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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4215-4228, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the treatment of both wild type and mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, acquired resistance is a major clinical challenge. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of telmisartan (Tel), CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination in rociletinib resistant NSCLC tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D spheroid cultures and western blotting were used for evaluating cytotoxic effects and protein expression. An in vivo rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC was developed by subcutaneous injection of rociletinib resistant H1975 cells into nude mice. RESULTS: Tel, CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination displayed superior anti-cancer effects in 3D spheroid cultures and a rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC by decreasing the protein expression of oncogenic and cancer stem cell markers (Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4). CONCLUSION: Tel facilitates effective penetration of CFM 4.16 and sorafenib in rociletinib resistant H1975 models of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Telmisartan/administração & dosagem , Tiadiazóis/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Telmisartan/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, small molecules possessing tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives have been synthesized having halogenated benzyl derivatives and carboxylate linkage. As previously reported, FDA approved halogenated pyrimidine derivatives prompted us to synthesize novel compounds in order to evaluate their biological potential. METHODOLOGY: Eight pyrimidine derivatives have been synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate, secondary amine, aromatic benzaldehyde by adding catalytic amount of CuCl2·2H2O via solvent less Grindstone multicomponent reagent method. Molecular structure reactivity and virtual screening were performed to check their biological efficacy as an anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic agent. These studies were supported by in vitro analysis and QSAR studies. RESULTS: After combined experimental and virtual screening 5c, 5g and 5e could serve as lead compounds, having low IC50 and high binding affinity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Hipoglicemiantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinas , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
3.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2661-2667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disease, and a major challenge for the eradication of CML is to understand the cause of the permanence of minimal residual disease (DRM). This work aimed to induce the maturation of leukemic stem cells with All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), making them sensitive to treatment with Imatinib (IM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: K562 cells were treated with IM and with the combined therapy of ATRA together with IM for 48 and 72 h. The expression of BCR-ABL gene and multidrug resistance gene ABCB1 were evaluated using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The combined ATRA and IM therapy showed a discreet cell differentiation pattern, evidenced by the panoptic morphology analysis at 48 and 72 h of treatment. The BCR-ABL expression showed no statistical difference when treated alone with IM, however in combination with ATRA, the expression was statistically significant in 48 and 72 h (p≤0.0001) and when the treatment groups were compared to each other (p≤0.001). The ABCB1 gene expression showed a decrease in isolated IM therapy (p≤0.05) and in the combination in 48 and 72 h (p≤0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combined ATRA and IM therapy was shown to be effective in decreasing BCR-ABL and ABCB1 genes, possibly through the differentiation of blast cells, demonstrating that the therapy could be potentially effective in the blast crisis of the disease and for those patients who develop resistance to available CML treatments.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Piperazinas , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tretinoína
4.
Blood Adv ; 5(16): 3134-3146, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424317

RESUMO

Although ibrutinib improves the overall survival of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), some patients still develop resistance, most commonly through point mutations affecting cysteine residue 481 (C481) in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTKC481S and BTKC481R). To enhance our understanding of the biological impact of these mutations, we established cell lines that overexpress wild-type or mutant BTK in in vitro and in vivo models that mimic ibrutinib-sensitive and -resistant CLL. MEC-1 cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant BTK were generated. All cell lines coexpressed GFP, were CD19+ and CD23+, and overexpressed BTK. Overexpression of wild-type or mutant BTK resulted in increased signaling, as evidenced by the induction of p-BTK, p-PLCγ2, and p-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) levels, the latter further augmented upon IgM stimulation. In all cell lines, cell cycle profiles and levels of BTK expression were similar, but the RNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein array results revealed that the molecular transcript and protein profiles were distinct. To mimic aggressive CLL, we created xenograft mouse models by transplanting the generated cell lines into Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. Spleens, livers, bone marrow, and peripheral blood were collected. All mice developed CLL-like disease with systemic involvement (engraftment efficiency, 100%). We observed splenomegaly, accumulation of leukemic cells in the spleen and liver, and macroscopically evident necrosis. CD19+ cells accumulated in the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. The overall survival duration was slightly lower in mice expressing mutant BTK. Our cell lines and murine models mimicking ibrutinib-resistant CLL will serve as powerful tools to test reversible BTK inhibitors and novel, non-BTK-targeted therapeutics.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Camundongos , Piperidinas , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 213, 2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the angiogenic processes, occurring with pannus-formation, may be a therapeutic target. JAK/STAT-pathway may play a role and the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibiting role of a JAK-inhibitor, tofacitinib, on the angiogenic mechanisms occurring during RA. METHODS: After ethical approval, JAK-1, JAK-3, STAT-1, STAT-3 and VEGF expression was evaluated on RA-synovial-tissues. In vitro, endothelial cells (ECs), stimulated with 20 ng/ml of VEGF and/or 1 µM of tofacitinib, were assessed for tube formation, migration and proliferation, by Matrigel, Boyden chamber assay and ki67 gene-expression. In vivo, 32 mice received collagen (collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)) and 32 mice PBS (control). At day 19, CIA and controls mice were divided: 16 mice receiving vehicle and 16 mice receiving tofacitinib. At day 35, the arthritis score, the thickness of paw joints and the serum levels of VEGF and Ang-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: The expression of JAK-1, JAK-3, STAT-1, STAT-3 and VEGF in synovial tissue of RA-patients were significantly higher than healthy controls. In vitro, tofacitinib inhibited the ECs ability to form vessels, to proliferate and to migrate. In vivo, administration of tofacitinib prevented the increase of the arthritis score, the paw thickness, the synovial vessels and VEGF and Ang-2 serum-accumulation, when compared to CIA without tofacitinib. CONCLUSIONS: We explored the anti-angiogenic role of tofacitinib, reporting its ability to inhibit in vitro the angiogenic mechanisms of ECs and in vivo the formation of new synovial vessels, occurring in CIA model. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of tofacitinib during RA may be also related to its anti-angiogenic activity.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Camundongos , Piperidinas , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Membrana Sinovial
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445318

RESUMO

Recent studies revealed that the activation of serotonergic 5-HT1A and muscarinic M1, M4, or M5 receptors prevent MK-801-induced cognitive impairments in animal models. In the present study, the effectiveness of the simultaneous activation of 5-HT1A and muscarinic receptors at preventing MK-801-induced cognitive deficits in novel object recognition (NOR) or Y-maze tests was investigated. Activators of 5-HT1A (F15599), M1 (VU0357017), M4 (VU0152100), or M5 (VU0238429) receptors administered at top doses for seven days reversed MK-801-induced deficits in the NOR test, similar to the simultaneous administration of subeffective doses of F15599 (0.05 mg/kg) with VU0357017 (0.15 mg/kg), VU0152100 (0.05 mg/kg), or VU0238429 (1 mg/kg). The compounds did not prevent the MK-801-induced impairment when administered acutely. Their activity was less evident in the Y-maze. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed high brain penetration of F15599 (brain/plasma ratio 620%), which was detected in the frontal cortex (FC) up to 2 h after administration. Decreases in the brain penetration properties of the compounds were observed after acute administration of the combinations, which might have influenced behavioral responses. This negative effect on brain penetration was not observed when the compounds were administered repeatedly. Based on our results, prolonged administration of a 5-HT1A activator with muscarinic receptor ligands may be effective at reversing cognitive decline related to schizophrenia, and the FC may play a critical role in this interaction.


Assuntos
Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Colinérgicos/farmacocinética , Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Maleato de Dizocilpina/toxicidade , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361736

RESUMO

We recently developed a molecule (GT-73) that blocked leukocyte transendothelial migration from blood to the peripheral tissues, supposedly by affecting the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) function. GT-73 was tested in an LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mouse model. The rationale for this is based on the finding that the mortality of COVID-19 patients is partly caused by ARDS induced by a massive migration of leukocytes to the lungs. In addition, the role of tert-butyl and methyl ester moieties in the biological effect of GT-73 was investigated. A human leukocyte, transendothelial migration assay was applied to validate the blocking effect of GT-73 derivatives. Finally, a mouse model of LPS-induced ARDS was used to evaluate the histological and biochemical effects of GT-73. The obtained results showed that GT-73 has a unique structure that is responsible for its biological activity; two of its chemical moieties (tert-butyl and a methyl ester) are critical for this effect. GT-73 is a prodrug, and its lipophilic tail covalently binds to PECAM-1 via Lys536. GT-73 significantly decreased the number of infiltrating leukocytes in the lungs and reduced the inflammation level. Finally, GT-73 reduced the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In summary, we concluded that GT-73, a blocker of white blood cell transendothelial migration, has a favorable profile as a drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Migração Transendotelial e Transepitelial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/imunologia , Pirimidinas/química , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2431-2451, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196217

RESUMO

Objective: Arterial restenosis is the pathological narrowing of arteries after endovascular procedures, and it is an adverse event that causes patients to experience recurrent occlusive symptoms. Following angioplasty, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change their phenotype, migrate, and proliferate, resulting in neointima formation, a hallmark of arterial restenosis. SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) are a subfamily of the AMP-activated protein kinase family that play a critical role in metabolic diseases including hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Their role in vascular pathological remodeling, however, has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and regulation of SIK3 in vascular SMC migration, proliferation, and neointima formation. Approach and Results: We observed that SIK3 expression was low in contractile aortic SMCs but high in proliferating SMCs. It was also highly induced by growth medium in vitro and in neointimal lesions in vivo. Inactivation of SIKs significantly attenuated vascular SMC proliferation and up-regulated p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. SIK inhibition also suppressed SMC migration and modulated actin polymerization. Importantly, we found that inhibition of SIKs reduced neointima formation and vascular inflammation in a femoral artery wire injury model. In mechanistic studies, we demonstrated that inactivation of SIKs mainly suppressed SMC proliferation by down-regulating AKT (protein kinase B) and PKA (protein kinase A)-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) signaling. CRTC3 (CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 3) signaling likely contributed to SIK inactivation-mediated antiproliferative effects. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SIK3 may play a critical role in regulating SMC proliferation, migration, and arterial restenosis. This study provides insights into SIK inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating restenosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/enzimologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Constrição Patológica , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/enzimologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/lesões , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281197

RESUMO

Psoriasis, a long-lasting and multifactorial skin disease, is related to comorbidities such as metabolic disease, depression, and psoriatic arthritis. Psoriasis occurs due to a variety of factors including keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammation, and abnormal differentiation. Proinflammatory cytokines upregulated by increased activation of keratinocytes and immune cells in the skin trigger progression of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of anoctamin1 (ANO1) on psoriasis development in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes and ANO1-related ERK and AKT signaling pathways after ANO1 inhibitor (T16Ainh-A01 and Ani9) treatment and knock-down of ANO1. Furthermore, after applying imiquimod (IMQ) cream or coapplying IMQ cream and T16Ainh-A01 on mouse ears, we not only observed psoriatic symptoms, including ear thickening, but also quantified the effects of treatment on ERK and AKT signaling-involved proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of ANO1 attenuated the proliferation of HaCaT cells and induced reduction of pERK1/2. Coapplication of IMQ and T16Ainh-A01 on ears of mice reduced not only symptoms of IMQ-induced psoriasis such as thickening and erythema, but also expression of ANO1 and pERK1/2 compared to that of application of IMQ alone. In addition, the expression levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α increased after applying IMQ and were significantly reduced by coapplying IMQ and T16Ainh-A01. These results aid in understanding the underlying mechanisms of ANO1 in epidermal layer keratinocyte hyperproliferation and suggest the potential of ANO1 as a target to treat psoriasis.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Psoríase/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207315

RESUMO

Pevonedistat is a neddylation inhibitor that blocks proteasomal degradation of cullin-RING ligase (CRL) proteins involved in the degradation of short-lived regulatory proteins, including those involved with cell-cycle regulation. We determined the sensitivity and mechanism of action of pevonedistat cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma. Pevonedistat cytotoxicity was assessed using cell viability assays and apoptosis. We examined mechanisms of action using flow cytometry, bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) and immunoblots. Orthotopic mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma were generated to assess in vivo anti-tumor activity. Neuroblastoma cell lines were very sensitive to pevonedistat (IC50 136-400 nM). The mechanism of pevonedistat cytotoxicity depended on p53 status. Neuroblastoma cells with mutant (p53MUT) or reduced levels of wild-type p53 (p53si-p53) underwent G2-M cell-cycle arrest with rereplication, whereas p53 wild-type (p53WT) cell lines underwent G0-G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In orthotopic neuroblastoma models, pevonedistat decreased tumor weight independent of p53 status. Control mice had an average tumor weight of 1.6 mg + 0.8 mg versus 0.5 mg + 0.4 mg (p < 0.05) in mice treated with pevonedistat. The mechanism of action of pevonedistat in neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro appears p53 dependent. However, in vivo studies using mouse neuroblastoma orthotopic models showed a significant decrease in tumor weight following pevonedistat treatment independent of the p53 status. Novel chemotherapy agents, such as the NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor pevonedistat, deserve further study in the treatment of neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína NEDD8/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína NEDD8/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206327

RESUMO

Discovery of compound 1 as a Zika virus (ZIKV) inhibitor has prompted us to investigate its 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold, revealing structural features that elicit antiviral activity. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that 9H-purine or 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine can serve as an alternative core structure. Overall, we have identified 4,7-disubstituted 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines and their analogs including compounds 1, 8 and 11 as promising antiviral agents against flaviviruses ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV). While the molecular target of these compounds is yet to be elucidated, 4,7-disubstituted 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines and their analogs are new chemotypes in the design of small molecules against flaviviruses, an important group of human pathogens.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Pirimidinas , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Zika virus/fisiologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203724

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that hedgehog inhibitors (iHHs) only partially block the growth of tumor cells, especially in vivo. Leukemia often expands in a nutrient-depleted environment (bone marrow and thymus). In order to identify putative signaling pathways implicated in the adaptive response to metabolically adverse conditions, we executed quantitative phospho-proteomics in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells subjected to nutrient-depleted conditions (serum starvation). We found important modulations of peptides phosphorylated by critical signaling pathways including casein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). Surprisingly, in T-ALL cells, AMPK signaling was the most consistently downregulated pathway under serum-depleted conditions, and this coincided with increased GLI1 expression and sensitivity to iHHs, especially the GLI1/2 inhibitor GANT-61. Increased sensitivity to GANT-61 was also found following genetic inactivation of the catalytic subunit of AMPK (AMPKα1) or pharmacological inhibition of AMPK by Compound C. Additionally, patient-derived xenografts showing high GLI1 expression lacked activated AMPK, suggesting an important role for this signaling pathway in regulating GLI1 protein levels. Further, joint targeting of HH and AMPK signaling pathways in T-ALL cells by GANT-61 and Compound C significantly increased the therapeutic response. Our results suggest that metabolic adaptation that occurs under nutrient starvation in T-ALL cells increases responsiveness to HH pathway inhibitors through an AMPK-dependent mechanism and that joint therapeutic targeting of AMPK signaling and HH signaling could represent a valid therapeutic strategy in rapidly expanding tumors where nutrient availability becomes limiting.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(9): 2348-2355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239361

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to more than 150 million infections and about 3.1 million deaths up to date. Currently, drugs screened are urgently aiming to block the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we explored the interaction networks of kinase and COVID-19 crosstalk, and identified phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway as the most important kinase signal pathway involving COVID-19. Further, we found a PI3K/AKT signal pathway inhibitor capivasertib restricted the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Lastly, the signal axis PI3K/AKT/FYVE finger-containing phosphoinositide kinase (PIKfyve)/PtdIns(3,5)P2 was revealed to play a key role during the cellular entry of viruses including SARS-CoV-2, possibly providing potential antiviral targets. Altogether, our study suggests that the PI3K/AKT kinase inhibitor drugs may be a promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategy for clinical application, especially for managing cancer patients with COVID-19 in the pandemic era.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , COVID-19/enzimologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptor Cross-Talk , Células Vero
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4319, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262032

RESUMO

Despite the genetic inactivation of SMARCA4, a core component of the SWI/SNF-complex commonly found in cancer, there are no therapies that effectively target SMARCA4-deficient tumours. Here, we show that, unlike the cells with activated MYC oncogene, cells with SMARCA4 inactivation are refractory to the histone deacetylase inhibitor, SAHA, leading to the aberrant accumulation of H3K27me3. SMARCA4-mutant cells also show an impaired transactivation and significantly reduced levels of the histone demethylases KDM6A/UTX and KDM6B/JMJD3, and a strong dependency on these histone demethylases, so that its inhibition compromises cell viability. Administering the KDM6 inhibitor GSK-J4 to mice orthotopically implanted with SMARCA4-mutant lung cancer cells or primary small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT), had strong anti-tumour effects. In this work we highlight the vulnerability of KDM6 inhibitors as a characteristic that could be exploited for treating SMARCA4-mutant cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , DNA Helicases/deficiência , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281290

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum's resistance to available antimalarial drugs highlights the need for the development of novel drugs. Pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis is a validated drug target for the prevention and treatment of malaria infection. P. falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate and utilize ubiquinone as an electron acceptor in the fourth step of pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis. PfDHODH is targeted by the inhibitor DSM265, which binds to a hydrophobic pocket located at the N-terminus where ubiquinone binds, which is known to be structurally divergent from the mammalian orthologue. In this study, we screened 40,400 compounds from the Kyoto University chemical library against recombinant PfDHODH. These studies led to the identification of 3,4-dihydro-2H,6H-pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine and its derivatives as a new class of PfDHODH inhibitor. Moreover, the hit compounds identified in this study are selective for PfDHODH without inhibition of the human enzymes. Finally, this new scaffold of PfDHODH inhibitors showed growth inhibition activity against P. falciparum 3D7 with low toxicity to three human cell lines, providing a new starting point for antimalarial drug development.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Iminas/farmacologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/antagonistas & inibidores , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Humanos , Iminas/química , Iminas/toxicidade , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotic disturbances, anxiety, neurosis-like disorders, and stress situations are widespread. Benzodiazepine tranquillizers have been found to be among the most effective antianxiety drugs. The pharmacological action of benzodiazepines is due to their interaction with the supra-molecular membrane GABA-a-benzodiazepine receptor complex, linked to the Cl-ionophore. Benzodiazepines enhance GABA-ergic transmission and this has led to a study of the role of GABA in anxiety. The search for anxiolytics and anticonvulsive agents has involved glutamate-ergic, 5HT-ergic substances and neuropeptides. However, each of these well-known anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and cognition enhancers (nootropics) has repeatedly been reported to have many adverse side effects, therefore there is an urgent need to search for new drugs able to restore damaged cognitive functions without causing significant adverse reactions. OBJECTIVE: Considering the relevance of epilepsy diffusion in the world, we have addressed our attention to the discovery of new drugs in this field Thus our aim is the synthesis and study of new compounds with antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and not only, activity. METHODS: For the synthesis of compounds classical organic methods were used and developed. For the evaluation of biological activity some anticonvulsant and psychotropic methods were used. RESULTS: As a result of multistep reactions 26 new, five-membered heterocyclic systems were obtained. PASS prediction of anticonvulsant activity was performed for the whole set of the designed molecules and probability to be active Pa values were ranging from 0.275 to 0.43. The studied compounds exhibit protection against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizures, anti-thiosemicarbazides effect as well as some psychotropic effect. The biological assays evidenced that some of the studied compounds showed a high anticonvulsant activity by antagonism with pentylenetetrazole. The toxicity of compounds is low and they do not induce muscle relaxation in the studied doses. According to the study of psychotropic activity it was found that the selected compounds have an activating behavior and anxiolytic effects on the models of "open field" and "elevated plus maze" (EPM). The data obtained indicate the anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) activity of the derivatives of pyrimidines, especially pronounced in compounds 6n, 6b, and 7c. The studied compounds increase the latent time of first immobilization on the model of "forced swimming" (FST) and exhibit some antidepressant effect similarly to diazepam. Docking studies revealed that compound 6k bound tightly in the active site of GABAA receptor with a value of the scoring function that estimates free energy of binding (ΔG) at -7.95 kcal/mol, while compound 6n showed the best docking score and seems to be dual inhibitor of SERT transporter as well as 5-HT1A receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Тhe selected compounds have an anticonvulsant, activating behavior and anxiolytic effects, at the same time exhibit some antidepressant effect.


Assuntos
Azepinas/administração & dosagem , Azepinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/síntese química , Ansiolíticos/química , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/síntese química , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Azepinas/química , Azepinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Pentilenotetrazol/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de GABA-A/química , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206076

RESUMO

Novel symmetrical bis-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines and bis-purines and their monomers were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (CFPAC-1) and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (SW620) cells. The use of ultrasound irradiation as alternative energy input in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) shortened the reaction time, increased the reaction efficiency and led to the formation of exclusively symmetric bis-heterocycles. DFT calculations showed that triazole formation is exceedingly exergonic and confirmed that the presence of Cu(I) ions is required to overcome high kinetic requirements and allow the reaction to proceed. The influence of various linkers and 6-substituted purine and regioisomeric 7-deazapurine on their cytostatic activity was revealed. Among all the evaluated compounds, the 4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine monomer 5f with 4,4'-bis(oxymethylene)biphenyl had the most pronounced, although not selective, growth-inhibitory effect on pancreatic adenocarcinoma (CFPAC-1) cells (IC50 = 0.79 µM). Annexin V assay results revealed that its strong growth inhibitory activity against CFPAC-1 cells could be associated with induction of apoptosis and primary necrosis. Further structural optimization of bis-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with aromatic linker is required to develop novel efficient and non-toxic agent against pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirróis/síntese química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Cicloadição , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4262, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253738

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in conferring stem cell properties and therapeutic resistance to cancer cells. Therefore, identification of drugs that can reprogram EMT may provide new therapeutic strategies. Here, we report that cells derived from claudin-low mammary tumors, a mesenchymal subtype of triple-negative breast cancer, exhibit a distinctive organoid structure with extended "spikes" in 3D matrices. Upon a miR-200 induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the organoids switch to a smoother round morphology. Based on these observations, we developed a morphological screening method with accompanying analytical pipelines that leverage deep neural networks and nearest neighborhood classification to screen for EMT-reversing drugs. Through screening of a targeted epigenetic drug library, we identified multiple class I HDAC inhibitors and Bromodomain inhibitors that reverse EMT. These data support the use of morphological screening of mesenchymal mammary tumor organoids as a platform to identify drugs that reverse EMT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4099, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215742

RESUMO

The inside of a cell is highly crowded with proteins and other biomolecules. How proteins express their specific functions together with many off-target proteins in crowded cellular environments is largely unknown. Here, we investigate an inhibitor binding with c-Src kinase using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in dilute as well as crowded protein solution. The populations of the inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1), in bulk solution and on the surface of c-Src kinase are reduced as the concentration of crowder bovine serum albumins (BSAs) increases. This observation is consistent with the reduced PP1 inhibitor efficacy in experimental c-Src kinase assays in addition with BSAs. The crowded environment changes the major binding pathway of PP1 toward c-Src kinase compared to that in dilute solution. This change is explained based on the population shift mechanism of local conformations near the inhibitor binding site in c-Src kinase.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Quinases da Família src/química
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