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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 50-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050878

RESUMO

Legionella bacteria living in free form or in biofilm and free-living amoebae (FLA) can infect humans through swimming pools and can cause various diseases. FLA may also threaten the health of swimmers because they are capable of being hosts for Legionella and some other bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (TAHB), FLA and Legionella bacteria in swimming pool waters and biofilm samples in Istanbul by using culture and FISH methods. Water plate count agar (wPCA), buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar supplemented with glycinevancomycin-polymyxin-cycloheximide (GVPC) and Escherichia coli cultivated non-nutrient agar (NNA) were used for the culture of TAHB, Legionella and FLA. For the FISH method analysis , Leg 705 and Leg PNE1 probes labeled with fluorescent dye for Legionella and ACANTHA probe for Acanthamoeba genus FLA were used. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 ATCC 33152, L.pneumophila serogroup 3 ATCC 33155 and Acanthamoeba castellani ATCC 50373 were used as positive controls. TAHB were grown in 92% and 84% of water and biofilm samples. Although Legionella bacteria could not be grown in any of the water samples, it was detected in 6 (24%) water samples by FISH method. Although these bacteria could be grown in 1 (4%) of biofilm samples, 7 (28%) were detected by FISH method. FLA were found to be 16% by culture in water samples and 28% by FISH analysis. These amoebae were detected 8% and 20% in biofilm samples by culture and FISH method, respectively. It was determined that one of the isolates of FLA had thermotolerant activity (potentially pathogenic). L.pneumophila serogroup 1 was detected in one water sample and in four biofilm samples. According to the culture method, TAHB and FLA were found to be more common in water samples than in biofilm samples and Legionella bacteria were more common in biofilm samples than in water samples (p≤ 0.05). In the detection of Legionella bacteria, the superiority of FISH method compared to culture method was found to be statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). In this study, it was found that the number of TAHB in the controlled swimming pools was within the limits determined by the Ministry of Health (≤ 200 cfu/ml). It will be appropriate to examine both water and biofilm samples for the investigation of TAHB, FLA and Legionella. It may be appropriate to use both culture and FISH methods to detect the presence of FLA in water and biofilm samples. This study is the first study to investigate the presence of Legionella and FLA in swimming pools in Istanbul, and further studies are needed to examine more pool water and biofilm samples. With the data obtained, the health principles and controls of swimming pools will be re-considered and will be contributed to public health.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Biofilmes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Legionella , Piscinas , Microbiologia da Água , Água , Amoeba/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Incidência , Legionella/fisiologia , Turquia , Água/parasitologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135277, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831230

RESUMO

The occurrence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in swimming pool waters has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the concentrations of 20 EDCs (4 phenols, 6 estrogens, 4 progestogens, 5 androgens, and 1 pharmaceutical) in 40 outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Changsha, China were investigated. Out of them, two phenols (bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol), three estrogens (17ß-estradiol, 17ɑ-ethinlestradiol (EE2), and hexestrol), one pharmaceutical (caffeine), and two progestogens (progesterone and levonorgestrel) were detected in the collected samples. The androgens were not detected. Bisphenol A and caffeine were the dominant EDCs at concentrations of ND-23.22 ng/L and ND-39.08 ng/L, respectively. The levels of caffeine were significantly higher in indoor swimming pools (11.15 ng/L in average) than those in outdoor pools (1.90 ng/L in average) (p < 0.05), owing to the less sun's UV radiation and less use of sunscreens containing caffeine. The progestogens (progesterone and levonorgestrel) and estrogens (17ß-estradiol and hexestrol) were only detected in outdoor swimming pools. The detection frequencies and concentrations of bisphenol A and caffeine in downtown pools were significantly higher than those in outskirt pools. Besides, the correlations between the concentrations of EDCs and water quality parameters evaluated by the Spearman correlation analysis implied that residual chlorine had strong oxidant capable to bisphenol A and suggested that caffeine could be a potential indicator of organic contamination in swimming pool water. Finally, a quantitative risk assessment revealed that non-athletic child and athletic adult female were vulnerable subpopulations. The EDItotal of EE2 for athletic child, non-athletic female, non-athletic male, and non-athletic child were higher than ADIEE2 adopted by Australia and the EDItotal of EE2 for athletic female and athletic male were higher than ADIEE2 adopted by the United States.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Estradiol/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Fenóis , Progestinas/análise , Medição de Risco
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 112-122, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791485

RESUMO

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in swimming pools by the reactions of bather inputs with the disinfectant. Although a wide range of molecules has been identified within DBPs, only few kinetic rates have been reported. This study investigates the kinetics of chlorine consumption, chloroform formation and dichloroacetonitrile formation caused by human releases. Since the flux and main components of human inputs have been determined and formalized through Body Fluid Analogs (BFAs), it is possible to model the DBPs formation kinetics by studying a limited number of precursor molecules. For each parameter the individual contributions of BFA components have been quantified and kinetic rates have been determined, based on reaction mechanisms proposed in the literature. With a molar consumption of 4 mol Cl2/mol, urea is confirmed as the major chlorine consumer in the BFA because of its high concentration in human releases. The higher reactivity of ammonia is however highlighted. Citric acid is responsible for most of the chloroform produced during BFA chlorination. Chloroform formation is relatively slow with a limiting rate constant determined at 5.50 × 10-3 L/mol/sec. L-histidine is the only precursor for dichloroacetonitrile in the BFA. This DBP is rapidly formed and its degradation by hydrolysis and by reaction with hypochlorite shortens its lifetime in the basin. Reaction rates of dichloroacetonitrile formation by L-histidine chlorination have been established based on the latest chlorination mechanisms proposed. Moreover, this study shows that the reactivity toward chlorine differs whether L-histidine is isolated or mixed with BFA components.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cloretos , Clorofórmio , Halogenação , Cinética , Purificação da Água
4.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124801, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520969

RESUMO

The maintenance of public swimming pools requires numerous technological steps. One of the most important issues involves microbiological safety. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) encompasses homologous alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides with various alkyl chains, in particular C12 and C14, and is known as a popular algaecide for keeping water clean. In addition to BAC, NaOCl and UV-irradiation are also used to treat pool water as additional technological steps. Therefore, BAC itself can become a precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). High-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), with accurate mass measurements, has allowed the discovery of several groups of DBPs that are related to BAC in public pool water in Arkhangelsk (Russia). These DBPs include numerous isomeric monochlorinated derivatives ([C21H37ClN]+ and [C23H41ClN]+), hydroxyl derivatives ([C21H38NO]+ and [C23H42NO]), carbonyl ([C21H36NO]+ and [C23H40NO]+), and dicarbonyl derivatives ([C21H34NO2]+ and [C23H38NO2]+). In addition, chlorinated alcohols, ketones and ketoalcohols of BAC were also detected, including [C21H35ClNO]+, [C21H37ClNO]+ and [C21H35ClNO2]+ for BAC-12; and [C23H39ClNO]+, [C23H41ClNO]+ and [C23H39ClNO2]+ for BAC-14. MS/MS allowed reliable elucidation of the structures of novel DBPs, proving that chlorination starts via radical substitution in the long aliphatic chains of BAC. UV-irradiation dramatically accelerates the reaction completely destroying the original compounds in less than an hour, while the array of the intermediate products remains the same as in the dark. The formation of other DBPs proceeds due to further reactions of these primary products. The concentrations of novel DBPs in pool water reach µg L-1 levels. These conclusions were proved by conducting model reactions of BAC with NaOCl.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzalcônio/química , Desinfecção , Herbicidas/química , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Desinfetantes/química , Halogenação , Federação Russa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(19): 433, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851646

RESUMO

This year's Healthy and Safe Swimming Week theme, "Pool Chemistry for Healthy and Safe Swimming," focuses on preventing pool chemical injuries. Pool chemicals prevent the spread of germs that cause illnesses and disease outbreaks; however, these same chemicals can cause injuries if mishandled. Each year, an estimated 3,000-5,000 emergency department visits caused by pool chemical injuries (e.g., poisonings from inhalation or ingestion of pool chemicals and dermatitis or conjunctivitis from pool chemical splashes) occur in the United States.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Segurança , Piscinas , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Humanos
6.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105274, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678908

RESUMO

Air exposures occurring in indoor swimming pools are an important public health issue due to their popularity and regular use by the general population, including vulnerable groups such as children and elderly people. More comprehensive information on indoor air quality (IAQ) in swimming pools is thus needed in order to understand health risks, establish appropriate protective limits and provide evidence-based opportunities for improvement of IAQ in these facilities. In this context, twenty public indoor swimming pools located in the Northern Region of Portugal were examined in two sampling campaigns: January-March and May-July 2018. For each campaign, a comprehensive set of environmental parameters was monitored during the entire period of the facilities' operating hours of a weekday, both indoors and outdoors. In addition, four air (1-h samplings) and water samples were collected. Findings show that comfort conditions, ultrafine particles number concentrations and exposure to substances in the indoor air (concentration and composition) is likely to vary greatly from one public indoor swimming pool to another. Trihalomethanes (THM) and dichloroacetonitrile were the predominant disinfection by-products identified in the indoor air but other potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds, such as limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, 2- and 3-methylbutanenitrile, acetophenone, benzonitrile, and isobutyronitrile were found to have relevant putative emission sources in the environment of the swimming pools analyzed. Furthermore, indicators of poor ventilation conditions (namely carbon dioxide, relative humidity and existence of signs of condensation in windows) and some water-related parameters (THM levels, conductivity and salinity) were found to be determining factors of the measured airborne THM concentrations that appeared to significantly potentiate the exposure. In summary, this work provides evidence for the need to establish adequate standards for the comprehensive evaluation of IAQ in public swimming pools, in order to guide further development of evidence-based prevention/remediation strategies for promoting healthy environments in swimming pools.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Material Particulado/química , Piscinas , Trialometanos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Desinfetantes/química , Humanos , Portugal
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 11 19.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742652

RESUMO

During February and March 2019, an accumulation of clinically similar erythematous plantar nodules was observed at the University Children's Hospital and several primary care facilities in Uppsala, Sweden. At least 20 children sought medical advice, and all cases presented with a recurrent plantar hidradenitis after within a day after visiting Uppsala's largest waterpark and arena for swimming. The presented symptoms were identical with a condition called pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome described in the literature. An investigation led by the local public health authorities revealed heavy growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water-filled toys in a children's play area and in samples taken from the floor of a pool where the surface was partly damaged. After closing the affected part of the pool and removal of the contaminated toys, no more people sought medical advice. Pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome is believed to be more frequent than diagnosed today, and increased awareness is essential to avoid unwarranted diagnostic tests and treatments, and to identify and eradicate the source of infection.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Hidradenite/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Piscinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Pé/patologia , Hidradenite/diagnóstico , Hidradenite/epidemiologia , Hidradenite/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 499-506, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596261

RESUMO

We investigated how UV treatment of indoor pool water affects the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (NCl3) in the air above one therapy pool. One-hundred and sixty-two samples of tTHMs (sum of the four most common THMs in swimming facilities) and thirty-six samples of NCl3 were collected simultaneously at poolside and in the extract channel in a room with one therapy pool for 2 days a week over a period of 5 weeks. When the UV lamp was on, the concentration of combined chlorine in the water decreased 58%, the concentration of tTHMs in the air increased 37%, and the concentration of NCl3 in the air decreased 15%. Between 42% and 56% of the gases in the air are recirculated back into the poolroom along with the recycled air. The correlation between NCl3 and THMs in the air was stronger when the UV treatment was on (r2 = 0.963) compared to when the UV treatment was off (r2 = 0.472). Using a linear mixed model, 30% of the variability in THMs was attributed to UV treatment. For NCl3, the number of bathers was the most important predictor variable. UV treatment has a limited effect on airborne NCl3 but increases the air concentration of tTHMs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cloretos , Cloro , Trialometanos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 130-134, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502803

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological contamination of indoor swimming pools. Methods: Pool water specimens were collected using a plastic polypropylene sterilized bottle. The physical and chemical qualities of the waters were analyzed in terms of temperature, turbidity, pH, and free residual chlorine, with the standard methods for the examination of water. Bacteriological (routine methods) and parasitological (molecular methods) tests were carried out on pools water. Results: The mean temperature, pH, and residual chlorine of the indoor pools were 31.2 °C, 7.6 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity was not observed in any of the pools. The pH and temperature values were in standard ranges in 92.3% and 15.4% of the waters of swimming pools, respectively. The prevalence rates of bacterial and amoebic contaminations of the water in the swimming pools were 53.8% and 46.2%, respectively. One pool (7.7%) was contaminated with both bacteria and amoeba. Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Cryptosporidium and Bacillus spp. were isolated from the pool waters. Conclusion: In this study, some microorganisms were identified from the water pools. Effective management of swimming pools and proper control of the physical, chemical and microbiological property of water pools can produce the healthy recreational activity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Piscinas/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Água/química , Água/parasitologia , Amoeba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amoeba/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloro/análise , Estudos Transversais , Cryptosporidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/normas
10.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 409-419, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509897

RESUMO

The descent is a critical part of a dive, both physically and mentally. Pulmonary ventilation, expressed as respiratory minute volume (RMV) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during fast and slow descents to 35 meters (m) in open water while breathing compressed air, and during swimming horizontally at moderate velocity at an 11-m depth. Values of both types of descents were compared with reference values recorded at 11 m, the "plateau" phase, halfway through the 35-m dives. It is hypothesized that the "slow-descent" and "plateau-phase" values will be less than 'fast-descent values. Depth, cylinder pressure, water temperature and HR were recorded with a dive computer yielding time-averaged means (mRMV and mHR) for the descent and for plateau. Of the 18 divers included, 16 performed the fast descents and 11 made the slow descents. The fast descents (23 m·min-1 vertically), performed with 0-8 fin kicks, yielded mRMVDescent=28 ambient L (aL)·min-1, which is 82% higher (P⟨0.001) than mRMVPlateau of 15 aL·min-1. Further, mHRDescent was121 beats·min-1 23% higher (P⟨0.001), than mHRPlateau of 100 bpm. Slow descents (2.4 m·min-1 vertically) yielded 17 aL·min-1 with mHR=101 beats·min-1, values only slightly higher than at Plateau. The 11-m dive (swimming horizontally) yielded 24 m·min-1 with 32 fin kicks·min-1, mRMV=35 aL·min-1 and mHR=115 beats·min-1. Fast descents cause a higher RMV and HR that cannot be explained by physiology alone. Presumably mental stress is a main contributor. For dives deeper than 20 m, a descent velocity of 10 m·min-1 is recommended to reduce cardiac stress, in particular for older divers.


Assuntos
Mergulho/fisiologia , Mergulho/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Ventilação Pulmonar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Aceleração , Adulto , Idoso , Ar Comprimido , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Respiração , Água do Mar , Estresse Fisiológico , Natação/fisiologia , Piscinas , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31537-31545, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482527

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pool have elicited increasing worldwide concern due to their potential health risks. However, only trihalomethanes (THMs) are regulated by several local governing bodies. Studies indicated that specific unregulated DBP classes would drive disinfected water toxicity in addition to THMs. Halobenzoquinones (HBQs), a type of emerging unregulated DBPs, have been shown to be possible bladder cancer carcinogens. This study aimed to determine the distribution and formation of HBQs in indoor and outdoor swimming pool waters of Nanning City, Southwest China. Seven HBQs in water from seven public indoor and outdoor swimming pools were examined using an effective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results suggest the presence of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone in all the swimming pool waters in the range of 4.56-45.30 ng/L. Furthermore, 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone and 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (TetraC-1,2-BQ) were detected in two pools at concentrations of < 0.38-14.20 and < 0.54-2.60 ng/L, respectively. The swimming pool water featured higher HBQs than input tap water, and TetraC-1,2-BQ was only detected in pool water. Higher HBQ levels were observed in the indoor pools than in the outdoor pools. These findings demonstrate that low NH3-N, high chloride, humic acid, chemical oxygen demand, and UV254 in the indoor pools increased the HBQ formation. This study is the first to reveal the occurrence and formation of HBQs in water from Chinese indoor and outdoor swimming pools. The findings should be useful in the management of these governing factors and HBQ controls in swimming pools.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cloro/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29110-29126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392609

RESUMO

Many studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pools have focused on haloacetic acids, trihalomethanes, and chloramines, with less studies investigating the occurrence of other DBPs, such as haloketones, haloacetaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, halonitromethanes, and haloacetamides. Furthermore, while many studies have achieved a broadscreen analysis across several pools, fewer studies have followed the water quality of pools over time, with information regarding the production and fate of DBPs in pools over extended periods (e.g. > 1 year) being limited. This study reports the occurrence of 39 DBPs and several general water quality parameters in two newly built and filled swimming pools over 15 months, where investigations began prior to opening. DBP concentrations measured in this study were generally similar to or higher than those previously reported in chlorinated pools, with concentrations of chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) in some samples being higher than previously reported maximum concentrations. Considering both pools, lower concentrations of DBPs were measured in the pool where a steady state non-purgeable organic carbon concentration was achieved, highlighting the importance of the establishment of a steady state balance of mineralisation versus addition of organic carbon to reduce precursors for DBP formation in pools. Pools were found to exhibit significantly higher estimated cytotoxicity than their filling water, which reflects the significantly higher concentrations of DBPs measured in the pools in comparison to the filling water. Chloral hydrate accounted for up to 99% the total estimated cytotoxicity and was found to be correlated to the number of pool entries, suggesting that swimmers may be a potential source of chloral hydrate precursors in pools. The presence and subsequent peak of non-purgeable organic carbon and DBPs prior to, and soon after, opening suggest that the building process and/or new pool infrastructure may have had a significant impact on the chemical water quality, particularly on DBP formation. This study includes the first quantification of bromochloroacetaldehyde, bromodichloroacetaldehyde, bromochloronitromethane, and dichloronitromethane in chlorinated swimming pools, and provides important new knowledge on the long-term trends of DBPs in pools.


Assuntos
Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetatos , Hidrato de Cloral/análogos & derivados , Cloraminas , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Água/química , Qualidade da Água
13.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450273

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is associated with negative health effects, including sun damage and skin cancer. The purpose of this study is to compare the protective effects of the shade provided by a sun umbrella versus that provided by a tree. Sun sensors that register the level and dose of UV radiation were placed in the shade and in direct sunlight. Measurements were recorded every half hour between the hours of 12:30 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. in Sacramento, California. The results suggest that the level of UV radiation in the shade is not zero. The sensors located in tree shade indicated that over 5% of UV radiation was detected in the shade. The sensors located in sun-umbrella shade showed that greater than 17% of UV radiation reached the shade. The sun sensors used in our study collected UV radiation data relevant to UV index; however, they did not differentiate between UVA, UVB, visible, and infrared light. The amount of UV radiation detected in the shade is not zero, thus regular sunscreen use and other sun protective practices should be followed to reduce the risk of sun damage and skin cancer.


Assuntos
Equipamentos de Proteção , Monitoramento de Radiação , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , California , Fator de Proteção Solar , Piscinas
14.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218687, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287819

RESUMO

Legionella spp. are considered an important cause of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality, making environmental surveillance a crucial component of risk assessment plans. In this work, 20,319 water samples were collected in 3,983 environmental surveys during a 16-year period by ARPA, the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection, Friuli Venezia Giulia, and the results were studied to better understand the diffusion mechanisms of Legionella. The data showed a strong seasonal signal, a prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 2-15 in most environments (63% of positive samples), a prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in swimming pool-associated environments (82% of positive samples), a persistent presence of Legionella in hospitals and a recurrent presence of Legionella in other facilities such as hotels, possibly years after interventions, highlighting the difficulty of eradicating the bacteria. Retrospective spatio-temporal analyses on geocoded historical data were carried out with SaTScan using an ordinal model with risk as a covariate to identify potential clusters with an excess of cases in the higher-risk categories. Although no outbreaks occurred during the period of study, such analyses identified spatially restricted zones with unusual contamination, which sometimes were also areas in which several surveys triggered by notifications of clinical cases were performed. Simulations of periodic prospective analyses permitted the assessment of the efficacy of the method in early detection of such clusters. The proposed method may be a useful tool in environmental surveillance, prevention and control of Legionella.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Itália , Legionella pneumophila/patogenicidade , Legionelose/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Piscinas , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Environ Int ; 131: 104988, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swimming in pools is a healthy activity that entails exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are irritant and genotoxic. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated exposure to DBPs during swimming in a chlorinated pool and the association with short-term changes in genotoxicity and lung epithelium permeability biomarkers. METHODS: Non-smoker adults (N = 116) swimming 40 min in an indoor pool were included. We measured a range of biomarkers before and at different times after swimming: trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath (5 min), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine (30 min), micronuclei in lymphocytes (1 h), serum club cell protein (CC16) (1 h), urine mutagenicity (2 h) and micronuclei in reticulocytes (4 days in a subset, N = 19). Several DBPs in water and trichloramine in air were measured, and physical activity was extensively assessed. We estimated interactions with polymorphisms in genes related to DBP metabolism. RESULTS: Median level of chloroform, brominated and total THMs in water was 37.3, 9.5 and 48.5, µg/L, respectively, and trichloramine in air was 472.6 µg/m3. Median exhaled chloroform, brominated and total THMs increased after swimming by 10.9, 2.6 and 13.4, µg/m3, respectively. Creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA increased by 3.1 µmol/mol. Micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, urine mutagenicity and serum CC16 levels remained unchanged after swimming. Spearman correlation coefficients showed no association between DBP exposure and micronuclei in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and CC16. Moderate associations were observed for micronuclei in reticulocytes and DBP exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The unchanged levels of the short-term effect biomarkers after swimming and null associations with personal estimates of exposure to DBPs suggest no measurable effect on genotoxicity in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and lung epithelium permeability at the observed exposure levels. The moderate associations with micronuclei in reticulocytes require cautious interpretation given the reduced sample size.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Polimorfismo Genético , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Piscinas , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1606: 360359, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320131

RESUMO

A portable device that integrates sampling and extraction is proposed in this work. The unit is fabricated using commercial and standardized elements which guarantees the construction reproducibility. Also, it is simple to be mounted and on-site deployed making possible the multi-site sampling. The device uses a commercial nylon membrane as extraction phase for the isolation of the target compounds, but it can be adapted to other flat sorptive phases thus expanding the applicability. Once mounted, the unit is stirred into the sample by means of a portable drill enhancing in that way the diffusion of the target analyte towards the extraction phase. The hydrodynamic behavior and the design have been optimized and the device has been finally used for the extraction benzophenones from swimming pool samples. These endocrine disruptive compounds are determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) at concentrations as low as 0.1 µg/L with precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, better than 9.9%. The accuracy, calculated as relative recovery, was in the range from 74 to 111 % thus being considered appropriate.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Benzofenonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Piscinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sleep Health ; 5(4): 317-318, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303472
18.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(4): 638-641, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183615

RESUMO

Swimming pool suction injuries are rarely encountered in forensic medicine. Infants under 8 years of age are most frequently involved in such accidents with high risk of serious injuries and fatal consequences due to drowning. We report, for the first time, a case of a 13-year-old boy trapped at the abdomen by an uncovered suction drainage hole. External examination of the body revealed a round ecchymosis which had the same diameter as the pool drain. Post-mortem examination established that death had occurred due to drowning, possibly in combination with traumatic shock from the suction mechanism involving the intestinal loops. Furthermore, this case may be remarkable as it raises other medico-legal issues regarding the safety standards at swimming pools, including pool management and lifeguard attendance. Preventative measures are needed in order to make sure this sort of injury or death does not occur. Moreover, the awareness of the occurrence of these accidents should be increased.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Sucção/efeitos adversos , Piscinas , Adolescente , Equimose/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Choque Traumático/etiologia
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 448, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214861

RESUMO

This research aimed to develop an index known as swimming pool water quality index (SPWQI) for quantifying the water pollution potential. The index is a quantitative tool to show the data on the water quality of swimming pools consistently. It makes summarizing the complex data on water quality possible and paves the way for its communication to the general public and decision makers. In this study, the SPWQI has been formulated according to the literature review and Delphi method. According to literature review and the total judgment of the panelist (23 experts specialized in environmental health engineering), 13 physicochemical and biological parameters along with their weights were selected for inclusion in the SPWQI. The results indicated the possibility of calculating a single numerical value (i.e., SPWQI), which indicates the combined effect of significant selected parameters on water quality. In addition, biological composition (47%) had a strong preference weighting than physical and chemical parameters in evaluating the index. Next, it was attempted to implement a novel and user-friendly mathematical model for evaluating the SPWQI. Then, the model accuracy and performance was confirmed by a case study. Overall, it could be said that the assessment of SPWQI sheds light on the concurrent power of several pollutants and can help the authorities to decide upon water quality management and treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Piscinas/normas , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiologia da Água
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(25): 568-572, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246941

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools and water playgrounds) was associated with 156 (35.1%) outbreaks resulting in 4,232 (56.7%) cases. Other predominant outbreak exposures included contact with cattle (65 outbreaks; 14.6%) and contact with infected persons in child care settings (57; 12.8%). The annual number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks overall increased an average of approximately 13% per year over time. Reversing this trend will require dissemination of prevention messages to discourage swimming or attending child care while ill with diarrhea and encourage hand washing after contact with animals. Prevention and control measures can be optimized by improving understanding of Cryptosporidium transmission through regular analysis of systematically collected epidemiologic and molecular characterization data.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Piscinas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
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