therapies. The primary end point was objective response (complete or partial response) according to independent central review. Key secondary end points included duration of response, disease control (defined as complete response, partial response, or stable disease), progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Exploratory biomarkers were evaluated for their association with response to sotorasib therapy. RESULTS: Among the 126 enrolled patients, the majority (81.0%) had previously received both platinum-based chemotherapy and inhibitors of programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). According to central review, 124 patients had measurable disease at baseline and were evaluated for response. An objective response was observed in 46 patients (37.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.6 to 46.2), including in 4 (3.2%) who had a complete response and in 42 (33.9%) who had a partial response. The median duration of response was 11.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to could not be evaluated). Disease control occurred in 100 patients (80.6%; 95% CI, 72.6 to 87.2). The median progression-free survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2), and the median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% CI, 10.0 to could not be evaluated). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 88 of 126 patients (69.8%), including grade 3 events in 25 patients (19.8%) and a grade 4 event in 1 (0.8%). Responses were observed in subgroups defined according to PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and co-occurring mutations in STK11, KEAP1, or TP53. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 2 trial, sotorasib therapy led to a durable clinical benefit without new safety signals in patients with previously treated KRAS p.G12C-mutated NSCLC. (Funded by Amgen and the National Institutes of Health; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(4): 429-440, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity may affect efficacy and safety of biologic treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC). Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of UC. AIMS: To assess efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with UC, by baseline body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated patients with UC receiving placebo or tofacitinib from the 8-week OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 (NCT01465763, NCT01458951) and 52-week OCTAVE Sustain (NCT01458574) studies. Patients were stratified by BMI at OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 baseline (<25, 25 to <30 and ≥30 kg/m2 ). Outcomes included remission, endoscopic improvement, clinical response, sustained steroid-free remission, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire total score and Short Form-36 Health Survey scores. Adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: At Week 8 of OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, and Week 52 of OCTAVE Sustain, higher proportions of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (b.d.) achieved clinical response vs placebo, regardless of baseline BMI subgroup (all P < 0.05). Proportions of patients achieving efficacy endpoints were generally similar across BMI subgroups; in univariate and multivariate regression analyses, BMI was not a significant predictor (all P ≥ 0.05; univariate BMI [continuous] odds ratio for remission: 0.98 [95% confidence interval 0.95, 1.02]). There was no consistent trend between BMI and adverse events. Among patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, serious infections were numerically greater in the BMI ≥30 subgroup (3.2%) vs other subgroups (0.4%). Limitations included small patient numbers in the BMI ≥30 subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib were similar in patients with UC regardless of baseline BMI.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Piperidinas , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos
15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(13): 1643-1649, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120550

RESUMO

Introduction: Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a heterogeneous disease with a wide range of possible frontline therapies depending on the subtype; there are no shared guidelines for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MZLs. The growing evidence of the importance of the BCR pathway in the pathogenesis of B lymphoproliferative forms has led researchers to consider BTK as a potential therapeutic target in MZL.Area covered: The authors provide the reader with an evaluation of ibrutinib as a treatment option for refractory marginal zone lymphoma. The review includes an overview of the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety. The authors also provide the reader with their expert perspectives on the drug and its place in the treatment of MZL.Expert opinion: The availability of new non-chemotherapeutic agents represents an important opportunity to spare excessive exposure to cytotoxic compounds. Immunomodulators and targeted agents, alone or often in combination with immunotherapy, have been shown to be effective and safe therapies in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) MZL. In addition, numerous studies involving new generation targeted agents, alone or in combination, are currently active in both R/R and untreated patient populations, some with encouraging preliminary results.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Piperidinas , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3391, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099646

RESUMO

Increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well recognized in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Aberrant type I-Interferon (IFN)-neutrophil interactions contribute to this enhanced CVD risk. In lupus animal models, the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib improves clinical features, immune dysregulation and vascular dysfunction. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tofacitinib in SLE subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02535689). In this study, 30 subjects are randomized to tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily) or placebo in 2:1 block. The primary outcome of this study is safety and tolerability of tofacitinib. The secondary outcomes include clinical response and mechanistic studies. The tofacitinib is found to be safe in SLE meeting study's primary endpoint. We also show that tofacitinib improves cardiometabolic and immunologic parameters associated with the premature atherosclerosis in SLE. Tofacitinib improves high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = 0.0006, CI 95%: 4.12, 13.32) and particle number (p = 0.0008, CI 95%: 1.58, 5.33); lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase concentration (p = 0.024, CI 95%: 1.1, -26.5), cholesterol efflux capacity (p = 0.08, CI 95%: -0.01, 0.24), improvements in arterial stiffness and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and decrease in type I IFN gene signature, low-density granulocytes and circulating NETs. Some of these improvements are more robust in subjects with STAT4 risk allele.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Fator de Transcrição STAT4/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 149(7): 1463-1472, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109630

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression is an acute, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy regimens used in the treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Trilaciclib protects haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from chemotherapy-induced damage (myeloprotection). To assess the totality of the myeloprotective benefits of trilaciclib, including analysis of several clinically relevant but low-frequency events, an exploratory composite endpoint comprising five major adverse haematological events (MAHE) was prospectively defined: all-cause hospitalisations, all-cause chemotherapy dose reductions, febrile neutropenia (FN), prolonged severe neutropenia (SN) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions on/after Week 5. MAHE and its individual components were assessed in three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 trials in patients receiving a platinum/etoposide or topotecan-containing chemotherapy regimen for ES-SCLC and in data pooled from the three trials. A total of 242 patients were randomised across the three trials (trilaciclib, n = 123; placebo, n = 119). In the individual trials and the pooled analysis, administering trilaciclib prior to chemotherapy resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the cumulative incidence of MAHE compared to placebo. In the pooled analysis, the cumulative incidences of all-cause chemotherapy dose reductions, FN, prolonged SN and RBC transfusions on/after Week 5 were significantly reduced with trilaciclib vs placebo; however, no significant difference was observed in rates of all-cause hospitalisations. Additionally, compared to placebo, trilaciclib significantly extended the amount of time patients remained free of MAHE. These data support the myeloprotective benefits of trilaciclib and its ability to improve the overall safety profile of myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimens used to treat patients with ES-SCLC.


Assuntos
Citoproteção , Doenças Hematológicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
19.
Blood Adv ; 5(12): 2577-2585, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152395

RESUMO

Zanubrutinib, a highly selective Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was evaluated in a phase 1/2 study in patients with various B-cell malignancies. In the subgroup of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), zanubrutinib was administered as 160 mg twice daily (n = 14), 320 mg once daily (n = 18), or ≤160 mg total dose (n = 5). Herein, we report results for patients receiving a total daily dose of 320 mg (N = 32). Median study follow-up was 18.8 months. Eighteen patients discontinued treatment, 10 because of progressive disease and 8 because of adverse events (AEs); 1 AE (peripheral edema) was considered to be related to zanubrutinib treatment. The most common AEs were diarrhea (43.8%), contusion (37.5%), constipation (31.3%), and upper respiratory tract infection (31.3%). Infection was the most commonly reported AE of interest (18.8% of patients experienced grade ≥3 infection). At least 1 AE of grade ≥3 was reported in 59.4% of patients; grade ≥3 AEs that were reported in >2 patients were anemia (12.5%), pneumonia (9.4%), and myalgia (9.4%). Overall response rate was 84%, with 25% achieving a complete response. Median duration of response was 18.5 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 21.1 months. Zanubrutinib was well tolerated and demonstrated activity in patients with R/R MCL. The trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02343120.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Célula do Manto , Adulto , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas , Pirazóis , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(7): 959-969, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC. METHODS: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis. FINDINGS: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population. INTERPRETATION: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC. FUNDING: Blueprint Medicines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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