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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109236, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866467

RESUMO

A series of novel pyrrolopyrimidine urea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against colon cancer cell lines. Compounds showed the remarkable cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 wt cell line. The most potent compound 4c (IC50 = 0.14 µM) induced apoptosis in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53-/- cell lines. Otherwise, treatment of HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells with compound 4c didn't lead to activation of apoptosis, suggesting that compound 4c induces apoptotic cell death by activating BAX/BAK-dependent pathway. Moreover, while the compound 4c increase the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 levels in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53-/- cells, caspase-3 or caspase-9 activation was not observed in HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells. In addition, compound 4c induced mitochondrial apoptosis in cells grown as oncospheroids, which better mimic the in vivo milieu of tumors. 4c treatment also activated JNK along with inhibition of prosurvival kinases such as Akt and ERK 1/2 in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53 -/- cells as well as in HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells. Notably, our results indicated that compound 4c induced mitochondrial apoptosis through activation p53-independent apoptotic signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 9/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
2.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H507-H518, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706268

RESUMO

The lymphatic system drains and propels lymph by extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic propulsion depends upon spontaneous rhythmic contractions of lymphatic muscles in the vessel walls and is critically affected by changes in the surrounding tissue like osmolarity and temperature. Lymphatics of the diaphragm display a steep change in contraction frequency in response to changes in temperature, and this, in turn, affects lymph flow. In the present work, we demonstrated in an ex vivo diaphragmatic tissue rat model that diaphragmatic lymphatics express transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid 4 subfamily (TRPV4) and that their blockade by both the nonselective antagonist Ruthenium Red and the selective antagonist HC-067047 abolished the response of lymphatics to temperature changes. Moreover, the selective activation of TRPV4 channels by means of GSK1016790A mirrored the behavior of vessels exposed to increasing temperatures, pointing out the critical role played by these channels in sensing the temperature of the lymphatic vessels' environment and thus inducing a change in contraction frequency and lymph flow.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work addresses the putative receptor system that enables diaphragmatic lymphatics to change intrinsic contraction frequency and thus lymph flow according to the changes in temperature of the surrounding environment, showing that this role can be sustained by TRPV4 channels alone.


Assuntos
Linfa/fisiologia , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Contração Muscular , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Temperatura , Animais , Diafragma , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Vasos Linfáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodicidade , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rutênio Vermelho/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545799

RESUMO

As of June 2020, the number of people infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to skyrocket, with more than 6.7 million cases worldwide. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations (UN) has highlighted the need for better control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, developing novel virus-specific vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 can be time-consuming and costly. Convalescent sera and safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAAs) are readily available treatment options. Here, we developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. We identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine. We found that a combination of orally available virus-directed nelfinavir and host-directed amodiaquine exhibited the highest synergy. Finally, we developed a website to disseminate the knowledge on available and emerging treatments of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Amodiaquina/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Emetina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/farmacologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Nelfinavir/farmacologia , Pandemias , Piranos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Células Vero
5.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568218

RESUMO

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a pathophysiological condition, defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure exceeding 25 mm Hg at rest, as assessed by right heart catheterization. A broad spectrum of diseases can lead to PH, differing in their etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, prognosis, and response to treatment. Despite significant progress in the last years, PH remains an uncured disease. Understanding the underlying mechanisms can pave the way for the development of new therapies. Animal models are important research tools to achieve this goal. Currently, there are several models available for recapitulating PH. This protocol describes a two-hit mouse PH model. The stimuli for PH development are hypoxia and the injection of SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor antagonist. Three weeks after initiation of Hypoxia/SU5416, animals develop pulmonary vascular remodeling imitating the histopathological changes observed in human PH (predominantly Group 1). Vascular remodeling in the pulmonary circulation results in the remodeling of the right ventricle (RV). The procedures for measuring RV pressures (using the open chest method), the morphometrical analyses of the RV (by dissecting and weighing both cardiac ventricles) and the histological assessments of the remodeling (both pulmonary by assessing vascular remodeling and cardiac by assessing RV cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis) are described in detail. The advantages of this protocol are the possibility of the application both in wild type and in genetically modified mice, the relatively easy and low-cost implementation, and the quick development of the disease of interest (3 weeks). Limitations of this method are that mice do not develop a severe phenotype and PH is reversible upon return to normoxia. Prevention, as well as therapy studies, can easily be implemented in this model, without the necessity of advanced skills (as opposed to surgical rodent models).


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(5): 378-387, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456375

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) on the mitochondrial function and cell survival of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) under oxidative stress, and to explore its mechanism. Methods: BMSCs of rats were cultured in vitro with Dulbecco's minimum essential medium/F12 medium containing fetal bovine serum in the volume fraction of 10% (hereinafter referred to as normal medium). The rat BMSCs of third to fifth passages in logarithmic growth phase were selected for the following experiments. (1) The cells were divided into normal control group, normal control+ PQQ group, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) alone group, and H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group. The cells in normal control group were cultured in normal medium for 24 hours; the cells in normal control+ PQQ group were cultured in normal medium containing 100 µmol/L PQQ for 24 hours; the cells in H(2)O(2) alone group were cultured in normal medium containing 200 µmol/L H(2)O(2) for 24 hours; the cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group were pre-incubated with normal medium containing 100 µmol/L PQQ for 2 hours, and then with H(2)O(2) added to the concentration of 200 µmol/L and cultured for 24 hours. The cell morphology of each group was observed under the inverted phase contrast microscope, and the cell survival rate was detected by cell count kit 8 method. (2) Five batches of cells were collected, and the cells of each batch were divided into normal control group, H(2)O(2) alone group, and H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group. The cells in each group received the same treatment as that in the corresponding group of experiment (1). After 24 hours of culture, one batch of cells was collected for apoptosis detection by flow cytometry, and the apoptosis rate was calculated. One batch of cells was subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential assay and JC-1 fluorescent staining observation using the JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential detection kit and the inverted phase contrast fluorescence microscope, respectively. One batch of cells was collected for mitochondrial morphology observation under the transmission electron microscope. One batch of cells was subjected to catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay by CAT activity assay kit and SOD activity assay kit, respectively. One batch of cells was subjected to Western blotting for determination of protein level of Epac1, adenine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase 3 (caspase-3), and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation level of AMPK and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio were calculated. Six replicates were measured in each group for each index except for morphological observation. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and independent sample equal variance t test. Results: (1) After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in normal control group (the cell survival rate was set to 100.0%), there was an increase in cell vacuole and a decrease in cell number in H(2)O(2) alone group, and the cell survival rate was significantly reduced to (74.3±2.9)% (t=6.39, P<0.01). Compared with those in H(2)O(2) alone group, the cell morphology of H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group was significantly improved, and the cell survival rate was significantly increased to (116.9±4.2)% (t=6.92, P<0.01); the cell survival rate in normal control+ PQQ group was (101.2±1.1)%, close to that of control group (t=1.06, P>0.05). (2) After 24 hours of culture, compared with (13.6±1.0)% in normal control group, the apoptosis rate of cells in H(2)O(2) alone group was significantly increased to (37.1±2.0)% (t=10.57, P<0.01). Compared with that in H(2)O(2) alone group, the apoptosis rate of cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group was significantly declined to (17.0±0.7)% (t=9.49, P<0.01). (3) After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in normal control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential of cells in H(2)O(2) alone group was depolarized, the JC-1 fluorescent dye mainly existed in the cytoplasm in the form of monomer, which emitted green fluorescence, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was shown (t=4.18, P<0.01). Compared with those in H(2)O(2) alone group, the mitochondrial membrane potential of cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group was increased to normal level (t=4.43, P<0.01), and the JC-1 fluorescent dye accumulated in mitochondria following the polarized mitochondrial membrane potential and emitted red fluorescence. (4) After 24 hours of culture, compared with that in normal control group, the mitochondrial structure of cells in H(2)O(2) alone group was disordered, with disappeared mitochondrial cristae and decreased mitochondrial matrix density. Compared with that in H(2)O(2) alone group, the mitochondrial structure of cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group was regular and intact, with clearly visible mitochondrial cristae and increased mitochondrial matrix density. (5) After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in normal control group, the CAT activity of cells in H(2)O(2) alone group was significantly increased (t=4.54, P<0.05), and the SOD activity was significantly decreased (t=3.93, P<0.05). Compared with those in H(2)O(2) alone group, the CAT activity of cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group was obviously increased (t=8.65, P<0.01), while there was no significant change in the SOD activity (t=0.72, P>0.05). (6) After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in normal control group, the protein expression of Epac1 of cells in H(2)O(2) alone group was significantly decreased (t=4.67, P<0.01), while the AMPK phosphorylation level and the cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio were significantly increased (t=7.88, 3.62, P<0.01). Compared with those in H(2)O(2) alone group, the protein expression of Epac1 and the AMPK phosphorylation level of cells in H(2)O(2)+ PQQ group were both significantly increased (t=4.34, 16.37, P<0.01), while the cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio was significantly declined (t=3.17, P<0.05). Conclusions: Pretreatment with PQQ can improve the mitochondrial function, reduce cell apoptosis rate, and enhance cell survival rate of rat BMSCs under oxidative stress, which may be related to the up-regulation of Epac1 protein expression, activation of AMPK signaling pathway, and down-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 protein level.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Estresse Oxidativo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Mitocôndrias , Quinina , Ratos
7.
Life Sci ; 253: 117729, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348836

RESUMO

Obstructive nephropathy is a common clinical case that causes chronic kidney disease and ultimately progresses to end-stage renal disease. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) reduces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation associated with obstructive nephropathy. AIMS: This study was carried out to investigate the potential effect of saroglitazar, dual PPAR-α/γ agonist, in alleviating renal fibrosis induced by unilateralureteral obstruction (UUO). MAIN METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were haphazardly divided into four groups of six rats each, including sham operated group, vehicle- or saroglitazar-treated UUO and saroglitazar groups. Rats received oral gavage of saroglitazar (3 mg/kg/day) for 13 days. On day 14, all rats were sacrificed; blood and renal tissues were collected. KEY FINDINGS: Saroglitazar inhibited UUO-induced oxidative stress; it decreased the elevated levels of MDA and nitric oxide and increased levels of GSH and SOD in renal tissue. Moreover, saroglitazar repressed UUO-induced inflammation; it decreased the renal levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, saroglitazar inhibited the accumulation of extracellular matrix via decreasing collagen, hydroxylproline and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels. Saroglitazar also decreased the expression of both the alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). These effects were in parallel with reduction in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (smad3) expression and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the protective impact of saroglitazar might be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects against UUO-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis through its regulatory effect on TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibrose , Inflamação/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/complicações
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315372

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis is often associated with cardiac hypertrophy; indeed, fibrosis is one of the most critical factors affecting prognosis. We aimed to identify the molecules involved in promoting fibrosis under hypertrophic stimuli. We previously established a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy by pulmonary artery banding, in which approximately half of the animals developed fibrosis in the right ventricle. Here, we first comprehensively analyzed mRNA expression in the right ventricle with or without fibrosis in pulmonary artery banding model rats by DNA microarray analysis (GSE141650 at NCBI GEO). The expression levels of 19 genes were up-regulated more than 1.5-fold in fibrotic hearts compared with non-fibrotic hearts. Among them, fibrosis growth factor (FGF) 23 showed one of the biggest increases in expression. Real-time PCR analysis also revealed that, among the FGF receptor (FGFR) family, FGFR1 was highly expressed in fibrotic hearts. We then found that FGF23 was expressed predominantly in cardiomyocytes, while FGFR1 was predominantly expressed in fibroblasts in the rat ventricle. Next, we added FGF23 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 (10-50 ng/mL of each) to isolated fibroblasts from normal adult rat ventricles and cultured them for three days. While FGF23 itself did not directly affect the expression levels of any fibrosis-related mRNAs, FGF23 enhanced the effect of TGF-ß1 on increasing the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA. This increase in xx-SMA mRNA levels due to the combination of TGF-ß1 and FGF23 was attenuated by the inhibition of FGFR1 or the knockdown of FGFR1 in fibroblasts. Thus, FGF23 synergistically promoted the activation of fibroblasts with TGF-ß1, transforming fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via FGFR1. Thus, we identified FGF23 as a paracrine factor secreted from cardiomyocytes to promote cardiac fibrosis under conditions in which TGF-ß1 is activated. FGF23 could be a possible target to prevent fibrosis following myocardial hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6103-6113, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123069

RESUMO

Clinical observation of the association between cancer aggressiveness and embryonic development stage implies the importance of developmental signals in cancer initiation and therapeutic resistance. However, the dynamic gene expression during organogenesis and the master oncofetal drivers are still unclear, which impeded the efficient elimination of poor prognostic tumors, including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, human embryonic stem cells were induced to differentiate into adult hepatocytes along hepatic lineages to mimic liver development in vitro. Combining transcriptomic data from liver cancer patients with the hepatocyte differentiation model, the active genes derived from different hepatic developmental stages and the tumor tissues were selected. Bioinformatic analysis followed by experimental assays was used to validate the tumor subtype-specific oncofetal signatures and potential therapeutic values. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the existence of two subtypes of liver cancer with different oncofetal properties. The gene signatures and their clinical significance were further validated in an independent clinical cohort and The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Upstream activator analysis and functional screening further identified E2F1 and SMAD3 as master transcriptional regulators. Small-molecule inhibitors specifically targeting the oncofetal drivers extensively down-regulated subtype-specific developmental signaling and inhibited tumorigenicity. Liver cancer cells and primary HCC tumors with different oncofetal properties also showed selective vulnerability to their specific inhibitors. Further precise targeting of the tumor initiating steps and driving events according to subtype-specific biomarkers might eliminate tumor progression and provide novel therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatectomia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Hidroxiquinolinas/farmacologia , Hidroxiquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008150, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196500

RESUMO

Parasitic infections are a major source of human suffering, mortality, and economic loss, but drug development for these diseases has been stymied by the significant expense involved in bringing a drug though clinical trials and to market. Identification of single compounds active against multiple parasitic pathogens could improve the economic incentives for drug development as well as simplifying treatment regimens. We recently performed a screen of repurposed compounds against the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, causative agent of amebic dysentery, and identified four compounds (anisomycin, prodigiosin, obatoclax and nithiamide) with low micromolar potency and drug-like properties. Here, we extend our investigation of these drugs. We assayed the speed of killing of E. histolytica trophozoites and found that all four have more rapid action than the current drug of choice, metronidazole. We further established a multi-institute collaboration to determine whether these compounds may have efficacy against other parasites and opportunistic pathogens. We found that anisomycin, prodigiosin and obatoclax all have broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity in vitro, including activity against schistosomes, T. brucei, and apicomplexan parasites. In several cases, the drugs were found to have significant improvements over existing drugs. For instance, both obatoclax and prodigiosin were more efficacious at inhibiting the juvenile form of Schistosoma than the current standard of care, praziquantel. Additionally, low micromolar potencies were observed against pathogenic free-living amebae (Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba castellanii), which cause CNS infection and for which there are currently no reliable treatments. These results, combined with the previous human use of three of these drugs (obatoclax, anisomycin and nithiamide), support the idea that these compounds could serve as the basis for the development of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.


Assuntos
Anisomicina/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Parasitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prodigiosina/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Anisomicina/efeitos adversos , Anisomicina/farmacocinética , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Antiparasitários/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Prodigiosina/efeitos adversos , Prodigiosina/farmacocinética , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142527

RESUMO

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food security crop in many parts of the developing world. The crop's high yield potential and multitude of uses-both for nutrition and processing-render cassava a promising driver for the development of rural value chains. It is traditionally propagated from stem cuttings of up to 30 cm in length, giving a multiplication rate as low as 1:10. Propagating cassava traditionally is very inefficient, which leads to challenges in the production and distribution of quality planting material and improved cultivars, greatly limiting the impact of investments in crop breeding. The work described in the present study aimed to develop a seed treatment approach to facilitate the use of shorter seed pieces, increasing the multiplication rate of cassava and thus making the crop's seed systems more efficient. After several tests, formulation was identified, consisting of thiamethoxam 21 g ha-1, mefenoxam 1.0 g ha-1, fludioxonil 1.3 g ha-1, thiabendazole 7.5 g ha-1 and Latex 2% as a binder. Plant growing from seed pieces treated with this formulation displayed increased crop establishment and early crop vigor, leading to an improved productivity throughout a full growing cycle. This allowed to reduce the cassava seed piece size to 8 cm with no negative effects on germination and crop establishment, leading to yields comparable to those from untreated 16 cm pieces. This, in turn, will allow to increase the multiplication ratio of cassava by a factor of up to 3. Notably, this was possible under regular field conditions and independently of any specialised treatment facilities. Compared with existing seed production protocols, the increased multiplication rates allowed for efficiency gains of between 1 to 1.9 years compared to conventional five-year cycles. We believe that the technology described here holds considerable promise for developing more reliable and remunerative delivery channels for quality cassava planting material and improved genetics.


Assuntos
Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Látex/farmacologia , Manihot/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiabendazol/farmacologia , Tiametoxam/farmacologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 7961-7970, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209667

RESUMO

Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), also known as MAP3K11, was initially identified in a megakaryocytic cell line and is an emerging therapeutic target in cancer, yet its role in immune cells is not known. Here, we report that loss or pharmacological inhibition of MLK3 promotes activation and cytotoxicity of T cells. MLK3 is abundantly expressed in T cells, and its loss alters serum chemokines, cytokines, and CD28 protein expression on T cells and its subsets. MLK3 loss or pharmacological inhibition induces activation of T cells in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo conditions, irrespective of T cell activating agents. Conversely, overexpression of MLK3 decreases T cell activation. Mechanistically, loss or inhibition of MLK3 down-regulates expression of a prolyl-isomerase, Ppia, which is directly phosphorylated by MLK3 to increase its isomerase activity. Moreover, MLK3 also phosphorylates nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) and regulates its nuclear translocation via interaction with Ppia, and this regulates T cell effector function. In an immune-competent mouse model of breast cancer, MLK3 inhibitor increases Granzyme B-positive CD8+ T cells and decreases MLK3 and Ppia gene expression in tumor-infiltrating T cells. Likewise, the MLK3 inhibitor in pan T cells, isolated from breast cancer patients, also increases cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. These results collectively demonstrate that MLK3 plays an important role in T cell biology, and targeting MLK3 could serve as a potential therapeutic intervention via increasing T cell cytotoxicity in cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/sangue , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(9): 2568-2569, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111719

RESUMO

Riboswitches alter gene expression in response to ligand binding, coupling sensing and regulatory functions to help bacteria respond to their environment. The structural determinants of ligand binding in the prequeuosine (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine, preQ1) bacterial riboswitches have been studied, but the functional consequences of structural perturbations are less known. A new article combining biophysical and cell-based readouts of 15 mutants of the preQ1-II riboswitch from Lactobacillus rhamnosus demonstrates that ligand binding does not ensure successful gene regulation, providing new insights into these shapeshifting sequences.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Riboswitch/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biofísicos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Mutação/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Riboswitch/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Med Chem ; 63(4): 1724-1749, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031803

RESUMO

We previously reported a milestone in the optimization of NBD-11021, an HIV-1 gp120 antagonist, by developing a new and novel analogue, NBD-14189 (Ref1), which showed antiviral activity against HIV-1HXB2, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 89 nM. However, cytotoxicity remained high, and the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data showed relatively poor aqueous solubility. To optimize these properties, we replaced the phenyl ring in the compound with a pyridine ring and synthesized a set of 48 novel compounds. One of the new analogues, NBD-14270 (8), showed a marked improvement in cytotoxicity, with 3-fold and 58-fold improvements in selectivity index value compared with that of Ref1 and NBD-11021, respectively. Furthermore, the in vitro ADME data clearly showed improvements in aqueous solubility and other properties compared with those for Ref1. The data for 8 indicated that the pyridine scaffold is a good bioisostere for phenyl, allowing the further optimization of this molecule.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Células HEK293 , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/farmacocinética
15.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 195-210, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of progressive and chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. IPF is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and destructive pathological remodeling due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Eventually, lung interstitium thickens and stiffens and breathing becomes difficult. It has been well established that the transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad signaling pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-ß1-mediated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family affects Smad signaling. p90RSK is a serine/threonine kinase and is activated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. However, the roles played by p90RSK in TGF-ß1 signaling and the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remain unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether p90RSK regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis using in vitro and in vivo systems and Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, transcriptional activity assays and immunofluorescence studies. RESULTS: Pharmacological inhibition of p90RSK by FMK or inhibition of p90RSK with adenoviral vector encoding a dominant negative form of p90RSK suppressed TGF-ß1-induced ECM accumulation and EMT in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Interestingly, FMK significantly inhibited TGF-ß1-induced Smad3 nuclear translocation and smad binding element-dependent transcriptional activity, but not Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, FMK ameliorated pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that p90RSK plays critical roles in pulmonary fibrosis, which suggests it be viewed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/genética , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
16.
Alkaloids Chem Biol ; 83: 1-112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098648

RESUMO

Lamellarins are marine alkaloids containing fused 14-phenyl-6H-[1]benzopyrano[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline or non-fused 3,4-diarylpyrrole-2-carboxylate ring systems. To date, more than 50 lamellarins have been isolated from a variety of marine organisms, such as mollusks, tunicates, and sponges. Many of them, especially fused type I lamellarins, exhibit impressive biological activity, such as potent cytotoxicity, topoisomerase I inhibition, protein kinases inhibition, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Due to their useful biological activity and limited availability from natural sources, a number of synthetic methods have been developed. In this chapter, we present an updated and comprehensive review on lamellarin alkaloids summarizing their isolation, synthesis, and biological activity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirróis/isolamento & purificação , Pirróis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Alcaloides/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/síntese química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/isolamento & purificação
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 188: 112021, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901743

RESUMO

A series of novel sulfonamide derivatives bearing pyrrole and pyrrolopyrimidine scaffolds were synthesized and screened as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against the cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I and II and the transmembranal isoforms IX and XII. Several candidates showed potent inhibitory activity against IX and XII isoforms. Furthermore, ex vivo screening of cytotoxic selectivity and activity of the most potent derivatives were carried out against normal cells (WI38) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) under normal and hypoxic conditions using acetazolamide as reference drug. Compound 11b potency was nearly three folds higher in hypoxic than normoxic condition whereas that of compound 11f was nearly four folds higher in hypoxic vs. normoxic HeLa cells. All the screened derivatives exhibited less potency on normal cells (WI38). Molecular docking was carried out to discover the possible binding mode of compounds within the active site of isoform CA IX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Anidrase Carbônica IX/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/toxicidade , Domínio Catalítico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 188: 111988, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901746

RESUMO

In connection with our continued research to generate new aza-fused heteroaromatic chemical scaffolds, we developed a highly atom-economical three-component route to novel 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine ring skeleton multi-functionalized on the pyrazine unit. This [4+1+1] annulation approach led us to gain access to a new N-fused bicyclic chemical space having two distinctive functional groups (heteroaryl and aroyl) in a trans manner. Investigation of anticancer activity of the synthesized compounds and their derivatives revealed that (3R*,4S*)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-2-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)-3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-2-ium bromide (3h) has potent anticancer activity. 3h significantly inhibited cell viability in prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with IC50 value of 1.18 ± 0.05 µM and 1.95 ± 0.04 µM, respectively. In addition, 3h strongly reduced cell migration in a dose dependent manner, and induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and cleavage of PARP in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells. Our results in this study imply that 3h can be a potential anticancer agent against prostate cancer and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazinas/química , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química
20.
Nature ; 578(7794): 306-310, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969702

RESUMO

Proteins of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) domain family are epigenetic readers that bind acetylated histones through their bromodomains to regulate gene transcription. Dual-bromodomain BET inhibitors (DbBi) that bind with similar affinities to the first (BD1) and second (BD2) bromodomains of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDt have displayed modest clinical activity in monotherapy cancer trials. A reduced number of thrombocytes in the blood (thrombocytopenia) as well as symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity are dose-limiting adverse events for some types of DbBi1-5. Given that similar haematological and gastrointestinal defects were observed after genetic silencing of Brd4 in mice6, the platelet and gastrointestinal toxicities may represent on-target activities associated with BET inhibition. The two individual bromodomains in BET family proteins may have distinct functions7-9 and different cellular phenotypes after pharmacological inhibition of one or both bromodomains have been reported10,11, suggesting that selectively targeting one of the bromodomains may result in a different efficacy and tolerability profile compared with DbBi. Available compounds that are selective to individual domains lack sufficient potency and the pharmacokinetics properties that are required for in vivo efficacy and tolerability assessment10-13. Here we carried out a medicinal chemistry campaign that led to the discovery of ABBV-744, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the BD2 domain of BET family proteins with drug-like properties. In contrast to the broad range of cell growth inhibition induced by DbBi, the antiproliferative activity of ABBV-744 was largely, but not exclusively, restricted to cell lines of acute myeloid leukaemia and prostate cancer that expressed the full-length androgen receptor (AR). ABBV-744 retained robust activity in prostate cancer xenografts, and showed fewer platelet and gastrointestinal toxicities than the DbBi ABBV-07514. Analyses of RNA expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed that ABBV-744 displaced BRD4 from AR-containing super-enhancers and inhibited AR-dependent transcription, with less impact on global transcription compared with ABBV-075. These results underscore the potential value of selectively targeting the BD2 domain of BET family proteins for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/toxicidade , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/toxicidade , Ratos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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