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1.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 6748-6773, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479083

RESUMO

A series of N-phenyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine derivatives with NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) inhibitory activity were obtained through structure-based drug design and synthetic chemistry. Among them, 4-(3-((7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-4-morpholinophenyl)-2-(thiazol-2-yl)but-3-yn-2-ol (12f) was identified as a highly potent NIK inhibitor, along with satisfactory selectivity. The pharmacokinetics of 12f and its ability to inhibit interleukin 6 secretion in BEAS-2B cells were better than compound 1 developed by Amgen. Oral administration of different doses of 12f in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model showed effective alleviation of psoriasis, including invasive erythema, swelling, skin thickening, and scales. The underlying pathological mechanism involved attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression, and the infiltration of macrophages after the treatment of 12f. This work provides a foundation for the development of NIK inhibitors, highlighting the potential of developing NIK inhibitors as a new strategy for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/química , Animais , Cães , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 6144-6163, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420739

RESUMO

Calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) is an essential Ser/Thr kinase that controls invasion and egress by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The Gly gatekeeper of CDPK1 makes it exquisitely sensitive to inhibition by small molecule 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (PP) compounds that are bulky ATP mimetics. Here we rationally designed, synthesized, and tested a series of novel PP analogs that were evaluated for inhibition of CDPK1 enzyme activity in vitro and parasite growth in cell culture. Optimal substitution on the PP scaffold included 2-pyridyl ethers directed into the hydrophobic pocket and small carbocyclic rings accessing the ribose-binding pocket. Further optimization of the series led to identification of the lead compound 3a that displayed excellent potency, selectivity, safety profile, and efficacy in vivo. The results of these studies provide a foundation for further work to optimize CDPK1 inhibitors for the treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/química , Doença Aguda , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/enzimologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(12): 1419-1430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uterine myomas represents a widespread gynecological disease of women in reproductive age. Although surgery remains the first choice for treating most patients, in the last years, new medical approaches have been considered in order to ameliorate heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) related to their presence. Elagolix is a second-generation gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist under investigation for the long-term treatment of uterine myomas. AREAS COVERED: The aim of this drug evaluation is to give a complete overview of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on elagolix for treating HMB related to uterine myomas and to report the results of the current clinical trials in this setting. EXPERT OPINION: In two previous phase II studies, this drug succeeded in ameliorating blood loss and quality of life of patients affected by uterine myomas with a good safety profile. Three phase III trials (ELARIS UF-I, UF-II, and EXTEND) investigated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of elagolix at 300 mg twice daily with add-back therapy. The primary endpoint, consisting in the reduction in HMB compared to placebo, was met in the majority of patients under treatment. Currently, elagolix is under investigation in two other ongoing multicenter phase III clinical studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas de Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/uso terapêutico , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Uterina/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacocinética , Leiomioma/complicações , Menorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/complicações
4.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4837-4848, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293182

RESUMO

The development of efficacious NNRTIs for AIDS therapy commonly encountered the rapid generation of drug-resistant mutations, which becomes a major impediment to effective anti-HIV treatment. Using a structure-based bioisosterism strategy, a series of piperidine-substituted thiophene[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Compound 9a yielded the greatest potency, exhibiting significantly better anti-HIV-1 activity than ETR against all of the tested NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. In addition, the phenotypic (cross)resistance of 9a and other NRTIs to the different selected HIV-1 strains was evaluated. As expected, no phenotypic cross-resistance against the NRTIs (AZT and PMPA) was observed with the mutant 9ares strain. Furthermore, 9a was identified with improved solubility, lower CYP liability, and hERG inhibition. Remarkably, 9a exhibited optimal pharmacokinetic properties in rats (F = 37.06%) and safety in mice (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg), which highlights 9a as a promising anti-HIV-1 drug candidate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Tiofenos/farmacocinética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315352

RESUMO

Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been identified as potential driver oncogenes. Pharmacological targeting of FGFRs may therefore provide therapeutic benefit to selected cancer patients, and proof-of-concept has been established in early clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors. Here, we present the molecular structure and preclinical characterization of INCB054828 (pemigatinib), a novel, selective inhibitor of FGFR 1, 2, and 3, currently in phase 2 clinical trials. INCB054828 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated using cell lines and tumor models, and the antitumor effect of oral INCB054828 was investigated using xenograft tumor models with genetic alterations in FGFR1, 2, or 3. Enzymatic assays with recombinant human FGFR kinases showed potent inhibition of FGFR1, 2, and 3 by INCB054828 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 nM, respectively) with weaker activity against FGFR4 (IC50 30 nM). INCB054828 selectively inhibited growth of tumor cell lines with activation of FGFR signaling compared with cell lines lacking FGFR aberrations. The preclinical pharmacokinetic profile suggests target inhibition is achievable by INCB054828 in vivo with low oral doses. INCB054828 suppressed the growth of xenografted tumor models with FGFR1, 2, or 3 alterations as monotherapy, and the combination of INCB054828 with cisplatin provided significant benefit over either single agent, with an acceptable tolerability. The preclinical data presented for INCB054828, together with preliminary clinical observations, support continued investigation in patients with FGFR alterations, such as fusions and activating mutations.


Assuntos
Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Morfolinas/química , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(8): 859-866, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tepotinib (MSC2156119J) is an oral, potent and highly selective small molecule mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor for which the recommended Phase II dose of 500 mg once daily has been defined, based on the first-in-man trial conducted in the USA and Europe. We carried out a multicenter Phase I trial with a classic `3 + 3' design to determine the recommended Phase II dose in Japanese patients with solid tumors (NCT01832506). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with advanced solid tumors (refractory to standard therapy or for whom no effective standard therapy was available) received tepotinib at 215, 300 or 500 mg once daily in a 21-day cycle. Occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities during cycle 1 was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were also evaluated to support the dose assessment. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated. Tepotinib was generally well tolerated with no observed dose-limiting toxicities; treatment-related adverse events were mainly grades 1-2. The tolerability profile of tepotinib was similar to that observed in non-Japanese populations. Pharmacokinetics in Japanese and Western patients was comparable. One patient with gastric cancer and one patient with urachal cancer had stable disease of ≥12 weeks in duration. The observed safety profile and pharmacokinetics are comparable with those in patients from the USA and Europe, and the recommended Phase II dose of tepotinib in Japanese patients was confirmed as 500 mg once daily. CONCLUSIONS: These results, including initial signals of antitumor activity, support further development of tepotinib in Japanese patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/farmacocinética , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
7.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(4): 805-816, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class pyrrolo-pyrimidine-derived small molecule targeting a marker of genome organization associated with metastasis and is currently in preclinical development as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we report the in vitro ADME characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of metarrestin. METHODS: Solubility, permeability, and efflux ratio as well as in vitro metabolism of metarrestin in hepatocytes, liver microsomes and S9 fractions, recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and potential for CYP inhibition were evaluated. Single dose pharmacokinetic profiles after intravenous and oral administration in mice, rat, dog, monkey, and mini-pig were obtained. Simple allometric scaling was applied to predict human pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Metarrestin had an aqueous solubility of 150 µM at pH 7.4, high permeability in PAMPA and moderate efflux ratio in Caco-2 assays. The compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes, S9 fractions, and hepatocytes from six species, including human. Metarrestin is a CYP3A4 substrate and, in mini-pigs, is also directly glucuronidated. Metarrestin did not show cytochrome P450 inhibitory activity. Plasma concentration-time profiles showed low to moderate clearance, ranging from 0.6 mL/min/kg in monkeys to 48 mL/min/kg in mice and moderate to high volume of distribution, ranging from 1.5 L/kg in monkeys to 17 L/kg in mice. Metarrestin has greater than 80% oral bioavailability in all species tested. The excretion of unchanged parent drug in urine was < 5% in dogs and < 1% in monkeys over collection periods of ≥ 144 h; in bile-duct cannulated rats, the excretion of unchanged drug was < 1% in urine and < 2% in bile over a collection period of 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Metarrestin is a low clearance compound which has good bioavailability and large biodistribution after oral administration. Biotransformation appears to be the major elimination process for the parent drug. In vitro data suggest a low drug-drug interaction potential on CYP-mediated metabolism. Overall favorable ADME and PK properties support metarrestin's progression to clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Biotransformação , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/administração & dosagem , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacocinética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 225-230, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202190

RESUMO

Context: Naringenin and tofacitinib are often used together for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese clinics.Objective: This experiment investigates the effect of naringenin on the pharmacokinetics of tofacitinib in rats.Materials and methods: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (experimental group and control group). The experimental group was pre-treated with naringenin (150 mg/kg/day) for two weeks before dosing tofacitinib, and equal amounts of CMC-Na solution in the control group. After a single oral administration of 5 mg/kg of tofacitinib, 50 µL blood samples were directly collected into 1.5 mL heparinized tubes via the caudal vein at 0.083, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h. The plasma concentration of tofacitinib was quantified by UPLC/MS-MS.Results: Results indicated that naringenin could significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tofacitinib. The AUC0-24 of tofacitinib was increased from 1222.81 ± 222.07 to 2016.27 ± 481.62 ng/mL/h, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Tmax was increased from 0.75 ± 0.29 to 3.00 ± 0.00 h (p < 0.05), and the MRT(0-24) was increased from 4.90 ± 0.51 to 6.57 ± 0.66 h (p < 0.05), but the clearance was obviously decreased from 4.10 ± 0.72 to 2.42 ± 0.70 L/h/kg (p < 0.05) in experimental group. Although the Cmax and t1/2 of tofacitinib were increased, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05).Conclusions: This research demonstrated a drug-drug interaction between naringenin and tofacitinib possibly when preadministered with naringenin; thus, we should pay attention to this possibility in the clinic.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/sangue , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/sangue , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Razão Sinal-Ruído
10.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(2-03): 101-106, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931548

RESUMO

Larotrectinib, is an orally active novel small molecule approved for the treatment of solid tumors in pediatrics and adult patients. It acts by inhibiting tropomyosin receptor kinase. In this paper, we report the development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitation of larotrectinib in mice plasma as per the FDA regulatory guideline. Plasma samples processing was accomplished through simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile enriched with internal standard (IS, enasidenib). The chromatographic analysis was performed using a gradient mobile phase comprising 10 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min on an X-Terra Phenyl column. The UV detection wave length was set at λmax 262 nm. Larotrectinib and the IS eluted at 3.85 and 6.60 min, respectively with a total run time of 8.0 min. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 0.20-5.00 µg/mL (r2=≥0.992). The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. Results of stability studies indicated that larotrectinib was stable on bench-top, in auto-sampler, up to three freeze/thaw cycles and long-term storage at -80°C. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/análise , Pirazóis/análise , Pirimidinas/análise , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
11.
Clin Ther ; 42(2): 295-304, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coadministration of lobeglitazone and dapagliflozin is expected to result in a blood glucose-lowering effect, followed by a gradual increase, in clinical usage; however, combining drugs could cause negative interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the coadministration of lobeglitazone and dapagliflozin on their individual pharmacokinetic properties at steady state in healthy male volunteers in the fasted state. METHODS: This study consisted of 2 parts, each of which was a randomized, open-labeled, multiple-dose, 2-way crossover study in 20 healthy male volunteers in each part. Blood samples were taken periodically over a 48-h period after dosing to derive total plasma lobeglitazone and dapagliflozin pharmacokinetic properties; safety profile was evaluated throughout the study. FINDINGS: When the pharmacokinetic properties of dapagliflozin were evaluated following its administration alone and in combination with lobeglitazone, point estimate and 90% CI of the geometric mean ratio of dapagliflozin AUCτ were entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80%-125%. However, although it was not clinically meaningful, its Css,max was ~8% lower in subjects receiving multiple doses of dapagliflozin and lobeglitazone than that in those administered dapagliflozin alone. The pharmacokinetic properties of lobeglitazone were evaluated following its administration alone and in combination with dapagliflozin. The geometric mean ratios and 90% CIs of the lobeglitazone Css,max and AUCτ were within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80%-125%. IMPLICATIONS: Coadministration of lobeglitazone and dapagliflozin had no apparent clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetic properties of either drug. Based on these findings, it is anticipated that lobeglitazone and dapagliflozin can be coadministered without dose adjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03616392.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacocinética , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Jejum , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 229: 117898, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901802

RESUMO

The native and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy procedures have been established and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) and avanafil (AVA). The first procedure is based on measurement of native fluorescence intensity of both drugs at λEm 337 nm and 370 nm using λEx 290 nm and 314 nm for DAP and AVA in methanol respectively. The second procedure describes a measurement of synchronous fluorescence intensity of these drugs at 232 nm for DAP, and 267 nm for AVA, using Δλ of 90nm. In the first procedure the fluorescence concentration were 0.1-4.0 µg/mL for DAP and 0.5-16 µg/mL for AVA. For the second procedure fluorescence concentrations were 0.025-1.0 µg/mL and 0.5-16 µg/mL for DAP and AVA respectively, with lower detection limit and quantification limits. The processes were successfully used for the limitation of DAP and AVA in their drug product without pre-separation. Then, the techniques were utilized for the determination of DAP and AVA in biological fluids. There is a good agreement between these results and the results obtained using a reference method.


Assuntos
Benzilaminas , Naftalenos , Pirimidinas , Benzilaminas/química , Benzilaminas/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Naftalenos/química , Naftalenos/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/análise , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
J Med Chem ; 63(3): 1068-1083, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955578

RESUMO

Recent clinical evaluation of everolimus for seizure reduction in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, has demonstrated the therapeutic value of mTOR inhibitors for central nervous system (CNS) indications. Given that everolimus is an incomplete inhibitor of the mTOR function, we sought to develop a new mTOR inhibitor that has improved properties and is suitable for CNS disorders. Starting from an in-house purine-based compound, optimization of the physicochemical properties of a thiazolopyrimidine series led to the discovery of the small molecule 7, a potent and selective brain-penetrant ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor. In neuronal cell-based models of mTOR hyperactivity, 7 corrected the mTOR pathway activity and the resulting neuronal overgrowth phenotype. The new mTOR inhibitor 7 showed good brain exposure and significantly improved the survival rate of mice with neuronal-specific ablation of the Tsc1 gene. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this tool compound to test therapeutic hypotheses that depend on mTOR hyperactivity in the CNS.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(2): 135-139, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young women aged 15-24 years are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Two phase III trials of a vaginal ring containing 25-mg dapivirine demonstrated HIV-1 risk reduction in adult women older than 21 years but not in those aged 18-21 years. Lack of protection was correlated with low adherence. METHODS: In this phase-IIa, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, US, multicenter trial of the dapivirine ring in sexually active females, aged 15-17 years, participants were randomized 3:1 to a dapivirine or placebo ring to be inserted monthly for 6 months (NCT02028338). Primary safety end points included grade 2 product related adverse events and any grade 3 and higher adverse events. Adherence to ring use was assessed by plasma dapivirine concentrations, residual levels in used rings, and self-report. A plasma dapivirine concentration of >95 pg/mL was used to define short-term adherence; a residual ring level of <23.5 mg was used to define long-term adherence. Acceptability was assessed through computer-assisted self-interviews. RESULTS: Ninety-six participants were enrolled across 6 US sites. The median age was 16.0 years. There were no differences in safety outcomes between treatment arms. Adherence to the dapivirine ring was demonstrated by both plasma measurements (87%) and residual drug levels in rings (95%). Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval: 32 to 52) of participants reported that they never removed the ring. Participants noted no discomfort due to the ring at 87% of visits and "liking" the ring at 93% of visits. CONCLUSION: The dapivirine vaginal ring, a promising topical microbicide, was well tolerated and acceptable in young US adolescents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Placebos , Plasma , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/sangue , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Chem ; 63(3): 1298-1312, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935327

RESUMO

Our previous efforts have led to the development of two potent NNRTIs, K-5a2 and 25a, exhibiting effective anti-HIV-1 potency and resistance profiles compared with etravirine. However, both inhibitors suffered from potent hERG inhibition and short half-life. In this article, with K-5a2 and etravirine as leads, series of novel fluorine-substituted diarylpyrimidine derivatives were designed via molecular hybridization and bioisosterism strategies. The results indicated 24b was the most active inhibitor, exhibiting broad-spectrum activity (EC50 = 3.60-21.5 nM) against resistant strains, significantly lower cytotoxicity (CC50= 155 µM), and reduced hERG inhibition (IC50 > 30 µM). Crystallographic studies confirmed the binding of 24b and the role of the fluorine atom, as well as optimal contacts of a nitrile group with the main-chain carbonyl group of H235. Furthermore, 24b showed longer half-life and favorable safety properties. All the results demonstrated that 24b has significant promise in circumventing drug resistance as an anti-HIV-1 candidate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Canal de Potássio ERG1/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Descoberta de Drogas , Feminino , Flúor/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/toxicidade
16.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(2): e4704, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629371

RESUMO

Abivertinib represents a highly selective irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Two major metabolites of abivertinib, M7 and MII-6, were detected in human plasma, which are recommended to be monitored for safety reasons in clinical trial. A high-throughput quantification method utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was designed and verified to quantify abivertinib's primary metabolites in human plasma. Solid-phase extraction was used to process the plasma, and then the analytes underwent a gradient elution separation in an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) with mobile phase A (10 mm ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid) and mobile phase B (methanol-acetonitrile, 2:8, v/v, with 0.1% formic acid). Ion transitions of M7 (m/z 490.2 → 405.1) and MII-6 (m/z 476.2 → 391.1) were monitored under multiple reaction monitoring mode and electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. This simultaneous determination method was found to have acceptable precision, accuracy and linearity in the 0.5-500 ng/mL range for M7 and the 0.5-500 ng/mL range for MII-6, accompanied by a mild matrix effect but high recovery. Further stability assessments indicated that both analytes remained stable throughout the entire experimental process from harvesting whole blood to plasma extraction and analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Pirimidinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
17.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4703, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629393

RESUMO

Ibrutinib has an excellent effect in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma so it has attracted much attention. A novel ibrutinib nanocrystalline was exploited in our study to improve the bioavailability. A fast and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was established for the accurate quantification of ibrutinib in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved by an Agilent zorbax SB-C18 rapid solution HD column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 µm). The mobile phase consisted of deionized water (containing 10 mm ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) and pure acetonitrile. Isocratic elution (water-acetonitrile 10:90, v/v) was adopted and the flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. Column temperature was set to 40°C. Vilazodone was used as the internal standard in this analytical method. Multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization was selected to detect ibrutinib and vilazodone. Acetonitrile was used to precipitate protein to extract plasma samples. There was no endogenous interference for both ibrutinib and vilazodone and the linear range of this method was 1-2000 ng/mL. The recoveries were 98.4, 97.4 and 102.7% at low, medium and high concentrations. Accordingly, the matrix effect was 96.6, 111.1 and 99.6%. The pharmacokinetic difference between ibrutinib crude and a novel ibrutinib nanocrystalline in rats was investigated by this validated method successfully. The peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve showed significant differences in gender and the bioavailability was improved after oral administration of ibrutinib nanocrystalline.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Nanopartículas/análise , Pirazóis/sangue , Pirimidinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(3): e4745, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725903

RESUMO

Using LC-MS/MS, a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin residues in banana matrices (leaf and whole banana) and soil was established. The samples were extracted using acetonitrile and purified through C18 dispersive solid-phase extraction. The average recovery of the analytes in various matrices was in the range of 77.3%-103.9% with an RSD range of 0.9%-9.5%. The initial deposition amounts of pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin at 2 h in the banana leaves of the mineral oil group were 1.43 and 1.31 times in Guangxi, and 2.10 and 1.81 times in Hainan for the water group, whereas those in the soil of the water group were 3.45 and 3.03 times in Guangxi, and 2.14 and 3.48 times in Hainan for the mineral oil group. The half-lives in the leaves and soil of the mineral oil group were not remarkably different from those of the water group. The terminal residue of the analytes on the whole banana was <0.02 mg/kg at 14 days after application from the two sites. The results of this work may indicate and promote the safety of using pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin in banana production, especially with mineral oil spray adjuvants.


Assuntos
Óleo Mineral/química , Musa/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Pirimidinas , Estrobilurinas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/isolamento & purificação , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacocinética , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Folhas de Planta/química , Pirimidinas/análise , Pirimidinas/isolamento & purificação , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solo/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estrobilurinas/análise , Estrobilurinas/isolamento & purificação , Estrobilurinas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
19.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4697, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495945

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to measure GDC-0084 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Reverse-phase chromatography with gradient elution was performed using a C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm, 3 µm). Solid-phase extraction of plasma and CSF was employed to give excellent recovery. MS detection was performed with positive ion screening in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The precursor to the product ions (Q1 → Q3) selected for GDC-0084 and GDC-0084-d6 were 383.2 → 353.2 and 389.2 → 353.2, respectively. A separate calibration curve was established for human plasma and CSF. Both calibration curves, ranging from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL, were linear and had acceptable intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The lower limit of quantitation and limit of detection for GDC-0084 in human plasma were 0.2 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥47) and 0.005 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥3.5), respectively, and for GDC-0084 in human CSF were 0.2 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥19.7) and 0.04 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥7.2). This method was successfully applied to analyze serial plasma samples obtained from children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and other midline gliomas who participated in pharmacokinetic studies as part of a phase I clinical trial of GDC-0084.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Oxazinas/sangue , Oxazinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pirimidinas/sangue , Pirimidinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Criança , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Oxazinas/química , Oxazinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
20.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(2): 391-399, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Zanubrutinib (BGB-3111) is a potent Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor with promising clinical activity in B-cell malignancies. Zanubrutinib was shown to be mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in vitro. We evaluated the effect of steady-state rifampin (a strong CYP3A inducer) and steady-state itraconazole (a strong CYP3A inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of zanubrutinib in healthy Asian and non-Asian subjects. METHODS: In this open-label, two-part clinical study, 20 participants received a single oral dose of zanubrutinib (320 mg) and oral rifampin (600 mg) in Part A, and 18 participants received a single oral dose of zanubrutinib (20 mg) and oral itraconazole (200 mg) in Part B. Serial blood samples were collected after administration of zanubrutinib alone and zanubrutinib in combination with rifampin or itraconazole for the measurement of PK parameters. RESULTS: Coadministration with rifampin decreased AUC0-∞ of zanubrutinib by 13.5-fold and Cmax by 12.6-fold. Coadministration with itraconazole increased the AUC0-∞ of zanubrutinib by 3.8-fold and Cmax by 2.6-fold. The PK of zanubrutinib was consistent between Asian and non-Asian subjects, and  zanubrutinib was well tolerated in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that zanubrutinib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A in humans. The PK of zanubrutinib was comparable between Asian and non-Asian subjects and, therefore, no dose modifications are necessary for zanubrutinib in these ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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