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1.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 561-571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025950

RESUMO

Avapritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that has recently received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors harboring a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation. Mutations in the activation loop of PDGFRA or KIT confer resistance to conventional TKIs due to structural changes in the receptor. Avapritinib was developed to selectively target these mutations, thereby offering a new treatment option for patients in whom imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib have failed. This review covers the basic science and preclinical studies that guided avapritinib's development, in addition to the data currently available from early clinical studies as well as those later-stage trials that led to its approval.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Estados Unidos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21943, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925726

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Antimelanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody (anti-MDA5 Ab)-positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (cADM) is frequently complicated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and has a poor prognosis. Although the short-term prognosis of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM is poor, it has been suggested that the recurrence rate is not higher than that of anti-MDA5 Ab-negative dermatomyositis. Combination therapy with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide is the gold standard for the remission induction therapy at the onset. Recently, it has been reported that tofacitinib (TOF) could be effective for refractory anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. Although initial remission induction therapy has been established, therapeutic strategies for relapse cases have not yet been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old woman who was diagnosed with anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM complicated with ILD. In October 2016, she was treated with prednisolone (PSL), tacrolimus (TAC), and cyclophosphamide (CY). These treatments were successful, and PSL could be tapered. However, she developed strong nausea and general fatigue as adverse events of CY. In April 2018, PSL was discontinued, and maintenance therapy was given with TAC. In July 2018, Gottron's sign and ILD recurred. Skin lesions on the finger were partially ulcerated and ILD was also worsening. We proposed a remission reinduction therapy including CY. However, she was rejected CY from experience with past adverse event of CY. DIAGNOSIS: Based on skin lesions and chest computed tomography (CT) findings, the diagnosis was a recurrence of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment by TOF 10 mg and PSL 22.5 mg (0.5 mg/kg equivalent) was introduced in November 2018. OUTCOMES: After introducing TOF and PSL, her skin lesions and chest CT findings of ILD gradually improved. Six months after the induction of TOF, the skin ulcer was epithelialized. One year after the introduction of TOF, PSL was decreased to 9 mg, and the disease activity did not re-exacerbate. LESSONS: This case report is the first report suggesting the effectiveness of TOF for recurrent case of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM with ILD. TOF might be an effective therapeutic option for treating recurrent case of anti-MDA5 Ab-positive cADM.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/imunologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Dermatomiosite/sangue , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 935-946, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR). METHODS: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532. FINDINGS: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2). INTERPRETATION: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours. FUNDING: Blueprint Medicines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20907, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis among the old population worldwide is a great concern. Two of the biggest complaints of OA patients are joint pain and inflammation. Currently, people are relying on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids to control pain and inflammation. However, long-term use of these pharmaceutical drugs has negative health consequences in the elderly, including gastro-intestinal, respiratory, and renal diseases. Natural products are receiving more attention than ever as alternative treatments against OA for their efficacies and safety. The root of Paeonia lactiflora Pal and the gum resin of Commiphora myrrha have been used as analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents since ancient time. A new herbal formula composed of P. lactiflora root and C. myrrha gum resin extracts, known as HT083, has shown promising antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a rodent model of OA. We design this study to investigate the safety and the efficacy of HT083 to prevent OA in patients with mild OA. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 eligible participants will be divided into two groups and will be given HT083 and a placebo for 12 weeks in 1:1 ratio. Treatment results will be assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), Korean-Short Form health survey-36 score (SF-36), personal evaluation, and laboratory analysis. DISCUSSION: This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence on the effectiveness and the safety of HT083 as a natural treatment for mild OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Korean Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) number KCT0004925 Registered on 2020.04.16.


Assuntos
Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Commiphora/efeitos adversos , Commiphora/química , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Paeonia/efeitos adversos , Paeonia/química , Placebos/administração & dosagem , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Roedores , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
7.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609446

RESUMO

With recent advancements in the understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have emerged as a promising new treatment modality, but their effects remain incompletely elucidated. Tofacitinib, an oral JAK 1/3 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has previously been shown to induce significant re-pigmentation in vitiligo. However, as with other novel targeted therapies, cutaneous adverse effects have been observed. We report a 36-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, refractory to multiple pharmacotherapies, who was initiated on tofacitinib and subsequently developed progressive depigmented patches consistent with new-onset vitiligo. Although definitive causation cannot be established in this case without additional studies, it is important to note that many targeted therapies have the potential to induce paradoxical effects, that is, the occurrence or exacerbation of pathologic conditions that have been shown to respond to these medications. Paradoxical findings with other targeted therapies include the occurrence of melanoma during treatment with BRAF inhibitors, keratoacanthomas with PD-1 inhibitors, vitiligo and psoriasis with TNF-alpha inhibitors, and hidradenitis suppurativa with various biologic agents. Although JAK inhibitors hold therapeutic promise in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, further research is warranted to more fully comprehend their effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Vitiligo/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ceratoacantoma/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/induzido quimicamente , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-435835
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467245
10.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(4): 473-476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418716

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a disease that causes macules and achromic and/or hypochromic patches, which can affect from small areas to the entire tegument. Treatment options are few and are generally ineffective. Recently, some case reports have appeared which show positive results with the use of Janus kinase inhibitors associated with phototherapy. This report details the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis associated with vitiligo in treatment for two years, whose condition partially improved initially after eight months of oral tofacitinib at a dose of 5mg twice a day, without exposure to ultraviolet radiation and with continuous improvement during these two years of treatment.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Terapia Ultravioleta , Vitiligo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 885-894, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We applied the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework to evaluate the performance of fecal calprotectin (FC) as an alternative to endoscopy in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with a biologic agent or tofacitinib. METHODS: Individual participant data from the trials of infliximab, golimumab, vedolizumab, and tofacitinib for UC were pooled to generate prevalence of endoscopic activity (Mayo endoscopy score) across different combinations of the rectal bleeding score (RBS) and stool frequency score (SFS). These estimates were then combined with the data from an updated systematic review of the operating properties of FC to generate clinical scenario-specific assessments of the performance of FC as a predictor of endoscopic disease activity. A prespecified threshold of acceptability for false-negative (FN) and false-positive (FP) test results was set at 5%. RESULTS: For patients with UC achieving RBS 0 + SFS 0/1, FC ≤ 50 µg/g may avoid endoscopy in 50% patients with a FN rate <5%. Similarly, for patients with RBS 2/3 + SFS 2/3, FC ≥ 250 µg/g potentially avoids endoscopy in approximately 50% patients with an FP rate <5%. The greatest uncertainty in the diagnostic performance for FC was observed in patients with UC achieving RBS 0 but having SFS 2/3, where FN and FP rates were consistently >10%, and endoscopic evaluation may be warranted. DISCUSSION: Two clinical scenarios were identified where FC can be used with confidence for monitoring treatment response to biologics or tofacitinib in patients with UC without the requirement for endoscopy.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colonoscopia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Wiad Lek ; 73(3): 441-443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To investigate the transcolonoscopic pH-metry and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: the research included 110 patients both male and female between the ages of 18 to 75 years old, who were treated for UC of medium and severe activity, in active phase. All patients were divided into 3 groups. The first group received standard therapy (ST; n=50), the second group received adalimumab (ADA; n=32), and the third group was treated with tofacitinib (TOF; n=28). The control group consisted of healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 65 years old. RESULTS: Results: UC patients had lower pH levels in all sections of the large intestine, compared to the control group (р<0,05). Calprotectin level is a better predictor of the course of the disease. CONCLUSION: Conclusions:Tofacitinib, compared to adalimumab and budesonide, has better influence on clinical, endoscopic and laboratory parameters of UC.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(9): 880-888, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To evaluate effectiveness, safety and use of tofacitinib in daily practice. METHODS: UC patients initiating tofacitinib were prospectively enrolled in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Corticosteroid-free clinical remission (short clinical colitis activity index [SCCAI] ≤2), biochemical remission (faecal calprotectin level ≤250 µg/g), combined corticosteroid-free clinical and biochemical remission, predictors of remission, safety outcomes, treatment dose and effect on lipids were determined at weeks 12 and 24. Endoscopic outcomes were evaluated in centres with routine endoscopic evaluation. RESULTS: In total, 123 UC patients (95% anti-TNF, 62% vedolizumab and 3% ustekinumab experienced) were followed for a median duration of 24 weeks (interquartile range 12-26). The proportion of patients in corticosteroid-free clinical, biochemical, and combined corticosteroid-free clinical and biochemical remission rate at week 24 was 29% (n: 22/77), 25% (n: 14/57), and 19% (n: 11/57) respectively. Endoscopic remission (Mayo = 0) was achieved in 21% of patients at week 12 (n: 7/33). Prior vedolizumab exposure was associated with reduced clinical remission (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.94). At week 24, 33% (n: 14/42) of patients still on tofacitinib treatment used 10 mg twice daily. In total, 33 tofacitinib-related adverse events (89 per 100 patient years) occurred, 7 (6% of total cohort) resulted in discontinuation. Cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels increased during induction treatment by 18% (95% CI 9-26), 18% (95% CI 8-28) and 21% (95% CI 14-39) respectively. CONCLUSION: Tofacitinib is an effective treatment for UC after anti-TNF and vedolizumab failure. However, a relatively high rate of adverse events was observed resulting in discontinuation in 6% of patients.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Ustekinumab/uso terapêutico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315352

RESUMO

Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been identified as potential driver oncogenes. Pharmacological targeting of FGFRs may therefore provide therapeutic benefit to selected cancer patients, and proof-of-concept has been established in early clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors. Here, we present the molecular structure and preclinical characterization of INCB054828 (pemigatinib), a novel, selective inhibitor of FGFR 1, 2, and 3, currently in phase 2 clinical trials. INCB054828 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated using cell lines and tumor models, and the antitumor effect of oral INCB054828 was investigated using xenograft tumor models with genetic alterations in FGFR1, 2, or 3. Enzymatic assays with recombinant human FGFR kinases showed potent inhibition of FGFR1, 2, and 3 by INCB054828 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 nM, respectively) with weaker activity against FGFR4 (IC50 30 nM). INCB054828 selectively inhibited growth of tumor cell lines with activation of FGFR signaling compared with cell lines lacking FGFR aberrations. The preclinical pharmacokinetic profile suggests target inhibition is achievable by INCB054828 in vivo with low oral doses. INCB054828 suppressed the growth of xenografted tumor models with FGFR1, 2, or 3 alterations as monotherapy, and the combination of INCB054828 with cisplatin provided significant benefit over either single agent, with an acceptable tolerability. The preclinical data presented for INCB054828, together with preliminary clinical observations, support continued investigation in patients with FGFR alterations, such as fusions and activating mutations.


Assuntos
Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Morfolinas/química , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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