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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 36, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409600

RESUMO

The study highlights the presence of pathogenic strains of microorganisms in two swimming pools, highly frequented in the city of Yaounde. Thus, the water samples from these swimming pools have undergone physicochemical and biological treatments using conventional techniques. Three groups of microorganisms (Bacteria, Protozoa, and Helminths) were identified and quantified in these swimming pools with weakly acidic waters (6.79 ± 0.35) with an average temperature of 26.63 ± 0.53 °C and suspended matter ranging from 2 to 150 mg.l-1. The total bacterial load varies between 8 × 103 and 6000 × 103 CFU/100 ml. It consists of mesophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fecal coliforms, total coliforms, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protozoan cysts and oocysts range from 122 to 505 per liter of water. These values are slightly lower for helminth eggs and larvae (0 to 108 eggs and larvae/l). In both swimming pools, significant correlations were observed between some abiotic and biotic parameters. The waters of the studied swimming pools are subject to fecal pollution. Swimmers would therefore be exposed to biological contaminations, responsible for pathologies. The most common diseases are linked to gastroenteritis (diarrhea), but infections of all kinds may be overgrown (conjunctivitis, ear infections, dermatitis, respiratory infections).


Assuntos
Piscinas , Animais , Camarões , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiologia da Água
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507141

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium species are responsible for causing the majority of parasite-related gastrointestinal infections in the UK. This report describes an outbreak of 12 laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis cases identified as part of a Scottish swimming pool investigation, with 9 primary and 3 secondary cases occurring over an 8-week period. Molecular speciation was successful for 11/12 cases, which revealed 10 Cryptosporidium hominis cases and 1 Cryptosporidium parvum case. Of the 10 C. hominis cases, further typing identified 7 as being an unusual sub-type, IbA6G3, which is the first description in the UK of this rare variant. The remaining three C. hominis cases were identified as the common IbA10G2 subtype. Following implementation of control measures on two occasions, no further cases were reported. This report highlights the importance of molecular typing to identify and characterize outbreaks, and emphasizes the need to adhere to swimming pool guidance. It also raises awareness of the potential for outbreaks to involve multiple species/sub-types, and emphasizes the importance of strong public health leadership to ensure effective multi-agency investigations and management of outbreaks.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Piscinas , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Escócia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466624

RESUMO

The benefits of swimming have been extensively assessed. However, swimming pools contain chlorine and other irritating chemicals that may induce contact dermatitis. To evaluate the effect of a swimming training session on transepidermal water loss (TWEL) in swimmers compared to football players, elite swimmers and football players were invited to participate (58 athletes) in the study, where TEWL was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min after a 2 h training session. The probe was held on the dorsum of the hand, volar forearm, and on the antecubital flexure for 1 min. The volar forearm, antecubital flexure, and hand dorsum showed a significant increase in TEWL in swimmers in both measurements after training compared to baseline (p < 0.001). In football players, an increase in TEWL was observed on the hands' dorsum between baseline and after training measurements. The variations on TEWL levels before and immediately after the training session were higher among swimmers on the volar forearm (p = 0.002) and antecubital flexure (p = 0.019). Our findings support the effect of the training environment-swimming pool versus outdoor sports-on the skin barrier function, with an increase of transepidermal water loss immediately after exercise. Exposure to a swimming pool environment in a 2 h training session may lead to changes in skin barrier function.


Assuntos
Piscinas , Natação , Atletas , Cloro , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1150660

RESUMO

Objetivo: Observar e relatar aspectos relacionados à segurança em um serviço de hidroterapia do município de Goiânia, Goiás. Casuística e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional realizado entre agosto e dezembro de 2017, no período matutino, em um serviço de Fisioterapia de Goiânia, Goiás. Primeiramente, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura buscando artigos científicos no Google Acadêmico, Scielo, PubMed, Medline e literatura especializada (normas técnicas, portarias e resoluções). O levantamento abrangeu a literatura nacional e internacional, artigos originais gratuitos e disponíveis na íntegra, sendo utilizados como descritores: acessibilidade, padrões da hidroterapia, risco, contraindicações, perigo e precauções. Em seguida, tomando como referência as normas e recomendações para serviços de hidroterapia encontradas na literatura, foi construída uma tabela constando os aspectos de segurança observados. Resultados: De 31 itens elencados e observados neste estudo, quatro (12,9%) não puderam ser avaliados, 14 (45,2%) atenderam aos padrões e recomendações e 13 (41,9%) apresentaram necessidade de reflexão e melhoria, uma vez que não atenderam às exigências apresentadas nas normas vigentes. Conclusão: O serviço de hidroterapia observado requer a adoção de algumas medidas de segurança, recomendando-se um olhar mais cuidadoso frente ao assunto e um esforço coletivo no sentido de ampliar a discussão sobre segurança nesta área, a fim de tornar os profissionais conscientes de seus atos e do pleno atendimento às normas técnicas vigentes


Objective: Observe and report safety-related aspects in a hydrotherapy service in the city of Goiânia, Goiás. Casuistry and Methods: This is an observational study carried out between August and December of 2017, in the morning period, in a Physiotherapy service in the city of Goiânia, Goiás. Initially, a literature review was carried out searching for scientific articles on Google Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, Medline and specialized literature (technical standards, ordinances and resolutions). The survey covered national and international literature, original articles were free and available in full, being used as descriptors: accessibility, hydrotherapy standards, risk, contraindications, danger and precautions. Then, with the rules/recommendations for a hydrotherapy service taken from the literature review, a table was built and during the internship, the safety aspects contained in the table were observed by that service. Results: Of 31 items listed and observed in this study, four (12.9%) could not be evaluated, 14 (45.2%) met the standards and recommendations and 13 (41.9%) generated energy for reflection and improvement, since they did not meet the requirements of current regulations. Conclusion: The observed hydrotherapy service requires the adoption of some safety measures, recommending a more careful look at the subject and a collective effort to expand the discussion on safety in this area, in order to make professionals aware of their acts and full compliance with current technical standards.


Assuntos
Segurança , Hidroterapia/instrumentação , Piscinas/organização & administração
5.
Water Res ; 188: 116501, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091804

RESUMO

Natural swimming ponds (NSPs) are artificially created bodies of water intended for human recreation, characterised by the substitution of chemical disinfection with natural biological processes for water purification. NSPs are growing in popularity, however little is known regarding the public health risks. A screening level risk assessment was undertaken as an initial step in assessing the first Canadian public NSP located in Edmonton, Alberta. Risk of enteric pathogens originating from pool bathers was assessed under normal conditions and following accidental faecal release events. The performance of the natural treatment train for health protection was quantified with and without the addition of UV disinfection of naturally-treated water, and compared to the US EPA benchmark to provide a reference point to consider acceptability. Estimated levels of pathogen contamination of the pond were dependant upon the discrete number of shedders present, which in turn depended upon the prevalence of infection in the population. Overall performance of the natural disinfection system was dependant upon the filtration rate of the natural treatment system or turnover time. Addition of UV disinfection reduced the uncertainty around the removal efficacy, and mitigated the impact of larger shedding events, however the impact of UV disinfection on the natural treatment biome is unknown. Further information is needed on the performance of natural barriers for pathogen removal, and therefore challenge studies are recommended. Given the identified risks, the pool is posted that there is risk from accidental faecal releases, as in any natural water body with swimmers. Screening level risk assessment was a valuable first step in understanding the processes driving the system and in identifying important data gaps.


Assuntos
Tanques , Piscinas , Alberta , Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Medição de Risco , Natação , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 10, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319333

RESUMO

The present work shows the evaluation of the decay of free residual chlorine in several public swimming pools in the city of Medellín, observing that a decrease in residual chlorine does occur. Some factors accelerate the decrease in the concentration of free residual chlorine in recreational water, such as the number of bathers in the pool, the pH, and the temperature of the water. For this reason, the concentration of the disinfectant rapidly decreases to an extent that the health of swimmers could be put at risk. The Authority of Health of Medellín carries out inspection, surveillance and quality control activities of water for recreational use. These purposes of these include guaranteeing the reduction of risk factors to the health of the users of said pools.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Piscinas , Cloro/análise , Colômbia , Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Natação
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 722, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089340

RESUMO

Recommendations regarding disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pool waters consider the content of trihalomethanes (THMs) and combined chlorine (CC) as indicators of DBPs based on which the health risk for swimmers and staff of pool facility can be determined. However, the content of DBPs in swimming pools depends on many factors. In this paper, the influence of selected factors (physicochemical parameters of water and technological parameters) on the content of THMs and CC in pool water was determined. During the 6-month period, 9 pools of various functions were analyzed. The water in pools was subjected to the same method of treatment. The content of THMs and CC was compared against the content of organic matter, free chlorine and nitrates, pH, temperature, redox potential and turbidity, technological, and operational parameters. The THM content did not exceed the limit value of 0.1 mg/L. The content of CC varied significantly, from 0.05 to 1.13 mg Cl2/L. It was found that a very large water volume per person, in comparison to a very small one, contributed to the low content of CC and THMs. The high load expressed as m3 of water per person or m2 of water per person and the specific function of hot tubs (HT1 and HT2) led to the average concentration of CC in these pools exceeding 0.3 mg Cl2/L. The THM concentrations in hot tubs (especially in HT1) were also among the largest (0.038-0.058 mg/L). In terms of the analyzed microbiological indicators, the quality of the tested pool water samples was not in doubt. It was found that the purpose of the pool, its volume, and number of swimmers should be the key parameters that determine the choice of methods of water treatment. The research on the pool water quality in the actual working conditions of swimming pool facilities is necessary due to the need to preserve the health safety of swimmers and staff.


Assuntos
Piscinas , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126872, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957284

RESUMO

The distribution of 20 personal care products (PCPs), including seven preservatives, six UV filters, five anticorrosion agents, and two antimicrobials, were determined in 40 swimming pools using solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among 14 targets detected, 1H-benzotriazole and triclocarban were observed in all samples. The detected concentrations of preservatives, UV filters, anticorrosion agents, and antimicrobials were in the ranges of not detected (nd)-179 ng L-1, nd-289 ng L-1, nd-58.4 ng L-1, and nd-56.9 ng L-1, respectively. The presence of preservatives, UV filters and antimicrobials in pool waters might be mainly brought in by human activities while anticorrosion agents were mainly from the source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of methylparaben, ethylparaben, 1H-benzotriazole, 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 5-chloro-1H-benzotriazole, and 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole in indoor pools were found higher than those in outdoor pools. The longer opening time and weaker light intensity for indoor pools might cause the difference. The redundancy analysis showed significantly negative correlations between the concentrations of parabens and the contents of residual chlorine in the pool waters. A higher chlorine residue may promote the decomposition of parabens. Health risk assessment showed that skin penetration would be the main approach for the intake of PCPs by swimmers while swimming. Compared with the non-athletic swimmers, the athletic swimmers might be more sensitive, but the health risks for both groups of swimmers could be negligible.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbanilidas , Cloro/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Parabenos , Medição de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida , Natação , Piscinas , Triazóis
9.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 533-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833679

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the exposure levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in an indoor swimming pool and calculate the risks of exposure to THMs, based on the presence of each THM species, of children swimmers aged 6-17, in Beijing, China. We obtained exposure factors for the children through questionnaires and measured THM concentrations through laboratory tests, and we combined the results with an exposure model to calculate the risks, with consideration of different exposure routes (oral ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption). In terms of exposure factors for the swimmers aged 6-17, the average body weight, exposure duration, exposure frequency, swimming time, shower time, changing time, warm-up exercise and rest time, skin surface area and ingestion rate of pool water were 40.46 kg, 2.70 years, 96 events/year, 64.03 min/event, 17.04 min/event, 15.31 min/event, 12.71 min/event, 1.37 m2 and 48.93 ml/event, respectively. The THM concentrations in swimming pool water, shower water, swimming pool air and locker room air were 67.17 µg/L, 12.64 µg/L, 358.66 µg/m3 and 40.98 µg/m3, respectively. The average cancer risk of THMs was 5.44 × 10-6, which is an unacceptable risk according to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Guidelines. The average hazard index was 0.007, i.e., less than 1, indicating that the noncancer risk was acceptable. Chloroform (TCM) was the main substance in four species of THMs and inhalation exposure was the main exposure pathway. The risk of cancer and noncancer from inhalation exposure to THMs accounts for 97-99% of the total risk. As a result, the disease control authorities and administrative department should pay attention to the health and safety of swimming facilities and, at the same time, establish standards for THMs in the air through further research.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorofórmio , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Natação
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 516, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666262

RESUMO

Applying a desirable disinfestation process is necessary to control the pathogenic microorganisms in the swimming pools and prevent both dermal and intestinal effects. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare the bacterial community and diversity in the two swimming pools disinfected by the chlorine and ozone (O3)-chlorine processes. A total of 24 samples were taken from the two swimming pools in three distinct seasons to analyze the bacterial and physico-chemical indicators. Culture and molecular methods were used to evaluate the microbial quality. Two sets of sample taken from the pools with the maximum swimmer load in the summer were investigated by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. In total, 410 and 406 bacterial species were identified in the chlorine- and ozone-chlorine-disinfected pools, respectively. Among the eight dominant bacterial species in each swimming pool, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Pseudomonas acnes were common species between the two studied pools. Oleomonas sagaranensis (350 reads/18593), Staphylococcus caprae (302 reads /18593), and Anaerococcus octavius (110 reads/18593) were among the dominant bacteria in the chlorine-disinfected pool. Bacterial diversity was lower in the ozone-chlorine-disinfected pool than the other one, and the highest bacterial sequencing belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (85.79%). Results showed that water quality of in O3-chlorine-disinfected pool was more desirable than the chlorine-disinfected pool. Molecular methods along with conventional culture methods would be advantageous for microbial assessment in the swimming pools.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Ozônio , Piscinas , Acetobacteraceae , Cloro/análise , Desinfecção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Firmicutes , Irã (Geográfico) , Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605262

RESUMO

The quality of water in swimming pools is essential to avoid risks to the health of users. Medellín has more than 1000 public swimming pools, which are supervised by the Medellín Health Authority to monitor and ensure compliance with relevant regulations. The Health Authority has financed several studies related to the quality of drinking and recreational water in Medellín in order to protect consumers and users. One such study involves the evaluation of the presence of disinfection byproducts (DBP). The best known DBPs resulting from disinfection with chlorine are trihalomethanes (THMs) and halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), as well as other minorities such as chloramines or halophenols (HPs). DBPs pose a greater risk in swimming pool water because there is a greater possibility of ingestion, since exposure occurs through several routes at the same time (direct ingestion of water, inhalation of volatile or aerosol solutes, dermal contact and absorption through skin). In the present work, high concentrations of THMs and HAAs were detected in the public swimming pools selected in the study, but the presence of HPs was not detected in the pools.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Piscinas , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cloro , Colômbia , Desinfecção , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Public Health ; 185: 232-234, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spa pools (SPs) pose risks of Legionella infection for users and bystanders. METHODS: We searched the National Enhanced Legionella Surveillance System for reported SP-associated legionellosis incidents in England between 2002 and 2018 involving at least two cases. RESULTS: For seven legionellosis SP-associated incidents, six were in commercial settings such as hotels. The median number of cases per outbreak was four (range 2-115). CONCLUSION: SP-associated legionellosis incidents were mainly located in commercial settings with a wider range of cases than those recognised in previous publications, reinforcing the need for effective environmental controls for SPs in a range of settings.


Assuntos
Legionella , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidroterapia/efeitos adversos , Piscinas
13.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 2. rev; 12 jul 2020. 1-22 p.
Não convencional em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1116580

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de estabelecer medidas de proteção para a contenção e disseminação do COVID-19 na liberação da retomada das atividades econômicas no Estado de Goiás - Brasil, estabelece protocolos para o retorno à operação de academias, quadras poliesportivas, treinamento esportivo profissional, instituições religiosas, shopping centers, shopping centers, restaurantes e similares, indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes, hotéis e similares, transporte público local, intermunicipal e interestadual, serviços de call center e call centers, salões de beleza e afins, para atividades esportivas quadras, piscinas e quadras em condomínios residenciais


In order to establish protective measures for the containment and dissemination of COVID-19 in the liberation of the resumption of economic activities in the State of Goiás - Brazil, it establishes protocols for returning to the operation of gyms, sports courts, professional sports training, religious institutions, shopping centers , Shopping centers, restaurants and the like, slaughtering and meat processing industries, hotels and the like, local, intercity and interstate public transportation, call center services and call centers, beauty salons and the like, for activities in sports courts, swimming pools and blocks in residential condominiums


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança , Esportes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Protocolos , Pandemias , Restaurantes , Piscinas , Indústria da Carne , Saneamento de Hotéis , Academias de Ginástica , Indústria de Laticínios , Centros de Embelezamento e Estética , Call Centers , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 105(4): 625-627, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522671

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces. It can be retrieved in faeces but there is no evidence of faecal-oral transmission, which is the main route of contamination in recreational waters. Standard cleaning and disinfecting procedures, microbiological control and health rules aim to prevent infectious risk regardless of the micro-organisms. In the context of progressive lockdown exit and hospital activities recovery, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rehabilitation pools and therapeutic water environments in order to provide specific recommendations to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while ensuring essential rehabilitation care for patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Guias como Assunto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Centros de Reabilitação/normas , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Piscinas/normas , Humanos
15.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 439-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578839

RESUMO

Public health measures to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic, imposed also a shutdown of sports facilities and swimming pools. Safety issues related to recreational waters were emerging during the lockdown, rising concerns on how and when reopening pools and on how improve their management while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the population. The GSMS-SItI, Working Group on Movement Sciences for Health of the Italian Society of Hygiene Preventive Medicine and Public Health, discussed and summarized some indications for a suitable preventive approach. Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures. The GSMS-SItI underlines that prevention should be based on monitoring of the local epidemiological situation and on the constant collaboration with the local health authority and the national health service.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Piscinas/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Exercício Físico , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Itália , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vigilância da População , Quarentena , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Purificação da Água/normas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139890, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554116

RESUMO

The occurrence of a wide variety of regulated (four trihalomethanes (THM(4)), five haloacetic acids (HAA(5))) and unregulated (haloacetonitriles (HANs), halogenated ketones, chloropicrin, carbon tetrachloride, and other haloacetic acids) disinfection by-products (DBPs) was studied, in two hundred twenty-six finished drinking water samples collected in Barcelona (Spain, between 2008 and 2009), Athens (Greece, 2009-2010), Heraklion (Greece, 2009-2010), Nicosia (Cyprus, 2012-2013), and Limassol (Cyprus, 2011). The samples were analyzed by using liquid-liquid extraction, gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector or negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, fourteen swimming pool water samples (from Heraklion and Athens) were also investigated regarding their DBPs content. The studied DBPs were determined concurrently with pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and bromide. Spearman's statistical analysis has shown statistically significant (p < 0.001) weak correlations between TOC, THM(4), HANs and HAA(5) but a strong correlation between THM(4) and HANs. Principal component analysis (PCA) on THM(4), HANs and HAA(5) provided a clear differentiation between the examined drinking waters, on the basis of their DBPs content. In the drinking water of coastal cities, the brominated DBPs dominated over the chlorinated ones, due to the higher bromide concentrations occurring in the corresponding raw waters. Lifetime cancer risk and hazard quotient by exposure to four THMs, dichlorocetic acid and trichloroacetic acid in drinking water and indoor swimming pools through multiple pathways were estimated. Total cancer unit risks in drinking water for Nicosia, Barcelona, Limassol and Athens exceeded in most cases the US EPA's regulatory threshold (1.0E-06). The total lifetime cancer risk evaluated for the studied indoor swimming pools was above the US EPA's negligible level for male, female, and junior swimmers.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Água Potável , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Chipre , Desinfecção , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Grécia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Trialometanos/análise
17.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(78): 197-210, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194777

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: determinar el efecto de una prueba aeróbica de natación en piscina clorada indoor sobre la concentración de NO2-, H2O2 y el pH en el condensado del aire espirado. MÉTODO: diez nadadores aficionados nadaron 2,5 km en piscina clorada. Se obtuvieron muestras antes y en cuatro oportunidades durante las ocho horas posteriores a la prueba. El análisis estadístico usó modelos mixtos y la prueba de Spearman RESULTADOS: la prueba se realizó a 74,99 ± 10,10 % de la reserva cardíaca y duró 50,80 ± 8,98 minutos. Posterior a la prueba disminuyó el NO2- (p = 0,04) y el pH (p = 0,02) en el condensado del aire espirado. Los valores pre-ejercicio se relacionaron con los cambios absolutos p = 0,0002, p = 0,047 y con el volumen de entrenamiento p = 0,017, p = 0,077 para NO2- y H2O2 respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: la natación en piscina clorada disminuye la concentración de NO2- y el pH en el condensado del aire espirado


OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of an aerobic swimming test in chlorinated indoor swimming pool on the concentration of NO2-, H2O2 and the pH in the exhaled breath condensate. METHODS: ten amateur swimmers swam 2,5 km in a chlorinated pool. Samples were obtained before and four times in the eight hours after the test. The statistical analysis used mixed models and the Spearman test. RESULTS: the test was performed at 74,99 ± 10,10 % of the cardiac reserve and lasted 50,80 ± 8,98 minutes. After the test the NO2- (p = 0,04) and the pH (p = 0,02) in the exhaled air condensate decreased. The pre-exercise values were related to the absolute changes p = 0,0002, p = 0.047 and with the training volume p = 0,017, p = 0.077 for NO2- and H2O2 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming in a chlorinated pool decreases the NO2-concentration and the pH in the exhaled breath condensate


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Natação/fisiologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitritos , Piscinas , Pulmão/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456241

RESUMO

Cerebral palsy results in the progressive loss of motor functions, with a negative impact on daily activities and participation. Despite the well described benefits of aquatic therapy in children, little is known about the effects of the same in school settings. This study aimed to describe the experience of children and youth with cerebral palsy participating in an aquatic therapy program within a special education school considering their educational and therapeutic perspectives. A qualitative descriptive case study with embedded units was developed, comprising 27 participants. This study employed purposeful sampling to include children and youth with cerebral palsy from the Asociación Ayuda a la Paralisis Cerebral (APACE) special education school, together with their parents, the special education teachers, and health care professionals. Data were collected via non-participant observation, semi-structured and informal interviews, focus groups, and researcher field notes. A thematic analysis was conducted, revealing the following themes: (a) the connection with the environment; (b) postural improvements and mobility; (c) the opportunity to perform tasks; (d) learning and transfer. A motivating environment leads to physical, cognitive and social benefits, both at school and in the home. Aquatic therapy was viewed as a means for learning and participation. These findings may enhance understanding regarding the potential benefits of implementing multidisciplinary aquatic therapy programs in specialist school settings.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Educação Especial , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Piscinas
19.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(3): 233-239, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers and enablers to preventing and controlling Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic facilities as perceived by environmental health practitioners (EHPs). METHODS: A qualitative, constructivist study with a purposive sample of seven EHPs from Victoria, Australia, was conducted. A focus group discussion was guided by a semi-structured interview schedule using open-ended questions. The audio-recorded focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five themes represented the perceived barriers and enablers: i) pool water testing methods; ii) resources and training for EHPs; iii) knowledge and behaviour of aquatic facility operators and swimming pool users; iv) regulation; and v) aquatic facility and swimming pool design. Two key barriers within these themes included aquatic facility regulation and unhealthy swimming behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Several barriers and enablers to preventing and controlling Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic facilities were perceived by EHPs. Suggestions to overcome perceived barriers were also identified. Further research is required to determine the impact of these findings on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis associated with aquatic facilities. Implications for public health: The findings contribute to a greater understanding of the barriers and enablers to Cryptosporidium spp. prevention and control in aquatic facilities, which may improve the effectiveness of current prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Cryptosporidium , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Água/parasitologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Saúde Ambiental , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Piscinas , Poluição da Água
20.
Rev. esp. patol. torac ; 32(2): 100-105, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193902

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Es controvertido el efecto que la natación en piscinas cubiertas puede tener sobre la función pulmonar y sobre los parámetros de inflamación bronquial. El objetivo del estudio fue estudiar la evolución de parámetros funcionales y de inflamación antes y después del baño en usuarios de piscinas cubiertas y sin patología respiratoria conocida. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio observacional prospectivo en el que se incluyeron nadadores habituales de piscinas cubiertas. Los individuos incluidos en el estudio no presentaban antecedentes de asma ni alteraciones funcionales o de inflamación bronquial en el momento de la inclusión. Se realizaron pruebas funcionales (espirometría) y medida de inflamación (FeNO) minutos antes y tras el baño en diferentes piscinas públicas. Se analizaron de forma paralela los parámetros físico-químicos del agua de dichas piscinas en el momento de la natación y que fueron proporcionados por la Inspección de Sanidad adscrita a dicha piscina pública. RESULTADOS: Fueron incluidos 50 nadadores, 26 hombres y 24 mujeres, de edad media 40,8 ± 10,8 años. El tiempo de inmersión fue de 32 minutos. Encontramos diferencias antes y tras la inmersión. En los nadadores incluidos mejoraron tras la inmersión de forma significativa la FVC (p < 0,05), y el FEV1 (p < 0,04) así como disminuyó el FENO (p < 0,01) Las características del agua de las piscinas, medidas según los protocolos habituales de sanidad, se encontraron en todos los casos dentro del rango habitual determinados en el Real Decreto 742/2013, de 27 de septiembre (BOE, Viernes 11 de octubre de 2013), por el que se establecen los criterios técnico-sanitarios de las piscinas. Tras el análisis estadístico, no se obtuvieron diferencias en parámetros de función e inflamación bronquial en relación con los datos físicos y químicos del agua de las piscinas y recogidos en el momento de la inclusión de los pacientes en el estudio. CONCLUSIONES: Hemos objetivado una mejoría significativa de los parámetros funcionales respiratorios en nadadores de piscinas cubiertas


INTRODUCTION: it is controversial the effect that swimming in indoor swimming pool can have on lung function and parameters of inflammation. The objective of the study was to study the evolution of functional parameters and inflammation before and after swimming in users of indoor swimming pools and without known respiratory pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: this was an observational prospective study in which regular swimmers were included. Individuals included in the study had no history of asthma or functional or inflammatory diseases at the time of inclusion. Functional tests (spirometry) and inflammation measurement (FENO) were performed minutes before and after bathing in different public swimming pools. The physical-chemical parameters of the water of these swimming pools were analyzed in parallel at the time of swimming and were provided by the sanitary inspection attached to said public swimming pool. RESULTS: were included 50 swimmers, 26 men and 24 women, mean age 40.8 ± 10.8 years. The immersion time was 32 minutes. In the swimmers included, FVC significantly improved after dipping (p < 0.05), FEV1 (p < 0.04) as did FENO (p < 0.01). The water characteristics of the swimming pools, measured according to the usual health protocols, were found in all cases within the usual range determined in Royal Decree 742/2013, de 27th September (BOE 11th October 2013). After statistical analysis, no differences were found in parameters of bronchial function and inflammation in relation to the physical and chemical data of the swimming pools included in the study. CONCLUSIONS: we have observed a significant improvement in respiratory functional parameters in indoor swimming pool swimmer


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pulmão/fisiologia , Piscinas , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Natação/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria , Microbiologia da Água
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