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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5211-5219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: CBP is a transcriptional coactivator in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway that is related to cell kinetics and differentiation. This study aimed to characterize ß-catenin-activated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the direct effects of PRI-724 (a selective inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin/CBP signaling) on HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ß-catenin was performed in 199 HCC resected samples. Moreover, using cultured HCC cell lines, cell kinetics and its related proteins were analyzed after treatment of cells with C-82 (active form of PRI-724). RESULTS: Nuclear ß-catenin expression was found in 18% of HCC cases and the tumor sizes in these positive samples were larger. In HCC cell lines with a constitutively activated ß-catenin, C-82 inhibited cell proliferation. C-82 led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase also increased. Moreover, C-82 treatment significantly decreased the expression of cell proliferating markers and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CONCLUSION: PRI-724(C-82) may be a novel drug for ß-catenin-activated HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4051, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792548

RESUMO

The RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is reverse-transcribed into DNA and integrated into the host genome, resulting in latent infections that are difficult to clear. Here we show an approach to eradicate HIV infections by selective elimination of host cells harboring replication-competent HIV (SECH), which includes viral reactivation, induction of cell death, inhibition of autophagy and the blocking of new infections. Viral reactivation triggers cell death specifically in HIV-1-infected T cells, which is promoted by agents that induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. SECH treatments can clear HIV-1 in >50% mice reconstituted with a human immune system, as demonstrated by the lack of viral rebound after withdrawal of treatments, and by adoptive transfer of treated lymphocytes into uninfected humanized mice. Moreover, SECH clears HIV-1 in blood samples from HIV-1-infected patients. Our results suggest a strategy to eradicate HIV infections by selectively eliminating host cells capable of producing HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4296, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855387

RESUMO

Assays to study cancer cell responses to pharmacologic or genetic perturbations are typically restricted to using simple phenotypic readouts such as proliferation rate. Information-rich assays, such as gene-expression profiling, have generally not permitted efficient profiling of a given perturbation across multiple cellular contexts. Here, we develop MIX-Seq, a method for multiplexed transcriptional profiling of post-perturbation responses across a mixture of samples with single-cell resolution, using SNP-based computational demultiplexing of single-cell RNA-sequencing data. We show that MIX-Seq can be used to profile responses to chemical or genetic perturbations across pools of 100 or more cancer cell lines. We combine it with Cell Hashing to further multiplex additional experimental conditions, such as post-treatment time points or drug doses. Analyzing the high-content readout of scRNA-seq reveals both shared and context-specific transcriptional response components that can identify drug mechanism of action and enable prediction of long-term cell viability from short-term transcriptional responses to treatment.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15846-15851, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561648

RESUMO

Combination use of BRAF V600E inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib has become a standard treatment for human cancers harboring BRAF V600E. Its anticancer efficacies vary, however, with dramatic efficacy in some patients and drug resistance/tumor recurrence in others, which is poorly understood. Using thyroid cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer cell models, we showed that dabrafenib and trametinib induced robust apoptosis of cancer cells harboring both BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations but had little proapoptotic effect in cells harboring only BRAF V600E. Correspondingly, the inhibitors nearly completely abolished the growth of in vivo tumors harboring both mutations but had little effect on tumors harboring only BRAF V600E. Upon drug withdrawal, tumors harboring both mutations remained hardly measurable but tumors harboring only BRAF V600E regrew rapidly. BRAF V600E/MAP kinase pathway is known to robustly activate mutant promoter of TERT, a strong apoptosis suppressor. Thus, for survival, cancer cells harboring both mutations may have evolved to rely on BRAF V600E-promoted and high-TERT expression-mediated suppression of apoptosis. As such, inhibition of BRAF/MEK can trigger strong apoptosis-induced cell death and hence tumor abolishment. This does not happen in cells harboring only BRAF V600E as they have not developed reliance on TERT-mediated suppression of apoptosis due to the lack of mutant promoter-driven high-TERT expression. TERT promoter mutation governs BRAF-mutant cancer cells' apoptotic and hence therapeutic responses to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. Thus, the genetic duet of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutation represents an Achilles Heel for effective therapeutic targeting and response prediction in cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Telomerase/genética , Animais , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Melanoma/genética , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oximas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(6): e28267, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma continues to present a formidable challenge to pediatric oncology. Previous studies have shown that Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitors can inhibit MYCN expression and suppress MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma in vivo. Furthermore, alterations within RAS-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling play significant roles in neuroblastoma initiation, maintenance, and relapse, and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors demonstrate efficacy in subsets of neuroblastoma preclinical models. Finally, hyperactivation of RAS-MAPK signaling has been shown to promote resistance to BET inhibitors. Therefore, we examined the antitumor efficacy of combined BET/MEK inhibition utilizing I-BET726 or I-BET762 and trametinib in high-risk neuroblastoma. PROCEDURE: Utilizing a panel of genomically annotated neuroblastoma cell line models, we investigated the in vitro effects of combined BET/MEK inhibition on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of combined inhibition in neuroblastoma xenograft models. RESULTS: Combined BET and MEK inhibition demonstrated synergistic effects on the growth and survival of a large panel of neuroblastoma cell lines through augmentation of apoptosis. A combination therapy slowed tumor growth in a non-MYCN-amplified, NRAS-mutated neuroblastoma xenograft model, but had no efficacy in an MYCN-amplified model harboring a loss-of-function mutation in NF1. CONCLUSIONS: Combinatorial BET and MEK inhibition was synergistic in the vast majority of neuroblastoma cell lines in the in vitro setting but showed limited antitumor activity in vivo. Collectively, these data do not support clinical development of this combination in high-risk neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1923, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317663

RESUMO

Drug resistance mediated by clonal evolution is arguably the biggest problem in cancer therapy today. However, evolving resistance to one drug may come at a cost of decreased fecundity or increased sensitivity to another drug. These evolutionary trade-offs can be exploited using 'evolutionary steering' to control the tumour population and delay resistance. However, recapitulating cancer evolutionary dynamics experimentally remains challenging. Here, we present an approach for evolutionary steering based on a combination of single-cell barcoding, large populations of 108-109 cells grown without re-plating, longitudinal non-destructive monitoring of cancer clones, and mathematical modelling of tumour evolution. We demonstrate evolutionary steering in a lung cancer model, showing that it shifts the clonal composition of the tumour in our favour, leading to collateral sensitivity and proliferative costs. Genomic profiling revealed some of the mechanisms that drive evolved sensitivity. This approach allows modelling evolutionary steering strategies that can potentially control treatment resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Evolução Molecular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Evolução Clonal , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Modelos Teóricos , Medicina Molecular , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Processos Estocásticos
7.
J Biol Chem ; 295(9): 2568-2569, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111719

RESUMO

Riboswitches alter gene expression in response to ligand binding, coupling sensing and regulatory functions to help bacteria respond to their environment. The structural determinants of ligand binding in the prequeuosine (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine, preQ1) bacterial riboswitches have been studied, but the functional consequences of structural perturbations are less known. A new article combining biophysical and cell-based readouts of 15 mutants of the preQ1-II riboswitch from Lactobacillus rhamnosus demonstrates that ligand binding does not ensure successful gene regulation, providing new insights into these shapeshifting sequences.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Riboswitch/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biofísicos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Mutação/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Riboswitch/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Oncol ; 56(3): 761-771, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124956

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a lethal solid malignancy with limited therapeutic options. The development of novel therapeutic drugs requires adequate new cell line models. A new pancreatic cancer cell line, designated PDXPC1, was established from one pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient­derived xenograft. The PDXPC1 cells were stably cultured for >2 years and had a stable short tandem repeat profile. The PDXPC1 cell line retained the key mutations of the primary tumor, along with the epithelial origin and other important protein expression. The PDXPC1 cells induced rapid in vivo tumor growth, both subcutaneously and orthotopically, in a mouse model with an elevated CA199 level. The PDXPC1 cells showed weak growth, invasion and migration potency compared to another pancreatic cancer cell line, but were relatively resistant to multiple anti­cancer drugs. Interestingly, the MEK inhibitor trametinib significantly inhibited the proliferation of PDXPC1 cells, and not that of Panc­1 cells, by inactivating MEK/ERK/MYC signaling and activating the apoptotic pathway via Bcl­2 degradation. In conclusion, the PDXPC1 cell line, capturing the major characteristics of the primary tumor, may be a suitable tool for studying the underlying mechanisms of chemo­resistance in PDAC and developing new targeted therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159371

RESUMO

Over 2,000 mutations have been reported in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) gene, many of which cause disease but are rare and have no effective treatment. Thus, there is an unmet need for new, mutation-agnostic therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF). Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are one such class of therapeutics that have been shown to elevate intracellular cAMP levels and stimulate CFTR-dependent anion secretion in human airway epithelia; however, the number of people with CF that could be helped by PDE inhibitors remains to be determined. Here we used Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells stably transduced with rare human CFTR mutants and studied their responsiveness to the dual phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor RPL554 (Verona Pharma). Through its inhibitory effect on PDE4D, we find that RPL554 can elevate intracellular cAMP leading to a potentiation of forskolin-stimulated current mediated by R334W, T338I, G551D, and S549R mutants of CFTR when used alone or in combination with CFTR modulators. We also were able to reproduce these effects of RPL554 on G551D-CFTR when it was expressed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, indicating that RPL554 would have stimulatory effects on rare CFTR mutants in human airways and validating FRT cells as a model for PDE inhibitor studies. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that VX-809 causes surprisingly robust correction of several class III and IV CFTR mutants. Together, our findings further support the therapeutic potential of RPL554 for patients with CF with class III/IV mutations and emphasize the potential of PDEs as potential drug targets that could benefit patients with CF.


Assuntos
AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 3/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/metabolismo , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/agonistas , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/classificação , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/citologia , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/metabolismo , Transgenes
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 929, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066735

RESUMO

Current treatments for clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) are insufficient because two-thirds of patients with metastases progress within two years. Here we report the identification and characterization of a cancer stem cell (CSC) population in ccRCC. CSCs are quantitatively correlated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. Transcriptional profiling and single cell sequencing reveal that these CSCs exhibit an activation of WNT and NOTCH signaling. A significant obstacle to the development of rational treatments has been the discrepancy between model systems and the in vivo situation of patients. To address this, we use CSCs to establish non-adherent sphere cultures, 3D tumor organoids, and xenografts. Treatment with WNT and NOTCH inhibitors blocks the proliferation and self-renewal of CSCs in sphere cultures and organoids, and impairs tumor growth in patient-derived xenografts in mice. These findings suggest that our approach is a promising route towards the development of personalized treatments for individual patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Wnt/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única , Esferoides Celulares , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125865, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962223

RESUMO

Triflumezopyrim, a new nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibition, can effectively control piercing-sucking insect pests such as white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). At present, there has been no reports on the effects of triflumezopyrim on the population growth and development of S. furcifera. In this experiment, an age-stage two-sex life table was used to evaluate the impact of triflumezopyrim on the biological parameters of S. furcifera. The results showed that the adult preoviposition period (APOP) and total preoviposition period (TPOP) of the F1 generation were significantly higher than those of the F0 and F4 generations, on the contrary the average fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the F4 generation were higher than those of the F0 and F1 generations. The results of synergists and enzyme activities indicated that the CarE and P450 activities in the F4 generation were significantly higher than those in the F0 generation (P < 0.05). The protein contents of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) and relative expression quality of VgR in the F4 female adults were also significantly higher than those in the F0 generation (P < 0.05). These results showed that triflumezopyrim at a low concentration could promote the growth and reproduction of S. furcifera, and that may provide a reference for the rational use of triflumezopyrim in the future.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/genética , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Crescimento Demográfico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(5): e28098, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975571

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WEE1 is a serine kinase central to the G2 checkpoint. Inhibition of WEE1 can lead to cell death by permitting cell-cycle progression despite unrepaired DNA damage. AZD1775 is a WEE1 inhibitor that is in clinical development for children and adults with cancer. METHODS: AZD1775 was tested using a dose of 120 mg/kg administered orally for days 1 to 5. Irinotecan was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for days 1 to 5 (one hour after AZD1775 when used in combination). AZD1775 and irinotecan were studied alone and in combination in neuroblastoma (n = 3), osteosarcoma (n = 4), and Wilms tumor (n = 3) xenografts. RESULTS: AZD1775 as a single agent showed little activity. Irinotecan induced objective responses in two neuroblastoma lines (PRs), and two Wilms tumor models (CR and PR). The combination of AZD1775 + irinotecan-induced objective responses in two neuroblastoma lines (PR and CR) and all three Wilms tumor lines (CR and 2 PRs). The objective response measure improved compared with single-agent treatment for one neuroblastoma (PR to CR), two osteosarcoma (PD1 to PD2), and one Wilms tumor (PD2 to PR) xenograft lines. Of note, the combination yielded CR (n = 1) and PR (n = 2) in all the Wilms tumor lines. The event-free survival was significantly longer for the combination compared with single-agent irinotecan in all models tested. The magnitude of the increase was greatest in osteosarcoma and Wilms tumor xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: AZD1775 potentiates the effects of irinotecan across most of the xenograft lines tested, with effect size appearing to vary across tumor panels.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor de Wilms/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tumor de Wilms/metabolismo , Tumor de Wilms/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112060, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958738

RESUMO

A series of forty-six 5,6-annulated 2-arylthieno [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were prepared as potentially pleiotropic anticancer drugs with variance in the tubulin-binding trimethoxyphenyl motif at C-2 of a thieno [2,3-d]pyrimidine fragment, enlarged by additional rings of different size and substitution. By assessing their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells, their influence on the polymerization of neat tubulin and the dynamics of microtubule and F-actin cytoskeletons, and their vascular-disrupting and anti-angiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo, structure-activity relations were identified which suggest the 3-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl substituted thienopyrimidine 2e as a promising anticancer drug candidate for further research. 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Suínos , Tiofenos/síntese química , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(4): 2107-2125, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832686

RESUMO

Ribosomal protein S1 plays important roles in the translation initiation step of many Escherichia coli mRNAs, particularly those with weak Shine-Dalgarno sequences or structured 5' UTRs, in addition to a variety of cellular processes beyond the ribosome. In all cases, the RNA-binding activity of S1 is a central feature of its function. While sequence determinants of S1 affinity and many elements of the interactions of S1 with simple secondary structures are known, mechanistic details of the protein's interactions with RNAs of more complex secondary and tertiary structure are less understood. Here, we investigate the interaction of S1 with the well-characterized H-type pseudoknot of a class-I translational preQ1 riboswitch as a highly structured RNA model whose conformation and structural dynamics can be tuned by the addition of ligands of varying binding affinity, particularly preQ1, guanine, and 2,6-diaminopurine. Combining biochemical and single molecule fluorescence approaches, we show that S1 preferentially interacts with the less folded form of the pseudoknot and promotes a dynamic, partially unfolded conformation. The ability of S1 to unfold the RNA is inversely correlated with the structural stability of the pseudoknot. These mechanistic insights delineate the scope and limitations of S1-chaperoned unfolding of structured RNAs.


Assuntos
Conformação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Riboswitch/genética , 2-Aminopurina/análogos & derivados , 2-Aminopurina/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Guanina/farmacologia , Ligantes , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/genética , Dobramento de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/química , Ribossomos/genética , Riboswitch/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem Individual de Molécula
15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 1114-1124, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199520

RESUMO

Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors are broadly active against distinct types of cancer, including nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have addressed the effect of BET-inhibiting drugs on the expression of oncogenes such as c-Myc, but DNA damage repair pathways have also been reported to be involved in the efficacy of these drugs. AZD1775, an inhibitor of the G2-M cell cycle checkpoint kinase WEE1, induces DNA damage by promoting premature mitotic entry. Thus, we hypothesized that BET inhibition would increase AZD1775-induced cytotoxicity by impairing DNA damage repair. Here, we demonstrate that combined inhibition of BET and WEE1 synergistically suppresses NSCLC growth both in vitro and in vivo. Two BET inhibitors, JQ1 and AZD5153, increased and prolonged AZD1775-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and concomitantly repressed genes related to nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), including XRCC4 and SHLD1. Furthermore, pharmaceutical inhibition of BET or knockdown of the BET protein BRD4 markedly diminished NHEJ activity, and the BET-inhibitor treatment also repressed myelin transcription factor 1 (MYT1) expression and promoted mitotic entry with subsequent mitotic catastrophe when combined with WEE1 inhibition. Our findings reveal that BET proteins, predominantly BRD4, play an essential role in DSB repair through the NHEJ pathway, and further suggest that combined inhibition of BET and WEE1 could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azepinas/farmacologia , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 471-484, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841334

RESUMO

Plant diseases seriously affect crop yield and quality and are difficult to control. Marine natural products (MNPs) have become an important source of drug candidates with new biological mechanisms. Marine natural product essramycin (1) was found to have good anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and anti-phytopathogenic fungus activities for the first time. A series of essramycin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their bioactivity. Most of these compounds exhibited antiviral effects that are greater than that of the control ribavirin. Compounds 7e and 8f displayed antiviral activities that are greater than that of ningnanmycin (the most widely used antiviral agent at present), thus emerging as novel antiviral lead compounds. As the lead compound, 7e was selected for further antiviral mechanism research. The results indicated that 7e could inhibit virus assembly and promote 20S disk protein aggregation. Fungicidal activity tests against 14 kinds of phytopathogenic fungi revealed that essramycin analogues displayed broad-spectrum fungicidal activities. Compound 5b displayed more than 50% inhibition rate against most of the 14 kinds of phytopathogenic fungi at 50 µg/mL. The current research lays a solid foundation for the application of essramycin alkaloids in crop protection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Antivirais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Pirimidinonas/química , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/fisiologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Montagem de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1417-1432.e11, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy that invades surrounding structures and metastasizes rapidly. Although inflammation is associated with tumor formation and progression, little is known about the mechanisms of this connection. We investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 22 in the development of pancreatic tumors in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;Trp53+/-;Rosa26EYFP/+ (PKCY) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, and PKCY mice with disruption of IL22 (PKCY Il22-/-mice). Pancreata were collected at different stages of tumor development and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Some mice were given cerulean to induce pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer cell lines (PD2560) were orthotopically injected into C57BL/6 mice or Il22-/-mice, and tumor development was monitored. Pancreatic cells were injected into the tail veins of mice, and lung metastases were quantified. Acini were collected from C57BL/6 mice and resected human pancreata and were cultured. Cell lines and acini cultures were incubated with IL22 and pharmacologic inhibitors, and protein levels were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of 26 PDACs and 5 nonneoplastic pancreas specimens. RESULTS: We observed increased expression of IL22 and the IL22 receptor (IL22R) in the pancreas compared with other tissues in mice; IL22 increased with pancreatitis and tumorigenesis. Flow cytometry indicated that the IL22 was produced primarily by T-helper 22 cells. PKCY Il22-/-mice did not develop precancerous lesions or pancreatic tumors. The addition of IL22 to cultured acinar cells increased their expression of markers of ductal metaplasia; these effects of IL22 were prevented with inhibitors of Janus kinase signaling to signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) (ruxolitinib) or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (trametinib) and with STAT3 knockdown. Pancreatic cells injected into Il22-/- mice formed smaller tumors than those injected into C57BL/6. Incubation of IL22R-expressing PDAC cells with IL22 promoted spheroid formation and invasive activity, resulting in increased expression of stem-associated transcription factors (GATA4, SOX2, SOX17, and NANOG), and increased markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (CDH1, SNAI2, TWIST1, and beta catenin); ruxolitinib blocked these effects. Human PDAC tissues had higher levels of IL22, phosphorylated STAT3, and markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition than nonneoplastic tissues. An increased level of STAT3 in IL22R-positive cells was associated with shorter survival times of patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found levels of IL22 to be increased during pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor development and to be required for tumor development and progression in mice. IL22 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia, stem cell features, and increased expression of markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition; inhibitors of STAT3 block these effects. Increased expression of IL22 by PDACs is associated with reduced survival times.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Acinares/imunologia , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Plasticidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucinas/imunologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaplasia/imunologia , Metaplasia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/imunologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/imunologia , Pancreatite/patologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(18): 3643-3655, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873757

RESUMO

Prior studies have established the important role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) as a mediator of acute kidney injury (AKI). We demonstrated rapid ERK1/2 activation induced renal dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI and downregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in mice. In this study, ERK1/2 regulation of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and PGC-1α were explored. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation during AKI in mice using the MEK1/2 inhibitor, trametinib, attenuated renal cortical oxidized NAD (NAD+) depletion. The rate-limiting NAD biosynthesis salvage enzyme, NAMPT, decreased following AKI, and this decrease was prevented by ERK1/2 inhibition. The microRNA miR34a decreased with the inhibition of ERK1/2, leading to increased NAMPT protein. Mice treated with a miR34a mimic prevented increases in NAMPT protein in the renal cortex in the presence of ERK1/2 inhibition. In addition, ERK1/2 activation increased acetylated PGC-1α, the less active form, whereas inhibition of ERK1/2 activation prevented an increase in acetylated PGC-1α after AKI through SIRT1 and NAD+ attenuation. These results implicate IR-induced ERK1/2 activation as an important contributor to the downregulation of both PGC-1α and NAD+ pathways that ultimately decrease cellular metabolism and renal function. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation prior to the initiation of IR injury attenuated decreases in PGC-1α and NAD+ and prevented kidney dysfunction.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Renal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
19.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 119-131, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866466

RESUMO

Although trastuzumab has greatly improved the outcome of HER2-positive breast cancer, the emergence of resistance hampers its clinical benefits. Trastuzumab resistance is a multi-factorial consequence predominantly due to presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). AZD1775, a potent anti-cancer agent targeting WEE1 kinase to drive tumor cells with DNA damage to premature mitosis, has previously shown high efficacies when targeting different cancers with a well-tolerated cytotoxic profile, but has not been evaluated in trastuzumab-resistant (TrR) breast cancer. We sought to investigate the effect of AZD1775 on cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation in TrR breast cancer. Our study for the first time demonstrated that AZD1775 induces apoptosis and arrests TrR cells at G2/M phase. More importantly, AZD1775 effectively targeted CSC properties by suppressing MUC1 expression levels. AZD1775 administration also induced apoptosis in our in-house patient-derived tumor cell line at passage 0, implying its significant clinical relevance. These findings highlight the potential clinical application of AZD1775 in overcoming trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/genética
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 71: 217-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883812

RESUMO

The accumulation of α-syn which induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and mediate various signaling pathways involved in DA neuronal degeneration, and the apoptosis of dopamine (DA) neurons are pathological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-temperature requirement protein A2 (HtrA2) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the expression level of HtrA2 can be upregulated by drugs or by unfolded proteins. Ucf-101 is a specific inhibitor of HtrA2, and studies have shown that Ucf-101 reduced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Our study showed that PC12 cells treated with 60 µM 6-OHDA for 24 h had significantly decreased cell viability compared to that of controls. A low concentration (2.5 µM) of Ucf-101 decreased the apoptosis rate of the PD cell model, but a high concentration (≥10 µM) increased the apoptosis rate, compared to that of controls. 6-OHDA upregulated the expression of HtrA2, α-syn, CHOP, Grp78 and active caspase-3 and reduced the levels of TH and XIAP. Ucf-101 reduced the level of ERS and apoptosis bothin vivoandin vitro. The ratio of p-GSK3ß (Tyr216 to Ser9) increased in PD rats. However, Ucf-101 down-regulated the activation of GSK3ß and activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway that was caused by 6-OHDA. Ucf-101 activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity, which was related to the inhibition of ERS and the reduction of the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells and DA neurons in the midbrain of PD rats. Ucf-101 has certain neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tionas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina
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