Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.426
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445277

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of death in women all over the world. Currently, combined chemotherapy with two or more agents is considered a promising anti-cancer tool to achieve better therapeutic response and to reduce therapy-related side effects. In our study, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect of cytostatic agent-cisplatin (CDDP) and histone deacetylase inhibitor: cambinol (CAM) for breast cancer cell lines with different phenotypes: estrogen receptor positive (MCF7, T47D) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468). The type of pharmacological interaction was assessed by an isobolographic analysis. Our results showed that both agents used separately induced cell apoptosis; however, applying them in combination ameliorated antiproliferative effect for all BC cell lines indicating antagonistic interaction. Cell cycle analysis showed that CAM abolished cell cycle arrest in S phase, which was induced by CDDP. Additionally, CAM increased cell proliferation compared to CDDP used alone. Our data indicate that CAM and CDDP used in combination produce antagonistic interaction, which could inhibit anti-cancer treatment efficacy, showing importance of preclinical testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino , Antagonismo de Drogas , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Naftalenos , Pirimidinonas , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/antagonistas & inibidores , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Naftalenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
2.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3856-3870, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288281

RESUMO

Patients with BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) have a poor prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances such as combination therapy with BRAF, MEK, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that can improve the efficacy of BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib (DAB) and MEK inhibitor trametinib (TRA), we screened 240 miRNAs in BRAF-mutated CRC cells and identified five candidate miRNAs. Overexpression of miR-193a-3p, one of the five screened miRNAs, in CRC cells inhibited cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Reverse-phase protein array analysis revealed that proteins with altered phosphorylation induced by miR-193a-3p were involved in several oncogenic pathways including MAPK-related pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-193a-3p in BRAF-mutated cells enhanced the efficacy of DAB and TRA through inhibiting reactivation of MAPK signaling and inducing inhibition of Mcl1. Inhibition of Mcl1 by siRNA or by Mcl1 inhibitor increased the antiproliferative effect of combination therapy with DAB, TRA, and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. Collectively, our study demonstrated the possibility that miR-193a-3p acts as a tumor suppressor through regulating multiple proteins involved in oncogenesis and affects cellular sensitivity to MAPK-related pathway inhibitors such as BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, and/or anti-EGFR antibodies. Addition of miR-193a-3p and/or modulation of proteins involved in the miR-193a-3p-mediated pathway, such as Mcl1, to EGFR/BRAF/MEK inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy against BRAF-mutated CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Imidazóis/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Oximas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transfecção
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 683, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234118

RESUMO

Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a unique enzyme for the reduction of NDPs to dNDPs, the building blocks for DNA synthesis and thus essential for cell proliferation. Pan-cancer profiling studies showed that RRM2, the small subunit M2 of RR, is abnormally overexpressed in multiple types of cancers; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms in cancers are still unclear. In this study, through searching in cancer-omics databases and immunohistochemistry validation with clinical samples, we showed that the expression of MYBL2, a key oncogenic transcriptional factor, was significantly upregulated correlatively with RRM2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Ectopic expression and knockdown experiments indicated that MYBL2 was essential for CRC cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression in an RRM2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, MYBL2 directly bound to the promoter of RRM2 gene and promoted its transcription during S-phase together with TAF15 and MuvB components. Notably, knockdown of MYBL2 sensitized CRC cells to treatment with MK-1775, a clinical trial drug for inhibition of WEE1, which is involved in a degradation pathway of RRM2. Finally, mouse xenograft experiments showed that the combined suppression of MYBL2 and WEE1 synergistically inhibited CRC growth with a low systemic toxicity in vivo. Therefore, we propose a new regulatory mechanism for RRM2 transcription for CRC proliferation, in which MYBL2 functions by constituting a dynamic S-phase transcription complex following the G1/early S-phase E2Fs complex. Doubly targeting the transcription and degradation machines of RRM2 could produce a synthetic inhibitory effect on RRM2 level with a novel potential for CRC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201614

RESUMO

The use of MEK inhibitors in the therapy of uveal melanoma (UM) has been investigated widely but has failed to show benefits in clinical trials due to fast acquisition of resistance. In this study, we investigated a variety of therapeutic compounds in primary-derived uveal melanoma cell lines and found monosomy of chromosome 3 (M3) and mutations in BAP1 to be associated with higher resistance to MEK inhibition. However, reconstitution of BAP1 in a BAP1-deficient UM cell line was unable to restore sensitivity to MEK inhibition. We then compared UM tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with mutations in BAP1 with tumors with wild-type BAP1. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly differentiated both groups of tumors, which displayed disparate overall and progression-free survival data. Further analysis provided insight into differential expression of genes involved in signaling pathways, suggesting that the downregulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (EIF2A) observed in UM tumors with BAP1 mutations and M3 UM cell lines might lead to a decrease in ribosome biogenesis while inducing an adaptive response to stress. Taken together, our study links loss of chromosome 3 with decreased sensitivity to MEK inhibition and gives insight into possible related mechanisms, whose understanding is fundamental to overcome resistance in this aggressive tumor.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Melanoma/genética , Monossomia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Difenilamina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade
5.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3784-3795, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145930

RESUMO

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) occurs frequently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and is associated with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, the mechanism by which LMC acquires resistance to osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI, is unclear. In this study, we elucidated the resistance mechanism and searched for a novel therapeutic strategy. We induced osimertinib resistance in a mouse model of LMC using an EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell line (PC9) via continuous oral osimertinib treatment and administration of established resistant cells and examined the resistance mechanism using next-generation sequencing. We detected the Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS)-G12V mutation in resistant cells, which retained the EGFR exon 19 deletion. Experiments involving KRAS knockdown in resistant cells and KRAS-G12V overexpression in parental cells revealed the involvement of KRAS-G12V in osimertinib resistance. Cotreatment with trametinib (a MEK inhibitor) and osimertinib resensitized the cells to osimertinib. Furthermore, in the mouse model of LMC with resistant cells, combined osimertinib and trametinib treatment successfully controlled LMC progression. These findings suggest a potential novel therapy against KRAS-G12V-harboring osimertinib-resistant LMC in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Códon/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinomatose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Carcinomatose Meníngea/genética , Carcinomatose Meníngea/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Transfecção , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(1): 260-271, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autophagy and cell-cycle checkpoints act in concert to confer cellular radioresistance. We investigated the functional interaction between radiation-induced autophagy and G2 checkpoint activation in highly radioresistant human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four human PDAC cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, KP-4, Panc-1, and SUIT-2) were analyzed. These cells were first irradiated using x-rays, and their cell cycle status, autophagy, and cell cycle checkpoint marker expression and ATP production levels were evaluated. Autophagic flux assays and siRNA knockdown were used to evaluate autophagy activity. Double thymidine block experiments were performed to synchronize the cells. Two inhibitors (MK-1775 and SCH 900776) were used to attenuate G2 checkpoint activation. Cell survival assays and animal experiments were performed to evaluate the radiosensitizing effects of the G2 checkpoint inhibitors. RESULTS: Autophagy and G2/M accumulation were synchronously induced in human PDAC cells with an activated G2 checkpoint at 12 hours after x-ray irradiation of 6 Gy. Radiation-induced autophagy produced the ATP levels required for cell survival. Double thymidine block experiments revealed that no autophagy occurred in cells that were solely in G2 phase. MK-1775 or SCH 900776 exposure attenuated not only G2 checkpoint activation but also postirradiation autophagy, indicating the dependence of radiation-induced autophagy on an activated G2 checkpoint. The inhibitors demonstrated a higher radiosensitizing effect in the PDAC cells than the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. MK-1775 in combination with x-rays significantly suppressed the tumor growth of MIA PaCa-2 xenografts compared with other treatment groups, including radiation or drug exposure alone, to enhance the radiosensitivity of PDAC cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Biological crosstalk exists between the G2 checkpoint activation and radiation-induced autophagy processes that are believed to independently contribute to the radioresistance of human PDAC cells. These findings have important implications for the development of future radiation therapy strategies for PDAC.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/radioterapia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Tolerância a Radiação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071193

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma represents one of the deadliest types of skin cancer. The prognosis strongly depends on the disease stage, thus early detection is crucial. New therapies, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors and immunotherapies, have significantly improved the survival of patients in the last decade. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance is still a challenge. In this review, we discuss two major aspects that contribute to the aggressiveness of melanoma, namely, the embryonic origin of melanocytes and melanoma cells and cellular plasticity. First, we summarize the physiological function of epidermal melanocytes and their development from precursor cells that originate from the neural crest (NC). Next, we discuss the concepts of intratumoral heterogeneity, cellular plasticity, and phenotype switching that enable melanoma to adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment and promote disease progression and drug resistance. Finally, we further dissect the connection of these two aspects by focusing on the transcriptional regulators MSX1, MITF, SOX10, PAX3, and FOXD3. These factors play a key role in NC initiation, NC cell migration, and melanocyte formation, and we discuss how they contribute to cellular plasticity and drug resistance in melanoma.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Celular/fisiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Acrilonitrila/análogos & derivados , Acrilonitrila/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição MSX1/genética , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/genética , Fenótipo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
8.
Neurology ; 97(7): e673-e683, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether RAF and MEK inhibitors (RAFi/MEKi) can provide long-term clinical benefit in adult patients with BRAF V600-mutant glial and glioneuronal tumors (GGNTs), we analyzed tumor response and long-term outcome in a retrospective cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective search in the institutional databases of 6 neuro-oncology departments for adult patients with recurrent or disseminated BRAF V600-mutant GGNTs treated with RAFi/MEKi. RESULTS: Twenty-eight adults with recurrent or disseminated BRAF V600-mutant gangliogliomas (n = 9), pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (n = 9), and diffuse gliomas (n = 10) were included in the study. At the time that treatment with RAFi/MEKi was started, all tumors displayed radiologic features of high-grade neoplasms. Thirteen patients received RAFi as single agents (vemurafenib [n = 11], dabrafenib [n = 2]), and 15 received combinations of RAFi/MEKi (vemurafenib + cobimetinib [n = 5], dabrafenib + trametinib [n = 10]). Eleven patients achieved a partial or complete response (11 of 28, 39%), with a median reduction of -78% in their tumor burden. Responders experienced a median increase of 10 points in their Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score and a median progression-free survival of 18 months, which was longer than achieved with first-line treatment (i.e., 7 months, p = 0.047). Responders had better KPS score (p = 0.018) and tended to be younger (p = 0.061) and to be treated earlier (p = 0.099) compared to nonresponders. Five patients were rechallenged with RAFi/MEKi at progression, with novel tumor responses in 2. On univariate and multivariate analyses, response to RAFi/MEKi was an independent predictor of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the long-term clinical benefits of RAFi/MEKi in adult patients with BRAF V600-mutant GGNTs and encourages rechallenge in responders. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that, for adult patients with BRAF V600-mutant GGNT, RAFi/MEKi can reduce tumor burden and provide clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Astrocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Astrocitoma/genética , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Ganglioglioma/tratamento farmacológico , Ganglioglioma/genética , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vemurafenib/farmacologia , Quinases raf/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 2885-2894, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect of the combination treatment of trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, and temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, on non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of combining trametinib and temsirolimus with radiation in NSCLC cell lines were evaluated using clonogenic survival and apoptosis assays. DNA double-strand breaks and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using flow cytometry. Tumor volume was measured to determine the radiosensitivity in lung cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: Exposure of lung cancer cells to a combination of trametinib and temsirolimus reduced clonogenic survival and promoted radiation-induced apoptosis. Combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR induced prolonged expression of γH2AX after irradiation and resulted in prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest after irradiation in A549 cells. In vivo studies revealed that co-administration of the drugs sensitizes lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: The combination of trametinib and temsirolimus can enhance lung cancer radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251765, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999935

RESUMO

Since growing tumors stimulate angiogenesis, via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs, blockers of the VEGF signaling pathway) have been introduced to cancer therapy. However, AIs often yielded only modest and short-lived gains in cancer patients and more invasive tumor phenotypes in animal models. Combining anti-VEGF strategies with lactate uptake blockers may boost both efficacy and safety of AIs. We assessed this hypothesis by using the ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. We show that AI-based monotherapy (Avastin®, AVA) increases tumor hypoxia in human CAM cancer cell xenografts and cell spread in human as well as canine CAM cancer cell xenografts. In contrast, combining AVA treatment with lactate importer MCT1 inhibitors (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC) or AZD3965 (AZD)) reduced both tumor growth and cell dissemination of human and canine explants. Moreover, combining AVA+AZD diminished blood perfusion and tumor hypoxia in human explants. Thus, the ex ovo CAM assay as an easy, fast and cheap experimental setup is useful for pre-clinical cancer research. Moreover, as an animal-free experimental setup the CAM assay can reduce the high number of laboratory animals used in pre-clinical cancer research.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Membrana Corioalantoide , Neoplasias Experimentais , Neovascularização Patológica , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Membrana Corioalantoide/patologia , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 220: 113499, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940465

RESUMO

Aberrant signaling of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) has been identified as a driver of tumorigenesis and the development of many solid tumors, making FGFRs a compelling target for anticancer therapy. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone derivatives as potent FGFR inhibitors. Examination of structure-activity relationships and preliminary assessment identified 23d as a novel FGFR inhibitor that displayed excellent potency in vitro. Candidate 23d suppressed the phosphorylation of FGFR signaling pathways and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at low nanomolar concentration. In the kinase inhibition profile, 23d showed excellent kinase selectivity for the FGFR family. Furthermore, 23d showed higher aqueous solubility than Erdafitinib. Moreover, 23d exhibited potent antitumor activity (tumor growth inhibition = 106.4%) in FGFR2-amplified SNU-16 gastric cancer xenograft model using a daily oral dose of 30 mg/kg. These results suggest that 23d is a promising candidate for further drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/química , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(22): 25727-25737, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048646

RESUMO

Accurate discrimination of inflammations and cancers as well as differential inhibition of cancers are significant for early diagnoses and timely treatments. Nanoparticles have become new modalities for diagnosis and therapy. However, they are still challenged by the efficient delivery of multiple reagents into living cells, discriminating multisignals without any interference, and differential treatments of different diseases. Here, multifunctional spiky topological nanocapsules (STNs) are prepared for the discrimination and differential inhibition of inflammation and cancer. With unique spiky hollow architectures, STNs' advantages including excellent loading capacity, enhanced cellular uptake, DNAs' protection against degradation, target-controlled drug release, and efficient endo-/lysosome escape are demonstrated. Therefore, sequential detection of inflammation-related miR-155 (by external modified hairpin DNAs) and the cancer target of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) (by internal loaded pH-sensitive carbon dots and MCT1 inhibitor-AZD3965) are achieved. Furthermore, the release of AZD3965 from the cavities of STNs is controlled by the miR-155 amount (first target). Therefore, the released drug of AZD3965 realizes the stage-dependent differential treatment of diseases via cellular acidosis induced by MCT1 inhibition. Via in vivo evaluations of normal, inflammatory, and liver cancer cells/mice, as well as the efficient inhibition of tumor growth, the possibility of STN-based discrimination and differential treatment is confirmed. This would encourage new strategies for multidiagnosis and differential treatment of early-stage cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Nanocápsulas/química , Pirimidinonas/química , Tiofenos/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 111: 104832, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826962

RESUMO

In addition to the orthosteric binding pocket (OBP) of GPCRs, recent structural studies have revealed that there are several allosteric sites available for pharmacological intervention. The secondary binding pocket (SBP) of aminergic GPCRs is located in the extracellular vestibule of these receptors, and it has been suggested to be a potential selectivity pocket for bitopic ligands. Here, we applied a virtual screening protocol based on fragment docking to the SBP of the orthosteric ligand-receptor complex. This strategy was employed for a number of aminergic receptors. First, we designed dopamine D3 preferring bitopic compounds from a D2 selective orthosteric ligand. Next, we designed 5-HT2B selective bitopic compounds starting from the 5-HT1B preferring ergoline core of LSD. Comparing the serotonergic profiles of the new derivatives to that of LSD, we found that these derivatives became significantly biased towards the desired 5-HT2B receptor target. Finally, addressing the known limitations of H1 antihistamines, our protocol was successfully used to eliminate the well-known side effects related to the muscarinic M1 activity of amitriptyline while preserving H1 potency in some of the designed bitopic compounds. These applications highlight the usefulness of our new virtual screening protocol and offer a powerful strategy towards bitopic GPCR ligands with designed receptor profiles.


Assuntos
Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/antagonistas & inibidores , Ureia/farmacologia , Sítio Alostérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/química
14.
J Med Chem ; 64(9): 6221-6240, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856792

RESUMO

The enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is one of the more recently identified mammalian sources of H2S. A recent study identified several novel 3-MST inhibitors with micromolar potency. Among those, (2-[(4-hydroxy-6-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)sulfanyl]-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethan-1-one) or HMPSNE was found to be the most potent and selective. We now took the central core of this compound and modified the pyrimidone and the arylketone sides independently. A 63-compound library was synthesized; compounds were tested for H2S generation from recombinant 3-MST in vitro. Active compounds were subsequently tested to elucidate their potency and selectivity. Computer modeling studies have delineated some of the key structural features necessary for binding to the 3-MST's active site. Six novel 3-MST inhibitors were tested in cell-based assays: they exerted inhibitory effects in murine MC38 and CT26 colon cancer cell proliferation; the antiproliferative effect of the compound with the highest potency and best cell-based activity (1b) was also confirmed on the growth of MC38 tumors in mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/química , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Sulfurtransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Sulfurtransferases/química , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808108

RESUMO

Solvothermal synthesis of multiple dihydropyrimidinones at a time has been developed in inexpensive and green bio-based solvent lactic acid without any additional catalysts or additives. By this method, thirty new dihydropyrimidinone derivatives were synthesized in two batches and characterized. All of the compounds were screened by Eg5 motor protein ATPase assay, and the positive compounds were tested against the Caco-2 cell line, HeLa cell line, L929 cell line and T24 cell line in vitro. Among them, compound C9 exhibited the best inhibitory activity against motor protein ATPase with an IC50 value of 30.25 µM and significant cytotoxic activity in the micromolar range against the cells above. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that compound C9 was a mixed-type Eg5 inhibitor. A molecular modeling study using the Discovery Studio program was performed, where compound C9 exhibited good binding interaction with Eg5 motor protein ATPase, and this was consistent with the attained experimental results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinesina , Pirimidinonas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinesina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/química , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Lab Invest ; 101(8): 1036-1047, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911189

RESUMO

Mutations in RAS or BRAF are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite their common ability to activate downstream genes such as MEK and ERK, the therapeutic benefit of MEK inhibitors for patients with RAS/BRAF mutant CRC is limited, highlighting the need for biomarkers to predict the efficacy of MEK inhibition. Previously, we reported that a change in phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (pS6) after MEK inhibition was significantly associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibition in gastric cancer cells. Here, we investigated the value of the response in pS6 for predicting the efficacy of trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, in patients with RAS/BRAF mutant CRC using patient-derived CRC organoids. We found that a subset of CRC cell lines and organoids were sensitive to trametinib. The change in phosphorylated ERK, a downstream molecule of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway, was not significantly associated with trametinib sensitivity. On the other hand, only those with sensitivity showed a reduction of pS6 levels in response to trametinib. The change in pS6 after trametinib treatment was detectable by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry or immunocytochemistry. We also demonstrated an impact of MEK inhibition on pS6 in vivo using a xenograft model. Our data suggest that, in combination with patient-derived organoids, immunostaining-based detection of pS6 could be useful for prediction of trametinib sensitivity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Proteína S6 Ribossômica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/química , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/metabolismo
17.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839686

RESUMO

Rare sequence variants in the microglial cell surface receptor TREM2 have been shown to increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disease-linked TREM2 mutations seem to confer a partial loss of function, and increasing TREM2 cell surface expression and thereby its function(s) might have therapeutic benefit in AD. However, druggable targets that could modulate microglial TREM2 surface expression are not known. To identify such targets, we conducted a screen of small molecule compounds with known pharmacology using human myeloid cells, searching for those that enhance TREM2 protein at the cell surface. Inhibitors of the kinases MEK1/2 displayed the strongest and most consistent increases in cell surface TREM2 protein, identifying a previously unreported pathway for TREM2 regulation. Unexpectedly, inhibitors of the downstream effector ERK kinases did not have the same effect, suggesting that noncanonical MEK signaling regulates TREM2 trafficking. In addition, siRNA knockdown experiments confirmed that decreased MEK1 and MEK2 were required for this recruitment. In iPSC-derived microglia, MEK inhibition increased cell surface TREM2 only modestly, so various cytokines were used to alter iPSC microglia phenotype, making cells more sensitive to MEK inhibitor-induced TREM2 recruitment. Of those tested, only IFN-gamma priming prior to MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in greater TREM2 recruitment. These data identify the first known mechanisms for increasing surface TREM2 protein and TREM2-regulated function in human myeloid cells and are the first to show a role for MEK1/MEK2 signaling in TREM2 activity.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colchicina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucinas/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Zearalenona/análogos & derivados , Zearalenona/farmacologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma patients stop responding to targeted therapies mainly due to mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway re-activation, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/the mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway activation or stromal cell influence. The future of melanoma treatment lies in combinational approaches. To address this, our in vitro study evaluated if lower concentrations of Celecoxib (IC50 in nM range) could still preserve the chemopreventive effect on melanoma cells treated with trametinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All experiments were conducted on SK-MEL-28 human melanoma cells and BJ human fibroblasts, used as co-culture. Co-culture cells were subjected to a celecoxib and trametinib drug combination for 72 h. We focused on the evaluation of cell death mechanisms, melanogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammation and resistance pathways. RESULTS: Low-dose celecoxib significantly enhanced the melanoma response to trametinib. The therapeutic combination reduced nuclear transcription factor (NF)-kB (p < 0.0001) and caspase-8/caspase-3 activation (p < 0.0001), inhibited microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase (p < 0.05) expression and strongly down-regulated the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway more significantly than the control or trametinib group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Low concentrations of celecoxib (IC50 in nM range) sufficed to exert antineoplastic capabilities and enhanced the therapeutic response of metastatic melanoma treated with trametinib.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800505

RESUMO

Chemotherapy represents the most applied approach to cancer treatment. Owing to the frequent onset of chemoresistance and tumor relapses, there is an urgent need to discover novel and more effective anticancer drugs. In the search for therapeutic alternatives to treat the cancer disease, a series of hybrid pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-ones tethered with hydrazide-hydrazones, 5a-h, was synthesized from condensation reaction of pyrazolopyrimidinone-hydrazide 4 with a series of arylaldehydes in ethanol, in acid catalysis. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiled that 5a, 5e, 5g, and 5h were the most effective compounds of the series and exerted their cytotoxic activity through apoptosis induction and G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. To explore their mechanism at a molecular level, 5a, 5e, 5g, and 5h were evaluated for their binding interactions with two well-known anticancer targets, namely the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the G-quadruplex DNA structures. Molecular docking simulations highlighted high binding affinity of 5a, 5e, 5g, and 5h towards EGFR. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments suggested 5a as a stabilizer agent of the G-quadruplex from the Kirsten ras (KRAS) oncogene promoter. In the light of these findings, we propose the pyrazolo-pyrimidinone scaffold bearing a hydrazide-hydrazone moiety as a lead skeleton for designing novel anticancer compounds.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quadruplex G , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Pirimidinonas , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/química , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/química , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923996

RESUMO

The majority of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) can be cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, for a subset of patients present with cisplatin-refractory disease, which confers a poor prognosis, the treatment options are limited. Novel therapies are therefore urgently needed to improve outcomes in this challenging patient population. It has previously been shown that Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is active in GCTs suggesting that its inhibitors LGK974 and PRI-724 may show promise in the management of cisplatin-refractory GCTs. We herein investigated whether LGK-974 and PRI-724 provide a treatment effect in cisplatin-resistant GCT cell lines. Taking a genoproteomic approach and utilizing xenograft models we found the increased level of ß-catenin in 2 of 4 cisplatin-resistant (CisR) cell lines (TCam-2 CisR and NCCIT CisR) and the decreased level of ß-catenin and cyclin D1 in cisplatin-resistant NTERA-2 CisR cell line. While the effect of treatment with LGK974 was limited or none, the NTERA-2 CisR exhibited the increased sensitivity to PRI-724 in comparison with parental cell line. Furthermore, the pro-apoptotic effect of PRI-724 was documented in all cell lines. Our data strongly suggests that a Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is altered in cisplatin-resistant GCT cell lines and the inhibition with PRI-724 is effective in NTERA-2 CisR cells. Further evaluation of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway inhibition in GCTs is therefore warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...