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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(10): 1595-1597, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631147

RESUMO

Tropomyosin-related kinase(TRK)fusion proteins are oncogenic drivers in multiple tumors in adults and children.Larotrectinib, an orally administered selective TRK inhibitor approved in the US, exhibits inhibitory activity against tumors harboring TRK fusions and is well tolerated.Here, we report the case of an 8-year-old female child with recurrence of an NTRK fusion low-grade sarcoma treated with larotrectinib monotherapy.The patient previously underwent resection of low-grade sarcoma in the right brachialis at 6 years of age, but local recurrence occurred after 16 months.As re-operation likely required amputation, larotrectinib was commenced at a dose of 100 mg BID.Complete radiographic remission was achieved after 3 months.There were no adverse events attributed to larotrectinib treatment.After dosing for 6 months, we performed local resection, confirming pathological complete remission.The drug was stopped, and the patient showed no evidence of relapse at 4 months after resection.In this case, larotrectinib was obtained using Single Patient Expanded Access under the FDA.In this paper, we also discuss the issues faced while accessing unapproved drugs in the precision medicine era in Japan.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma , Criança , Feminino , Fusão Gênica , Humanos , Japão , Lamina Tipo A , Receptor trkA , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1137-1141, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484878

RESUMO

Current therapeutic methods for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can improve hemodynamic status and are expected to improve prognoses. However, some patients experience dyspnea during effort and continue supplemental oxygenation despite their hemodynamic status being fully improved. Considering the pathogenesis of CTEPH, the dead space and intrapulmonary shunt are assumed to be responsible for hypoxia in CTEPH, but their contributions are unclear. It is also unclear whether they are improved after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the implications of the dead space ratio (DSR) and the intrapulmonary shunt ratio (ISR) for hypoxia in CTEPH and treatment for CTEPH.We retrospectively measured the DSR and ISR of 23 consecutive patients with CTEPH. For 11 of these 23 (10 were treated by balloon pulmonary angioplasty, one with riociguat), we also measured these parameters before and after CTEPH treatments. Overall, the DSR and ISR were abnormally elevated (DSR: 0.63 ± 0.06; ISR: 0.20 ± 0.05). After treatment, mean pulmonary artery pressure was improved (from 40.3 ± 8.1 to 25.5 ± 2.7 mmHg). Although atrial oxygen saturation (SaO2), DSR and ISR were improved (SaO2: from 90.2 ± 3.2 to 93.7 ± 1.8%; DSR: from 0.64 ± 0.06 to 0.58 ± 0.05; ISR: from 0.20 ± 0.04 to 0.18 ± 0.02), these improvements were slight compared with that of mean pulmonary artery pressure.The DSR and ISR were abnormally elevated in patients with CTEPH and their improvement by treatment was limited. Only DSR can be a useful marker for normalization of hypoxia in CTEPH.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Espaço Morto Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Prognóstico , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Espaço Morto Respiratório/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1103): 20190158, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze patterns of response in soft tissue sarcomas exposed to pazopanib using CT-morphologic and textural features and their suitability for evaluating therapeutic response. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of CT response and texture patterns in 33 patients (23 female; mean age: 61.2 years, range, 30-85 years) with soft tissue sarcomas treated with pazopanib from October 2008 to July 2017. Response evaluation was based on modified (m)CHOI-criteria and RECISTv.1.1 and classified as partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD). The following CT-texture (CTTA)-parameters were calculated: mean, entropy and uniformity of intensity/average/skewness/entropy of co-occurrence matrix and contrast of neighboring-gray-level-dependence-matrix. RESULTS: Following mCHOI-criteria, 12 patients achieved PR, 7 SD and 14 PD. As per RECISTv.1.1 9 patients obtained PR, 9 SD and 15 PD. Frequent patterns of response were tumor liquefaction and necrosis (n=4/33, 12.1% each). Further patterns included shrinkage and cavitation (n=2/33, 6.1% each). In responders, differences in mean heterogeneity (p=0.01), intensity (p=0.03), average (p=0.03) and entropy of skewness (p=0.01) were found at follow-up whereas in non-responders, CTTA-parameters did not change significantly. Baseline-CTTA-features differed between responders and non-responders in terms of uniformity of skewness (p=0.045). Baseline-CTTA-parameters did not correlate with any morphologic response pattern. CONCLUSION: Most frequent patterns of response to pazopanib were tumor liquefaction and necrosis. Single CT-textural features show strong association with the response to pazopanib-although limited in relation to specific response patterns. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Tumor liquefication and necrosis are important patterns of response to pazopanib. CT-texture analysis has limited associations with specific response patterns.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(11): 1215-1220, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486859

RESUMO

Janus kinases inhibitors (JAKI) are new orally administrable disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), representing a treatment alternative equally effective as biological DMARD that is also classified equivalent in the guidelines. JAKI reversibly inhibit intracellular signal transduction from the cytokine receptor to the nucleus. Tofacitinib and baricitinib, two JAKI already approved for RA treatment, are taken once or twice a day, respectively, and two more are expected to receive approval next year. Tofacitinib is also approved for PsA. Generally, JAKI are initially used in combination with methotrexate (MTX) but are equally effective as monotherapeutic treatment if MTX is contraindicated. In terms of therapy safety, JAKI and bDMARD are generally comparable with one exception: JAKI are associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster infection. JAKI treatment requires laboratory blood tests, especially blood count, transaminases and creatinine. Due to hepatic metabolization, tofacitinib is associated with certain drug interactions. Altogether JAKI enhance treatment possibilities for diseases such as RA and PsA combining the same effectiveness and safety as bDMARD with the option of oral administration.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): 832-841, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444019

RESUMO

Lymphoplasmocytic lymphona with monoclonal lgM, rare. Median age at diagnosis 70 years old, frail population. Heterogenous clinic presentation. Molecular diagnosis with MYD88. Treatment required for symptomatic WM patients only. 1st line therapy: DRC. Input of targeted therapies (ibrutinib) for frail patients, maintenance effect.


Assuntos
Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom , Idade de Início , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/diagnóstico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/epidemiologia , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/terapia
7.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 73(7): 561-570, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431216

RESUMO

The efficacy and side-effects of drugs do not just reflect the biochemical and pharmacodynamic properties of the parent compound, but often comprise of cooperative effects between the properties of the parent and active metabolites. Metabolites of imatinib, nilotinib and midostaurin have been synthesised and evaluated in assays to compare their properties as protein kinase inhibitors with the parent drugs. The N-desmethyl-metabolite of imatinib is substantially less active than imatinib as a BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibitor, thus providing an explanation as to why patients producing high levels of this metabolite show a relatively low response rate in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment. The hydroxymethylphenyl and N-oxide metabolites of imatinib and nilotinib are only weakly active as BCR-ABL1 inhibitors and are unlikely to play a role in the efficacy of either drug in CML. The 3-(R)-HO-metabolite of midostaurin shows appreciable accumulation following chronic drug administration and, in addition to mutant forms of FLT3, potently inhibits the PDPK1 and VEGFR2 kinases (IC50 values <100 nM), suggesting that it might contribute to drug efficacy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients. The case studies discussed here provide further examples of how the synthesis and characterisation of metabolites can make important contributions to understanding the clinical efficacy of drugs.


Assuntos
Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Estaurosporina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Estaurosporina/uso terapêutico
8.
Gene ; 716: 144034, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome in adjuvant chemotherapy of gastric cancer (GC) has considerable stage-independent variability, which underscores the need for prognostic or predictive molecular markers. CHAF1A promotes tumor growth while its impact on chemotherapy outcome remains unknown. METHODS: CHAF1A protein expression was measured in independent discovery and validation sets that included 86 and 325 patients respectively who received fluoropyrimidines-based adjuvant chemotherapy after radical gastrectomy. The chemosensitizing effect of CHAF1A knockdown was investigated in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis based on RNA-seq and proteome data from public database was performed to investigate the potential mechanisms and further validation was conducted. RESULTS: In both the discovery and validation sets, CHAF1A expression level was an independent predictor for disease-free survival (HR = 4.25; 95% CI: 2.31-7.79; P < 0.001; and HR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.03-3.54; P = 0.039, respectively) and overall survival (HR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.75-6.05; P < 0.001; and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.12-5.20; P = 0.024, respectively) in patients with non-cardia GC but not in those with cardia GC. In GC cells, CHAF1A knockdown significantly decreased the IC50 of 5-FU. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that CHAF1A correlated with folate metabolism and the expression of thymidylate synthetase (TS). Furthermore, CHAF1A knockdown significantly reduced TS expression in GC cells and CHAF1A positively correlated with TS protein expression in tumor tissues. Finally, ten proteins potentially relevant to the regulation of TS expression by CHAF1A were identified using online tools based on RNA-seq and proteome data. CONCLUSIONS: CHAF1A may impact adjuvant chemotherapy outcome of GC by regulating the expression of TS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Chaperonas de Histonas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Fator 1 de Modelagem da Cromatina/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Drugs ; 79(12): 1321-1335, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317509

RESUMO

Prior to the biologic era, the medical management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was dominated by the use of aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants. In the past two decades, the advent of biologic agents that target specific components of the immune response has greatly improved the care of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, not all patients respond or maintain response to biologic therapy and some patients develop adverse events that necessitate treatment discontinuation. Furthermore, sensitization with formation of anti-drug antibodies is an inherent limitation to administration of monoclonal antibodies. This circumstance has generated renewed interest in the development of novel oral small-molecule drugs (SMDs) that are effective and well tolerated. Several classes of SMDs are currently progressing through the pipeline and offer the promise of oral delivery and high potency. In this review, we summarize different mechanisms of oral drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract, highlight key findings from phase II and III randomized trials of novel oral SMDs, and discuss how oral SMDs are likely to be integrated into future IBD treatment paradigms. The most advanced development programs currently involve evaluation of compounds blocking Janus kinase (JAK) receptors or modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. Tofacitinib, an oral JAK inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe UC. Several more selective JAK-1 inhibitors, including filgotinib and upadacitinib, have also shown positive results in phase II studies and are currently enrolling in phase III development programs. Similarly, ozanimod, an S1P1 and S1P5 receptor agonist, has shown early favorable results and is enrolling in phase III trials. As these and other novel oral SMDs come to market, several questions will need to be answered. The cost effectiveness, comparative treatment efficacy, predictors of response, and relative safety of oral SMDs compared to existing therapies will need to be evaluated. Given the modest efficacy rates observed with both biologic therapies and novel SMDs to date, the potential for combination therapy based on a non-sensitizing oral option is promising and may be facilitated by development of organ-specific therapies with pharmacodynamic activity restricted to the gut to minimize systemic toxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Descoberta de Drogas , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indanos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Oxidiazóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
12.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(7): 423-437, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347611

RESUMO

Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects more than 350 million people all over the world. There are psychological and pharmacological treatments for depression which mainly focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission theory. The main concern regarding available antidepressants is the lag period and other side effects, such as sexual dysfunction. Gepirone is a drug of the azapirone group which is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist belonging to the buspirone family. Gepirone is under clinical development and has been shown to be more effective than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as this drug treats the psychiatric disorders without causing sexual dysfunction, which limits the use of SSRIs. It possesses greater selectivity for the 5-HT1A receptor than SSRIs. Clinical studies have shown that gepirone has differential action at pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Gepirone extended-release tablets (gepirone ER, Travivo) showed promising effects in adult outpatients for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. Gepirone also showed an antianxiety effect in a placebo-controlled trial in generalized anxiety disorder. Absorption of gepirone is increased when administered with food as there is no substantial change in Cmax and half-life but it significantly increases AUC and mean residence time. Gepirone undergoes first-pass metabolism and its major metabolites are 1- (2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP) and 3-OH-gepirone, both of which are pharmacologically active. In addition to its better efficacy, gepirone is well tolerated and the major adverse effects observed have been nausea, dizziness and lightheadedness. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies revealed that gepirone could be a breakthrough therapeutic agent in the treatment of anxiety and MDD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3893-3899, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, resulting from the reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 22. About 5-10% of newly diagnosed patients in chronic-phase (CP) CML show complex additional chromosomal aberrations (ACA), that may involve one or more chromosomes in addition to 9 and 22. Data concerning the prognostic significance of ACA in CP-CML subjects at diagnosis are controversial. Furthermore, there is no evidence showing that selection of imatinib (IM) or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKI) would be of benefit for these patients. CASE REPORT: We report the three-way complex variant translocation t(2;9;22) in a CP-CML patient. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was employed to identify the ACA. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR was used to identify the BCR-ABL1 transcript and its levels were measured using quantitative real-time-PCR. This rare ACA t(2;9;22) in our young patient displayed primary resistance to IM, but was responsive to second-line treatment with nilotinib. CONCLUSION: CP-CML patients exhibiting this rare aberration at diagnosis may benefit from a 2G-TKI therapy compared to IM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Translocação Genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(11): 748-752, 2019 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163474

RESUMO

In Germany, baricitinib and tofacitinib have been approved for the treatment of at least moderately active rheumatoid arthritis after the failure of conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in 2017, and tofacitinib also for psoriatic arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Both baricitinib and tofacitinib can be taken orally and reversibly inhibit Janus kinases (JAK) and therefore the signaling of a large number of cytokines via the JAK/STAT pathway. JAK inhibitors have been shown to be at least as efficacious in rheumatoid arthritis as adalimumab and tofacitinib was also efficacious in psoriatic arthritis. Since they inhibit many cytokines, it is likely that in the future they will be applied for the treatment of further chronic inflammatory disorder such as connective tissue diseases and vasculitis. The adverse events of JAK inhibitors are comparable to those observed with biologicals, only herpes zoster is slightly more common. In the placebo-controlled trials, venous thromboembolic events (VTE) were more common in the baricitinib treated patients. The VTE rate does not appear to be elevated in baricitinib treated patients compared to RA cohorts however.In conclusion, JAK inhibitors are a powerful new treatment of RA and likely many other rheumatic diseases and fulfill an unmet need since they may be taken orally.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Alemanha , Humanos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
15.
Croat Med J ; 60(3): 250-254, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187953

RESUMO

We present the case of a 33-year-old chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) female patient, in whom the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome, during the treatment with tyrosine kinase activity inhibitors (TKIs), was potentially influenced by transient phenoconversion. Seven years after the CML diagnosis in 2004 and complete response, the patient experienced pain in the mandible and extremities. After this, imatinib was replaced by nilotinib, but generalized maculopapular rash was presented and successfully treated with antihistamines. The therapy was then discontinued due to planned pregnancy, and the patient experienced a relapse of CML with BCR-ABL/ABL1 transcripts of 18.9%. Dasatinib was introduced, and CML was in remission. Two years later, urine protein levels (6.19 g/L) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated (ESR=90 mm/3.6 ks). The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. With dasatinib dose reduction, urine protein level returned to the reference range. In order to determine the best genotype-guided therapy, the patient underwent pharmacogenomic testing, showing a homozygous CYP3A4 genotype *1/*1, associated with extensive metabolizer (EM) enzyme phenotype, typical for normal rates of drug metabolism for TKIs. However, this was inconsistent with nephrotic syndrome occurrence. A possible explanation would be CYP3A4 EM genotype coding a poor metabolizer enzyme phenotype, leading to the drug accumulation in the patient's blood. This transient phenoconversion can be explained by inflammation with elevated ESR during nephrotic syndrome. This case shows that a broader approach that recognizes genetic, clinical, and epigenomic factors is required for a quality decision on the personalized therapy regimen.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Dasatinibe/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/metabolismo , Síndrome Nefrótica/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 141-153, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177074

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for development of various tumor types. In this study, we synthesized a series of novel 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidine derivatives possessing a unique N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)urea moiety as ALK inhibitors. The most promising analog 5m bearing a 3-methoxy-4-morpholinophenyl substituent significantly inhibited proliferation of ALK positive H3122 and Karpas-299 cells with IC50 values about 10 nM, which were comparable with positive control LDK378. Compound 5m suppressed phosphorylation of ALK and its downstream proteins, and showed low cytotoxicity on normal human primary fibroblast cells (BJ cells). The binding mode of 5m was proposed by docking simulation, which explains the important role of N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)urea moiety. Furthermore, compound 5m exhibited favorable liver microsomal stability and significant efficacy in H3122 xenograft mice model. Interestingly, compound 5m also showed broader anti-proliferative activity on other human tumor cell lines, which was different from other ALK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Fenilureia/síntese química , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/toxicidade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Bull Cancer ; 106(9): 759-775, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253356

RESUMO

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is the main cause of early severe toxicities induced by fluoropyrimidines (FP). The French Group of Clinical Oncopharmacology (GPCO)-Unicancer and the French Pharmacogenetics Network (RNPGx) initiated two surveys, one addressed to oncologists, the other to biologists, in order to evaluate routine practices regarding DPD deficiency screening at national level, as well as compliance, motivations and obstacles for implementation of these tests. These anonymized online surveys were performed with the logistic assistance of the Francophone Federation of Digestive Oncology (FFCD) and the support of numerous medical and biological societies. The surveys were conducted in 2016-2017 before the creation of the French INCa/HAS expert panel, which contributed to the drafting of rules and recommendations for DPD deficiency screening published in December 2018. In all, 554 questionnaires from clinicians were analyzed (23% participation) and 35 from biologists. The main arguments raised by clinicians for justifying the limited practice of DPD deficiency screening were: the lack of recommendations from medical societies or Health Authorities, delays in obtaining results, and the lack of adequate reimbursement by the health insurance system. The goal of these surveys was to provide the French Health Authorities with an overview on nationwide DPD-deficiency screening practices and thus help to design recommendations for the standardization and improvement of the management and safety of cancer patients receiving FP-based chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , França , Genótipo , Humanos , Oncologistas , Neoplasias Otorrinolaringológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacovigilância , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Mecanismo de Reembolso
18.
Oncology ; 97(2): 102-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib, a first-in-class, once-daily inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, is approved in the United States for the treatment of various B-cell malignancies. Preclinical data suggest synergistic antitumor activity of ibrutinib with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in solid tumors. This study evaluated ibrutinib plus durvalumab, a PD-L1-targeting antibody, in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter, phase 1b/2 study enrolled previously treated patients with stage III/IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Phase 1b determined the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). In phase 2, patients were treated at the RP2D to evaluate the safety and antitumor activity of ibrutinib plus durvalumab. RESULTS: The RP2D was identified as ibrutinib 560 mg p.o. daily and durvalumab 10 mg/kg i.v. every 2 weeks, with 122 patients treated at the RP2D. Median age was 61 years, and the majority of patients (94%) had stage IV disease. Overall response rates (complete or partial responses) were 2% for pancreatic cancer, 3% for breast cancer, and 0% for NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 1.7, 1.7, and 2.0 months in the pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and NSCLC cohorts, respectively. Median overall survival was 4.2, 4.2, and 7.9 months in the pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and NSCLC cohorts, respectively. The safety profiles observed across tumor types were consistent with the known safety profiles for ibrutinib and durvalumab. Grade ≥3 adverse events in ≥5% of all patients were hyponatremia (10%), dyspnea (7%), maculopapular rash (7%), pneumonia (7%), anemia (6%), and diarrhea (6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ibrutinib 560 mg daily and durvalumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks had an acceptable safety profile. The antitumor activity of the ibrutinib-durvalumab combination was limited in our study population.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética
19.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(8): e398-e408, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment-free remission in chronic myeloid leukaemia-ie, achievement of a sustained deep molecular response leading to discontinuation of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy-has become a potential aim of therapy. Highly priced second-generation TKIs might offer deep molecular response status more quickly and for more patients than imatinib; however, with the availability and lower cost of generic imatinib, the value of second-generation TKIs as frontline therapy for this particular treatment endpoint remains unknown. We aimed to assess the potential value of second-generation TKIs used as frontline therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase in relation to the probability of achieving sustained deep molecular responses compared with generic imatinib, and the associated cost of each modality. METHODS: We used a decision analytic model to consider the value of different TKI approaches from the payer's perspective. The proportion of patients achieving sustained deep molecular response after 5 years of treatment in chronic phase was estimated at 26% with imatinib and 44% with second-generation TKIs. We also modelled more favourable scenarios of the proportion of patients achieving such response with second-generation TKIs at 66%, 88%, and a near-perfect response of 99%. For each scenario, we examined the impact of the combination of health utilities for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (base case 0·89, range 0-1) and the annual cost of second-generation TKIs (base case US$152 814 [ie, the price of nilotinib in the USA], range 0-240 000) on the cost-effectiveness of second-generation TKIs compared with generic imatinib. We used different price scenarios for generic imatinib in the USA (average price $35 000 per year; lowest price $4400 per year), Europe ($4000 per year), and developing countries ($2100 per year). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and assessed cost-effectiveness by considering two societal willingness-to-pay thresholds: $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in all markets and $200 000 per QALY in the USA. FINDINGS: In the base case, we obtained an ICER of $22 765 208, meaning that second-generation TKIs as frontline therapy to achieve sustained deep molecular response was not cost-effective under either of the societal willingness-to-pay thresholds. In our sensitivity analyses, none of the explored scenarios showed potential treatment value for use of second-generation TKIs at the current prices in the USA or at the price of $30 000-40 000 per year elsewhere. For example, considering a scenario in the USA using second-generation TKIs versus imatinib (annual price $4400 per year) with the potential benefit in favour of second-generation TKI (willingness to pay $200 000 per QALY, 66% of patients achieving sustained deep molecular response, and health utility of the chronic phase of 0·1), the cost of second-generation TKIs would need to be less than $25 000 per year to be a cost-effective option. Under the same conditions in developing nations, with a price of generic imatinib of $2100 per year and a willingness to pay of $50 000 per QALY, the annual price of second-generation TKIs should not exceed $10 000 per year of therapy. INTERPRETATION: Considering the current prices of second-generation TKIs and of generic imatinib under different pricing scenarios in the USA, Europe, and developing countries, second-generation TKIs at current prices do not offer good value as frontline therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia in order to achieve sustained deep molecular response and treatment-free remission. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Mesilato de Imatinib/economia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/economia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Indução de Remissão
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(7): e375-e383, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All studies of treatment-free remission (TFR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia have discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment abruptly and have focussed on patients with stable MR4 (BCR-ABL to ABL ratio ≤0·01%). We aimed to examine the effects of gradual treatment withdrawal and whether TFR is feasible for patients with less deep but stable remission. METHODS: The De-Escalation and Stopping Treatment with Imatinib, Nilotinib, or sprYcel (DESTINY) study is a non-randomised, phase 2 trial undertaken at 20 UK hospitals. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase, who had received TKI therapy for 3 years or more, with three or more BCR-ABL quantitative PCR transcript measurements (BCR-ABL to ABL1 ratio) less than 0·1% (major molecular response [MMR]) in the 12 months before entry. Patients with all PCR measurements less than 0·01% were assigned to the MR4 group. Patients with results between 0·1% and 0·01% were allocated to the MMR group. TKI treatment was de-escalated to half the standard dose for 12 months, then stopped for a further 24 months, with frequent PCR monitoring. Recurrence was defined as the first of two consecutive samples with PCR measurement greater than 0·1%, which required treatment recommencement at full dose. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who could first de-escalate their treatment for 12 months, and then stop treatment completely for a further 2 years, without losing MMR. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985. FINDINGS: Treatment at entry was imatinib (n=148), nilotinib (n=16), or dasatinib (n=10), for a median of 6·9 years (IQR 4·8-10·2). Between Dec 16, 2013, and May 6, 2015, we enrolled 49 patients into the MMR group and 125 into the MR4 group. In the MR4 group, 84 (67%) patients reached the 36-month trial completion point and recurrence-free survival was 72% (95% CI 64-80). In the MMR group, 16 (33%) entrants completed the study and recurrence-free survival was 36% (25-53). No disease progression was seen and two deaths occurred due to unrelated causes. All recurrences regained MMR within 5 months of treatment resumption. INTERPRETATION: Initial de-escalation before discontinuation might improve the success of TFR protocols, although the mechanism of its benefit is not yet clear. The findings also suggest that TFR merits further study in patients with stable MMR. FUNDING: Newcastle University and Bloodwise.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
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