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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 13(2): 74-80, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196802

RESUMO

Evaluations of tear functions frequently involve some form of voluntary control over blink behaviour. To the degree that voluntary control of blinking risks departure from normal-range spontaneous blinking, the tear function findings from such studies may be confounded. Even subject awareness that blinking is being assessed may influence findings if such awareness results in any degree of voluntary control. Ideally, the influence on blink rate and tear functions induced by therapeutic or experimental interventions could be measured against a normal-range baseline spontaneous blink rate in order that any differences found could be validly attributed to those interventions. Sometimes pre-intervention 'rest-related' baseline blink rates have been incorrectly described as 'basal' blink rates without specification of pre-intervention conditions of 'rest' or consideration of any contributions from voluntary control. Also, studies which use only blink rates to measure blink efficiency ignore the critically important contribution of incomplete blinking to blink inefficiency. This review finds that the assessment of normal-range spontaneous blink rates depends on measurement conditions which have frequently been ignored previously. For example, normal-range spontaneous blink rates appear more likely to occur with fixation targets which have a disengaged affect and an associated neutral influence on and from dopamine activity. Ideally, fixation targets should also involve minimal cognitive loading and vision demands. In addition, normal-range (symptom free) spontaneous blink rates are more likely to be assessed in a comfortable ambient environment without subject awareness that blink behaviour is being assessed and when voluntary blinking is not involved


Las valoraciones de las funciones de la lágrima incluyen alguna forma de control voluntario del parpadeo. Hasta el punto de que el control voluntario del parpadeo puede tener su origen en el parpadeo espontáneo de rango normal, los hallazgos sobre función de la lágrima de dichos estudios pueden resultar confusos. Incluso la concienciación del sujeto acerca de que se está evaluando el parpadeo puede influir en los hallazgos, cuando dicha concienciación deriva en cualquier grado de control voluntario. De forma ideal, la influencia sobre las tasas de parpadeo y las funciones de la lágrima inducidas por intervenciones terapéuticas o experimentales podría medirse frente a una tasa de parpadeo espontáneo basal de rango normal, a fin de poder atribuir válidamente cualesquiera diferencias a dichas intervenciones. A veces, las tasas de parpadeo de referencia "relacionadas con el descanso" pre-intervención se han descrito incorrectamente como tasas de parpadeo "basal", sin especificar las condiciones "de descanso" pre-intervención, o la consideración de cualquier contribución del control voluntario. De igual modo, los estudios que utilizan únicamente tasas de parpadeo para medir la eficiencia del parpadeo, ignoran la contribución críticamente importante del parpadeo incompleto sobre la ineficiencia del mismo. Esta revisión encuentra que la valoración de las tasas de parpadeo espontáneo de rango normal depende de las condiciones de medición, que con frecuencia han sido ignoradas previamente. Por ejemplo, es más probable que se produzcan tasas de parpadeo espontáneo de rango normal con objetivos de fijación, que tienen un efecto de desactivación y una influencia neutra asociada sobre la actividad de la dopamina. De manera ideal, los objetivos de fijación deberían implicar también una carga cognitiva mínima y unas demandas de visión. Además, es más probable que las tasas de parpadeo espontáneo de rango normal (con ausencia de síntomas) se valoren en un entorno confortable, sin que el sujeto sea consciente de que se está valorando el parpadeo, y cuando el parpadeo voluntario no se ve implicado


Assuntos
Humanos , Piscadela/fisiologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301197

RESUMO

The difference in the frequency of the occurrence of reflexes/reactions in 355 cows (average weight 505.5 ± 7.9 kg) and 262 bulls (average weight 735.6 ± 8.4 kg) following stunning with a Matador SS 3,000 B trigger-activated captive bolt gun (Termet) was determined. The stun shot more than 2 cm from the ideal position was found in 79.6% of animals. Vocalization, corneal reflex, rhythmic breathing, blinking, eyeball rotation and the absence of tongue protrusion occurred more frequently in bulls (p < .05). Spontaneous limb movements and nystagmus occurred more frequently in cows (p < .05). No difference between bulls and cows was determined in the occurrence of a response to painful stimuli or attempts to regain normal posture. No dependency was determined between the frequency of the occurrence of a reflex/reaction and the distance of the stun shot from the ideal point on the skull for any of the monitored signs. This study shows that the occurrence of reflexes/reactions following the stunning of cattle with a captive bolt is not only dependent on the position of the shot if placed within a 9 cm radius from the ideal point on the cattle skull.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Eletrochoque/veterinária , Reflexo/fisiologia , Animais , Piscadela/fisiologia , Córnea/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Respiração , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between lipid layer thickness (LLT), incomplete blinking rate and tear film stability in patients with different myopia degrees after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and to determine whether there is a difference in the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) after SMILE among patients with different myopia degrees. METHODS: Fifty patients (100 eyes) were enrolled in this study; they were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of spherical refraction: a low-myopia group (LMG; spherical refraction ≤-3.00 D, 20 eyes), a moderate-myopia group (MMG; -3.00 D < spherical refraction <-6.00 D, 40 eyes), and a high-myopia group (HMG; spherical refraction ≧-6.00 D, 40 eyes). Testing indicators included the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), corneal fluorescence staining (CFS), the Schirmer test (SI), lipid layer thickness (LLT), blink rate (BR) per 20 seconds, incomplete blinking rate, noninvasive keratograph assessment of first and average tear film breakup time (NIKBUTf, NIKBUTav), and tear meniscus height (TMH). Each indicator was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 w, 1 mo and 3 mo. RESULTS: The mean age was 29.12±5.95 years. There were no significant differences among the three groups (p>0.05), except preoperative age (p = 0.006). There were significant differences in the FBUT among the three groups at postoperative 1 w and 1 mo (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the incomplete blinking rate and FBUT between the LMG and the HMG at postoperative 1 mo (p<0.05). The number of first tear film breakup points located beyond the 6 mm diameter of the cornea was higher in the HMG than in the other groups. The prevalence of DED in the LMG, the MMG, the HMG was 15%, 8% and 23%, respectively, at 1 w postoperative and 30%, 45% and 53%, respectively, at postoperative 1 mo. The change in LLT was significantly correlated with the changes in FBUT (r = 0.408, p<0.001) and incomplete blinking rate (r = -0.266, p = 0.007). The change in OSDI was negatively correlated with the change in SI (r = -0.502, p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in LLT and incomplete blinking rate decreased the stability of the tear film. The changes in LLT, FBUT and incomplete blinking rate differed postoperatively with different myopia degrees. The prevalence of DED was higher in the HMG than in the other two groups.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Córnea/cirurgia , Lipídeos/química , Miopia/patologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Adulto , Córnea/fisiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/complicações , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Miopia/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6855-6865, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152108

RESUMO

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are assemblies of extracellular matrix molecules, which surround the cell body and dendrites of many types of neuron and regulate neural plasticity. PNNs are prominently expressed around neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), but their role in adult cerebellar plasticity and behavior is far from clear. Here we show that PNNs in the mouse DCN are diminished during eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a form of associative motor learning that depends on DCN plasticity. When memories are fully acquired, PNNs are restored. Enzymatic digestion of PNNs in the DCN improves EBC learning, but intact PNNs are necessary for memory retention. At the structural level, PNN removal induces significant synaptic rearrangements in vivo, resulting in increased inhibition of DCN baseline activity in awake behaving mice. Together, these results demonstrate that PNNs are critical players in the regulation of cerebellar circuitry and function.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Matriz Extracelular , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(5): 942-950, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paralytic lagophthalmos causes major functional, aesthetic and psychological problems in patients with facial paralysis. The Bionic Lid Implant for Natural Closure (BLINC) project aims to restore eyelid function using an implanted electromagnetic actuator combined with an eyelid sling. The authors performed a preliminary study using cadaveric heads to investigate the optimal application of an eyelid sling in various configurations around the orbit. METHODS: The sling was tested in a cadaveric sheep head using 2 medial anchor points and 4 lateral ostectomy points. An impulse was generated using gravitational force to test each combination of medial and lateral sling insertion sites using weights between 10 and 50 g. Each generated blink was recorded and analysed. The final result was validated in a human cadaveric model. RESULTS: The maximum amount of eye closure and closure speed displayed in sheep were 83.7 ±â€¯9.4% of total closure and 70.6 ±â€¯6.9 mm/s at a maximum force of 490 mN, respectively. The 2 inferior lateral attachments performed better at displacing the eyelid than the superior attachments. The position with the highest degree of eye-closure (improvement of 21.6%, p < 0.001) and speed (improvement of 30.4 mm/s, p < 0.001) was the combination of a posterior medial attachment and an inferior-posterior lateral attachment, which resulted in a near physiological closure in human cadaver. CONCLUSION: Closure improved with an inferior lateral position due to increased force acting in the direction of closure. Posterior positioning increases force acting radially, towards the centre of eyelid movement. The latter directs the closure force to effectively move the eyelid around the curved globe.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Pálpebras/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Animais , Cadáver , Humanos , Ovinos
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1712, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015445

RESUMO

The assessment of awareness in patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is challenging. The level of awareness impairment may depend on the degree of deterioration of the large-scale cortical-thalamo-cortical networks induced by brain injury. Electrophysiological approaches may shed light on awareness presence in patients with DoC by estimating cortical functions related to the cortical-thalamo-cortical networks including, for example, the cortico-subcortical processes generating motor responses to the perturbation of the peri-personal space (PPS). We measured the amplitude, latency, and duration of the hand-blink reflex (HBR) responses by recording electromyography (EMG) signals from both the orbicularis oculi muscles while electrically stimulating the median nerve at the wrist. Such a BR is thought to be mediated by a neural circuit at the brainstem level. Despite its defensive-response nature, HBR can be modulated by the distance between the stimulated hand and the face. This suggests a functional top-down control of HBR as reflected by HBR features changes (latency, amplitude, and magnitude). We therefore estimated HBR responses in a sample of patients with DoC (8 MCS and 12 UWS, compared to 15 healthy controls -HC) while performing a motor task targeting the PPS. This consisted of passive movements in which the hand of the subject was positioned at different distances from the participant's face. We aimed at demonstrating a residual top-down modulation of HBR properties, which could be useful to differentiate patients with DoC and, potentially, demonstrate awareness preservation. We found a decrease in latency, and an increase in duration and magnitude of HBR responses, which were all inversely related to the hand-to-face distance in HC and patients with MCS, but not in individuals with UWS. Our data suggest that only patients with MCS have preserved, residual, top-down modulation of the processes related to the PPS from higher-order cortical areas to sensory-motor integration network. Although the sample size was relatively small, being thus our data preliminary, HBR assessment seems a rapid, easy, and first-level tool to differentiate patients with MCS from those with UWS. We may also hypothesize that such a HBR modulation suggests awareness preservation.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Coma/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognição , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espaço Pessoal , Desempenho Psicomotor
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 791-801, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corneal protection is a priority in flaccid facial palsy patients. Denervation of the orbicularis oculi muscle results in weak palpebral closure and predisposes patients to severe corneal sequelae. While periorbital static procedures enhance corneal coverage in repose, voluntary closure is only regained through dynamic reinnervation of the muscle. This study aims to elucidate the added effect of dynamic reinnervation of the orbicularis oculi muscle on long-term corneal integrity as well as on dynamic closure of the palpebral aperture. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed on two groups of complete palsy patients: those who received solely periorbital static procedures and those who underwent concomitant orbicularis oculi muscle reinnervation and static lid procedures. Only patients with complete ophthalmic examinations were included. Corneal punctate epithelial erosions in addition to static and dynamic palpebral measurements were serially assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: Of 272 facial palsy patients, 26 fit the inclusion criteria. Eleven patients underwent combined muscle reinnervation involving facial-to-masseteric nerve coaptation in addition to static eye procedures, and 15 patients underwent solely static interventions. Analysis revealed a 65.3 percent lower mean punctate epithelial erosion score in reinnervation patients as compared with static patients when evaluated at more than 9 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Reinnervation patients were also found to have 25.3 percent greater palpebral aperture closure (p < 0.05) and 32.8 percent higher closure velocity (p < 0.01) compared with static patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with subacute facial palsy, dynamic reanimation of the orbicularis oculi muscle with concomitant static interventions provides lasting corneal protection not seen in patients who receive solely static interventions. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Doenças da Córnea/prevenção & controle , Músculos Faciais/inervação , Doenças do Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Piscadela/fisiologia , Criança , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Doenças da Córnea/etiologia , Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Músculos Faciais/cirurgia , Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Facial/complicações , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mandibular/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1031, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974444

RESUMO

Single fibre electromyography is the most sensitive neurophysiological test for the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorders, particularly myasthenia gravis. The study aimed at establishing concentric needle (CN) normal jitter values for voluntarily activated orbicularis-oculi (V-OOc) & Frontalis (V-FRO) muscles in Sudanese population. 57 healthy volunteers (20 males & 37 females) were included in the study (mean Age 43.6 ± 14.2 years, range 18-70 years). V-OOc and V-FRO were tested in the same individual using CN. Jitter values were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD) of 30 potential pairs in microseconds. The mean jitter, mean individual fibre pairs jitter & mean outliers jitter values with (upper 95% Confidence Limit-CL) for [OOc] were [26.9 ± 3.3 (31.97), 26.1 ± 8.9 (41.8) & 38.5 ± 5.7 (49.0) µs] & for [FRO] were [27.1 ± 3.0 (31.32), 26.4 ± 9.4 (42.9) & 39.9 ± 5 (49.2) µs] respectively. The suggested practical upper limits for mean jitter & for outliers were (32, 49 µs) for OOc & (31, 49 µs) for FRO. Our CN-jitter values were within the range of the few published studies. The study was unique in that it established and compared between CN reference jitter values of two voluntarily activated facial muscles (V-OOc & V-FRO) in the same individual in large number of healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Pálpebras/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Piscadela/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Feminino , Testa/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sudão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805427

RESUMO

Sleepiness is a major contributor to motor vehicle crashes and shift workers are particularly vulnerable. There is currently no validated objective field-based measure of sleep-related impairment prior to driving. Ocular parameters are promising markers of continuous driver alertness in laboratory and track studies, however their ability to determine fitness-to-drive in naturalistic driving is unknown. This study assessed the efficacy of a pre-drive ocular assessment for predicting sleep-related impairment in naturalistic driving, in rotating shift workers. Fifteen healthcare workers drove an instrumented vehicle for 2 weeks, while working a combination of day, evening and night shifts. The vehicle monitored lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (blinks >500 ms) during the drive. Immediately prior to driving, ocular parameters were assessed with a 4-min test. Lane departures and behavioural microsleeps occurred on 17.5 % and 10 % of drives that had pre-drive assessments, respectively. Pre-drive blink duration significantly predicted behavioural microsleeps and showed promise for predicting lane departures (AUC = 0.79 and 0.74). Pre-drive percentage of time with eyes closed had high accuracy for predicting lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (AUC = 0.73 and 0.96), although was not statistically significant. Pre-drive psychomotor vigilance task variables were not statistically significant predictors of lane departures. Self-reported sleep-related and hazardous driving events were significantly predicted by mean blink duration (AUC = 0.65 and 0.69). Measurement of ocular parameters pre-drive predict drowsy driving during naturalistic driving, demonstrating potential for fitness-to-drive assessment in operational environments.


Assuntos
Direção Distraída , Sonolência , Vigília/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia
10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 214: 188-195, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article reports the outcomes of a 5-year series of individually sutured platinum segment chains for upper eyelid loading. DESIGN: Consecutive case series. METHODS: Platinum segments of 0.4 and 0.2 g were assembled to create the desired weight and were placed in a supratarsal location after levator aponeurosis recession. Primary outcome measures included lagophthalmos on blink, gentle and forced eyelid closure, upper eyelid margin-to-reflex distance (MRD1), corneal staining, static and dynamic validated scoring for facial palsy patients, and complications. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity, occurrence of induced ptosis, need for further surgery, cosmesis, and quality of life evaluation. RESULTS: During 2013-2018, a total of 122 upper eyelids of 117 patients received platinum segment chains (mean weight, 1.2 ± 0.2 g; range, 0.8-1.6 g) for lagophthalmos. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. All grades of lagophthalmos were reduced (P < 0.001), with mean reductions of 3.6, 2.5, and 1.5 mm on blink, gentle, and forced closures, respectively. Mean MRD1 was reduced by 1.4 mm (P < 0.001). Overall, 36 eyelids (29.5%) underwent revision surgery at 9.1 ± 9.2 months after implantation. Of those, 6 eyelids (5.0%) required 2 or more procedures. No platinum allergy occurred. The chain was graded as having no prominence in 77.5% of eyelids; the eyelids were graded as having a normal contour in 70.8% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Platinum segments are US Food and Drug Administration approved and provide benefits of platinum chains with the additional advantages of allowing postoperative adjustability, reduced health care costs, and less likelihood of inducing allergy than gold. Platinum segments are an ideal first-line loading implant for lagophthalmos.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Doenças Palpebrais/cirurgia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Platina , Próteses e Implantes , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Piscadela/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Palpebrais/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Técnicas de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(1): 34-39, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies showed a relatively prolonged blink R1 latency in patients with diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) compared to that without DSPN. We tested the hypothesis that blink R1 latency would provide a diagnostic alternative to nerve conduction studies (NCS) in DSPN and act as a marker of the severity of NCS abnormalities in DSPN. METHOD: A total of 109 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent blink reflex studies and NCS. We used the composite amplitude scores of nerve conductions (CAS), which consisted of motor (tibial, peroneal and ulnar) and sensory (sural and ulnar) amplitudes for estimating the severity of NCS. RESULTS: Patients with DSPN had longer blink R1, R2, and contralateral R2 latencies (P < 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.031, respectively) and higher CAS (P < 0.0001). Area under curve on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in diagnosing occurrence of DSPN in blink R1 latency was 0.772 (P < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blink R1 latency was independently associated with CAS. CONCLUSION: Blink R1 latency may be valuable in auxiliary diagnosis and in determining the severity of NCS abnormalities in DSPN. SIGNIFICANCE: Blink R1 latency can be added as a supplemental marker of severity of NCS in DSPN, especially if the patient's sural amplitudes has a floor effect.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Eletrofisiologia , Nervo Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Nervo Sural/fisiologia
12.
Psychol Res ; 84(1): 15-22, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455232

RESUMO

The current research was designed to assess possible differences in the emotional content of pleasant and unpleasant face emoji using acoustically evoked eyeblink startle reflex response. Stimuli were selected from Emojipedia Webpage. First, we assessed these stimuli with a previous independent sample of 190 undergraduate students (46 males and 144 females) mean age of 21.43 years (SD 3.89). A principal axis method was performed using the 30 selected emoji faces, extracting two factors (15 pleasant and 15 unpleasant emoji). Second, we measured the acoustic startle reflex modulation in 53 young adult women [mean age 22.13 years (SD 4.3)] during the viewing of each of the 30 emoji emotional faces in the context of the theory of motivation and emotion proposed by Lang (1995), but considering only the valence dimension. We expected to find higher acoustically evoked startle responses when viewing unpleasant emoji and lower responses for pleasant ones, similarly to the results obtained in the studies using human faces as emotional stimulus. An ANOVA was conducted to compare acoustic startle responses associated with pleasant and unpleasant emoji. Results yielded main effects for picture valence (λ = 0.80, F(1, 50) = 12.80, p = .001, η2 = 0.20). Post-hoc t test analysis indicated significant differences in the startle response between unpleasant (50.95 ± 1.75) and pleasant (49.14 ± 2.49) emoji (t (52) = 3.59, p = .001), with a Cohen's d = 0.495. Viewing affective facial emoji expressions modulates the acoustic startle reflex response according to their emotional content.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cornea ; 39(1): 132-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new method to distinguish between normal versus lipid-deficient dry eye using a Tear Film Imager (TFI). METHODS: Two groups of study subjects, controls versus lipid-deficient dry eye, were tested using the TFI. This instrument provides an accurate measurement of the thickness and spatial distribution of the muco-aqueous and lipid layers of the tear film. The nanometer thickness resolution of the TFI enables the creation of detailed maps of the lipid layer thickness (LLT) across the corneal surface. These maps are captured with a large field of view of 6.5 mm diameter. RESULTS: A LLT map taken at 1 second from a blink end in the controls appears uniform, whereas a nonuniform layer was measured in the lipid-deficient dry eye. Lipid map uniformity can quantify the spatial variation of lipid across the cornea. A case study showed the ability to distinguish between controls [lipid map uniformity (LMU) = 14 nm] and lipid-deficient dry eye (LMU = 125 nm) through characterization of the LLT distribution. CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution lateral LLT maps demonstrate the significance of the lipid layer uniformity, which may play an important role in maintaining tear film health. LLT maps and the quantitative LMU could be used to diagnose and treat patients with dry eye.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Lágrimas/química , Piscadela/fisiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12867, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125469

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a subcortical structure in the medial temporal lobe involved in cognitive functions such as spatial navigation and reorientation, episodic memory, and associative learning. While much is understood about the role of hippocampal function in learning and memory in adults, less is known about the relations between the hippocampus and the development of these cognitive skills in young children due to the limitations of using standard methods (e.g., MRI) to examine brain structure and function in developing populations. This study used hippocampal-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC) as a feasible approach to examine individual differences in hippocampal functioning as they relate to spatial reorientation and episodic memory performance in young children. Three- to six-year-old children (N = 50) completed tasks that measured EBC, spatial reorientation, and episodic memory, as well as non-hippocampal-dependent processing speed abilities. Results revealed that when age was held constant, individual differences in EBC performance were significantly related to individual differences in performance on the spatial reorientation test, but not on the episodic memory or processing speed tests. When the relations between hippocampal-dependent EBC and different reorientation strategies were explored, it was found that individual differences in hippocampal function predicted the use of geometric information for reorienting in space as opposed to a combined strategy that uses both geometric information and salient visual cues. The utilization of eyeblink conditioning to examine hippocampal function in young populations and its implications for understanding the dissociation between spatial reorientation and episodic memory development are discussed.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Masculino
15.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(3): 160-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to introduce the results of a new surgical technique in patients with complete facial nerve palsy using the dynamic muscle transfer of orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) flap from the contralateral side. METHODS: This case series presents a new surgical technique in three patients with complete facial palsy and lagophthalmos who were unresponsive to other modalities. In this technique, a rectangular flap of OOM was dissected from the upper lid of fellow eye and transferred to the affected eye through a subcutaneous tunnel over the nasal bridge. The flap was divided into two halves for upper and lower lids. Each half was incised longitudinally to increase the length of the flap and cover the lateral part of the affected eyelids. RESULTS: Improvement in exposure keratitis, lagophthalmos, and other related symptoms was observed as soon as the 1st week after the surgery. Partial blinking recovered and the operation was uneventful. CONCLUSION: Muscle flap transfer technique using contralateral OOM for complete facial palsy can be considered as a helpful alternative in patients who are still symptomatic despite conventional treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Pálpebras/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/transplante , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Idoso , Piscadela/fisiologia , Doenças Palpebrais/cirurgia , Pálpebras/fisiologia , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(6): 1061e-1070e, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1984, Terzis reported on the potential use of a free platysma muscle transfer to reanimate the orbicularis oculi in longstanding paralysis of this unit. However, the vascularized platysma flap proved difficult to transfer, and this technique is not widely used today. In the present study, the authors have described the technique involving grafting of the platysma muscle to restore eyelid function and retrospectively discussed its clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with longstanding facial paralysis who underwent orbicularis oculi reconstruction with neurotized platysma grafts. The authors have described the surgical technique and its retrospective clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2015, 38 consecutive patients underwent this procedure; of them, 34 [16 men (47 percent) and 18 women (53 percent)] completed the follow-up. The time between the first and second surgical stages was a mean 8.6 months (range, 6 to 22 months). The surgical results were good in 18 patients (53 percent) and the recovery was satisfactory in 13 (38 percent). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of grafted muscle functional recovery and the efficiency of neuromuscular neurotization. The presented surgical technique is safe and effective for treating longstanding facial palsy of the orbicularis oculi muscle. This is the only technique that is easy and reproducible, leads to facial nerve recovery, and places a similar muscle at the original site of the paralyzed muscle for functional recovery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Sistema Musculoaponeurótico Superficial/transplante , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Pálpebras/inervação , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoaponeurótico Superficial/inervação , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/inervação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(6): 415-421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688324

RESUMO

Blinking is one of the motor acts performed more frequently by healthy human subjects. It involves the reciprocal action of at least two muscles: the orbicularis oculi shows a brief phasic activation while the levator palpebrae shows transient inhibition. In clinical practice, noninvasive recording of the orbicularis oculi activity is sufficient to obtain useful information for electrodiagnostic testing. Blinking can be spontaneous, voluntary, or reflex. Although the analysis of spontaneous blinks can already furnish interesting data, most studies are based on reflex blinking. This article is a review of some of the alterations that can be observed in blinking, focusing in four patterns of abnormality that can be distinguished in the blink reflex: (1) afferent versus efferent, which allows characterization of trigeminal or facial lesions; (2) peripheral versus central, which distinguishes alterations in nerve conduction from those involving synaptic delay; (3) upper versus lower brainstem lesions, which indicates the lesions involving specific circuits for trigeminal and somatosensory blink reflexes; and (4) asymmetric abnormal excitability pattern, which shows a unilateral alteration in the descending control of excitability in brainstem circuits. The blink reflex excitability recovery curve to paired stimuli may provide information about other modulatory inputs to trigemino-facial circuits, such as those proposed for the connection between basal ganglia and trigeminal neurons. Finally, prepulse inhibition of blink reflex reflects the motor surrogate of subcortical gating on sensory volleys, which is still another window by which electrodiagnosis can document motor control mechanisms and their abnormalities in neurologic diseases.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico
18.
Brain Behav ; 9(12): e01483, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the cerebral areas responsible for winking by observing the activation pattern and learning effects on cerebral cortices by comparing differences in activation pattern during winking before and after learning. METHODS: Sixty-three subjects were recruited, including 22 (11 males; 11 females) who could wink bilaterally and 41 (14 males; 27 females) who could wink unilaterally. Event-related functional magnetic resonance was performed. The subjects were asked to blink and wink according to projected instructions as the events for image analysis. The activation pattern was obtained by contrasting with the baseline images without eyelid movements. Those who could only wink unilaterally were asked to train themselves to wink the other eye. For those who succeeded (n = 24), another imaging study was performed and the results were compared with those before training. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Left winking resulted in activation in the left frontal lobe, while right winking resulted in activation in bilateral frontal lobes with predominance on the right side. For the subjects capable of only winking unilaterally, learning to wink on the other side activated similar cortical areas to those in the subjects capable of bilateral winking without training.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
19.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 146: 101-106, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies using a variety of methodologies have reported inconsistent dopamine (DA) findings in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ranging from dopaminergic hypo- to hyper-activity. Theta-band power derived from scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG), which may be associated with dopamine levels in frontal cortex, has also been shown to be atypical in ASD. The present study examined spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR), an indirect, non-invasive measure of central dopaminergic activity, and theta power in children with ASD to determine: 1) whether ASD may be associated with atypical DA levels, and 2) whether dopaminergic dysfunction may be associated with aberrant theta-band activation. METHOD: Participants included thirty-two children with ASD and thirty-two age-, IQ-, and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children. Electroencephalography and eye-tracking data were acquired while participants completed an eyes-open resting-state session. Blinks were counted and EBR was determined by dividing blink frequency by session duration and theta power (4-7.5 Hz) was extracted from midline leads. RESULTS: Eye-blink rate and theta-band activity were significantly reduced in children with ASD as compared to their TD peers. For all participants, greater midline theta power was associated with increased EBR (related to higher DA levels). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ASD may be associated with dopaminergic hypo-activity, and that this may contribute to atypical theta-band power. Lastly, EBR may be a useful tool to non-invasively index dopamine levels in ASD and could potentially have many clinical applications, including selecting treatment options and monitoring treatment response.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Piscadela/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Descanso/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso/psicologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17255, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamic changes of tear film optical quality in a short tear break-up time (TBUT) dry eye by using a double-pass system. METHODS: Thirty-five short TBUT dry eye participants and 43 control subjects without dry eye were included in this study. One eye for each subject was analyzed. The Objective Scatter Index (OSI), modulation transfer function (MTF), and strehl ratio (SR) were recorded within a 20-second period with the participants asked to blink freely, and 10 successive seconds of nonblinking immediately after a blink was recorded to analyze the tear film OSI. The mean tear film OSI in 10 successive seconds, ΔOSI, and ΔOSI/time were evaluated. The correlation between tear film OSI and MTF, and the correlation between tear film OSI and MIT were also analysed. RESULTS: Short TBUT dry eye participants showed significant deterioration of MTF and SR compared to control subjects. The mean tear film OSI in 10 successive seconds was significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control subjects. The mean OSI of the tear film (0-5 seconds) and the mean OSI of the tear film (6-10 seconds) were significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control participants. Moreover, the ΔOSI was significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control participants. The tear film OSI was significantly correlated with the MTF and the SR. CONCLUSIONS: The tear film OSI of short TBUT dry eye participants is significantly increased in the early stage. Tear film instability in short TBUT dry eye participants has a significant effect on optical quality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/normas , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Lágrimas , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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