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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103553, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428619

RESUMO

This study assessed the influence of different types of flooring on infants' crawling motion patterns and performance. Each participating infant (range: 8.7-12.4 months) was encouraged to crawl on a tatami mat made of woven straw as well as other flooring types such as hardwood, carpet, and joint mat. Material tests were conducted to quantify the friction and shock absorption of the flooring. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to measure spatiotemporal and kinematic variables during hands-and-knees crawling. An increased crawling rate was associated with a faster cadence of cyclic arm movements, but not with crawling stride length. Hardwood flooring had a significantly lower crawling rate and longer duration of hand-floor contact than tatami, while the crawling stride length and range of motion of joint movements were hardly affected by flooring type. The results of this study suggest a drawback of hardwood flooring in terms of infants' effective quadrupedal locomotion.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Mãos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Lactente , Joelho , Locomoção , Movimento
2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 209, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbes can grow in indoor environments if moisture is available, and we need an improved understanding of how this growth contributes to emissions of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs). The goal of this study was to measure how moisture levels, building material type, collection site, and microbial species composition impact microbial growth and emissions of mVOCs. We subjected two common building materials, drywall, and carpet, to treatments with varying moisture availability and measured microbial communities and mVOC emissions. RESULTS: Fungal growth occurred in samples at >75% equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) for carpet with dust and >85% ERH for inoculated painted drywall. In addition to incubated relative humidity level, dust sample collection site (adonis p=0.001) and material type (drywall, carpet, adonis p=0.001) drove fungal and bacterial species composition. Increased relative humidity was associated with decreased microbial species diversity in samples of carpet with dust (adonis p= 0.005). Abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that accounted for >1% emissions were likely released from building materials and the dust itself. However, certain mVOCs were associated with microbial growth from carpet with dust such as C10H16H+ (monoterpenes) and C2H6SH+ (dimethyl sulfide and ethanethiol). CO2 production from samples of carpet with dust at 95% ERH averaged 5.92 mg hr-1 kg-1, while the average for carpet without dust at 95% ERH was 2.55 mg hr-1 kg-1. CONCLUSION: Microbial growth and mVOC emissions occur at lower relative humidity in carpet and floor dust compared to drywall, which has important implications for human exposure. Even under elevated relative humidity conditions, the VOC emissions profile is dominated by non-microbial VOCs, although potential mVOCs may dominate odor production. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fungos , Humanos , Umidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 447, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532774

RESUMO

The floor surface of the cubicle is a detrimental factor on cow comfort. The effects of two floor types, rubber and concrete, on dairy cow comfort and milk production were compared for a period of 13 weeks. Fourteen Friesian crossbred dairy cows with an average body weight of 425.67 ± 61.12 kg (mean ± SD), nose to tail body length of 2.07 ± 0.15 m, rump height of 1.29 ± 0.02 m, hook bone width of 0.48 ± 0.05 m, and body condition score (BCS) of 4.13 ± 0.44 were used, with seven cows per flooring treatment. The cows produced a mean of 15.93 ± 4.03 l/cow/day and a constant feeding plan was practiced. The swelling and wound severity of hocks diminished (P < 0.05) starting at the third and tenth weeks, respectively. Daily lying time/h (concrete: 9.67 ± 1.24, rubber: 10.60 ± 0.69, P = 0.046) and average duration of lying bouts/min increased (concrete: 58.16 ± 7.74, rubber: 65.66 ± 9.85, P = 0.050) starting from the twelfth week on rubber bedding. Prevalence of mastitis, lameness, and cow cleanliness remained unchanged on floor treatments. A progressive increase in daily milk production/l (concrete: 13.37 ± 1.46, rubber: 16.67 ± 2.24, P = 0.007) of cows in rubber bedding was observed at the fourth week of the experiment. Hence, the current study suggests that the use of softer bedding such as rubber mats could improve cow comfort and daily milk production of cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Tarso Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal , Leite , Borracha , Sri Lanka
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570800

RESUMO

Motivating rodents to perform cognitive tasks often relies on the application of aversive stimuli. The Vibration Actuating Search Task (VAST) is a novel open-field task in which gradient floor vibration provides motivation for the rodent to navigate in the direction of diminishing vibration to an unmarked target destination. Using floor vibration as a motivational stimulus may overcome several of the potential confounds associated with stimuli used in other tasks. In a series of three experiments, we determined whether (1) rats exhibit place preference for floor vibration over other aversive stimuli (i.e., water, foot shock, and bright light), (2) exposure to floor vibration is associated with a lower corticosterone response than exposure to these other stimuli, (3) rats successfully acquire the VAST, and (4) VAST performance is sensitive to 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Our results showed that rats exhibited place preference for vibration over water, foot shock, and bright light environments, and that corticosterone levels were lower in rats exposed to vibration than those exposed to water. VAST performance also significantly improved over two days of testing for some metrics, and SD impaired VAST performance. Overall, we conclude that (1) rats exhibit place preference for vibration over other stimuli commonly used to motivate task performance, (2) the vibrations employed by the VAST produce lower concentrations of circulating corticosterone than forced swimming, (3) rats can learn to use gradient floor vibration as a mode of performance feedback within two days of testing, and (4) VAST performance is substantially impaired by SD. Thus, the VAST is an effective and practical testbed for studying the mechanisms by which SD causes deficits in feedback-dependent decision making.


Assuntos
Feedback Formativo , Motivação , Teste de Campo Aberto , Vibração , Animais , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
6.
Animal ; 15(7): 100199, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171568

RESUMO

As potential substitutes for traditional free-range rearing system, floor-rearing system (FRS) and net-rearing system (NRS) are the current predominant dryland duck rearing systems. However, the influence of these two systems on production performance and duck health is poorly understood. In this study, a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two rearing systems (FRS and NRS) and three ages (4w, 8w and 13w) was conducted to study the effects of FRS and NRS on production, antioxidant capacity and immune status of Nonghua ducks. The production performance was mainly affected by the effect of rearing systems at 8w. Body weight, average daily gain, eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight were higher in NRS ducks at 8w, but carcass yield at 8w and 13w was decreased (P < 0.05). Lipid deposition was enhanced in NRS and higher sebum and abdominal fat yields were seen at 8w and 13w (P < 0.05). NRS resulted in developmental retardation of the liver at 4w and decreased gizzard index at all ages (P < 0.05). Antioxidant capacity indicators were unaffected by rearing systems (P > 0.05), however, in NRS, slightly better antioxidant capacity was seen at 4w, while glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was higher at 13w (P < 0.05). NRS ducks had higher thymus weight at 8w and higher spleen weight at 13w (P < 0.05). Immune cytokines were extensively affected by rearing system (P < 0.05) and higher levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4 and immunoglobulins were seen in NRS ducks. Serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) showed that NRS was better for liver health, and in the liver of FRS ducks, ALP was higher at 13w, and both ALP and interferon-γ were higher at 13w than at 4w and 8w (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that NRS was, to an extent, conducive to production performance and duck liver health, but compared to FRS, defects were seen in visceral organ development and lipid deposition. Although antioxidant capacity was not significantly affected, NRS ducks may have better antioxidant capacity at the early breeding stage, and GSH-Px activity was increased for scavenging excess free radicals at the later one. NRS increased serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4 and immunoglobulins and promoted thymus and spleen development, thus improving duck immune function. These findings will provide a reliable reference for selecting a rearing system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Patos , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fígado , Carne/análise
7.
Extremophiles ; 25(4): 369-384, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117569

RESUMO

As part of the reconstruction of the Brazilian Antarctic Station on King George Island, three areas of moss carpet were transplanted to minimize the impact of the new facilities on the local biodiversity. A total of 650 m2 of moss carpet was transplanted to neighboring but previously uncolonized locations and has subsequently survived for the last 3 years. Antarctic moss carpets typically comprise low moss species diversity and are often monospecific. We investigated the cryptic biodiversity that was transplanted along with the carpets using a metabarcoding approach through high throughput sequencing. We targeted 16S rRNA for Bacteria and Archaea, ITS for Fungi and Viridiplantae and Cox1 for Metazoa. We detected DNA representing 263 taxa from five Kingdoms (Chromista, Fungi, Metazoa, Protista and Viridiplantae), two Domains (Archaea and Bacteria) and 33 Phyla associated with the carpet. This diversity included one Archaea, 189 Bacteria, 24 Chromista, 19 Fungi, eight Metazoa, seven Protista and 16 Viridiplantae. Bacteria was the most abundant, rich and diverse group, with Chromista second in diversity and richness. Metazoa was less diverse but second highest in dominance. This is the first study to attempt transplanting a significant area of moss carpet to minimize anthropogenic environmental damage in Antarctica and to use metabarcoding as a proxy to assess diversity associated with Antarctic moss carpets, further highlighting the importance of such habitats for other organisms and their importance for conservation.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Regiões Antárticas , Biodiversidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12237, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to evaluate the status of tear film objectively and subjectively in machine carpet weavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, machine-made carpet weavers were compared with the controls who were selected from people working in other parts of the factory except for the production. A complete evaluation of ocular health was done for all participants. The blink rate, tear deformation Time (TDT), and ocular staining were evaluated as an objective assessment and the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) was used for a subjective assessment of the tear film status. The results were compared between the two groups using the SPSS software. RESULTS: The results of 46 weavers (mean age: 38.43 ± 6.10 years) and 46 controls (mean age: 33.20 ± 8.40 years) were analyzed. The mean of blink rate and OSDI score were significantly higher in weavers (Blink rate: 20.67 ± 4.18 blink/min, OSDI: 22.59 ± 9.51) in comparison with controls (Blink rate: 14.00 ± 3.30 blink/min, OSDI: 6.22 ± 4.78, P < .001). The mean TDT value of the weavers was significantly lower compared with the controls (10.27 ± 3.01 and 16.58 ± 4.18 s respectively, P < .001). Ocular surface staining was seen among 60.9% of weavers while there was 6.5% in the controls (P < .001). Based on the TDT test and OSDI results together, the percentage of dry eye in the weavers was 43.5% and that in the non-weavers was 2.2%, which showed that the relationship between weaving and dry eyes was statistically significant (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that increased symptoms and decreased tear stability in weavers compared with non-weavers lead to more tear film abnormalities in these individuals.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Indústria Têxtil , Adulto , Piscadela , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Lágrimas
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12133, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108540

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the effect of friction between foot sole and floor on the external forward moment about the body center of mass (COM) in normal and shuffling gaits. Five young male adults walked with normal and shuffling gaits, under low- and high-friction surface conditions. The maximum external forward moment about the COM (MEFM-COM) in a normal gait appeared approximately at initial foot contact and was unaffected by floor condition. However, MEFM-COM in a shuffling gait under high-friction conditions exceeded that under low-friction conditions (p < 0.001). Therein, MEFM-COM increased with an increasing utilized coefficient of friction at initial foot contact; this effect was weaker during a normal gait. These findings indicate that increased friction between foot sole and floor might increase tripping risk during a shuffling gait, even in the absence of discrete physical obstacles.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pé/fisiopatologia , Fricção , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Caminhada , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 971, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual and queer (GBQ) men are frequently subjected to minority stressors that have negative impacts on their health. Milestones that include the acceptance and disclosure of sexual identity amongst GBQ men are hence key instruments in understanding the prevalence of internalised homophobia and predicting health outcomes. As such, this work takes a novel approach to deduce the correlates of delayed acceptance of sexual orientation in young GBQ men as a measure of internalised homophobia through retrospective self-reporting and age-based analysis. METHODS: Participants were recruited as part of a cohort study exploring the syndemic risks associated with HIV acquisition among young GBQ men in Singapore. We examined their levels of internalised, perceived, experienced homophobia, as well as their health behaviours and suicidal tendencies. Two separate variables were also self-reported by the participants - the age of questioning of sexual orientation and the age of acceptance of sexual orientation. We subsequently recoded a new variable, delayed acceptance of sexual orientation, by taking the difference between these two variables, regressing it as an independent and dependent variable to deduce its psychosocial correlates, as well as its association with other measured instruments of health. RESULTS: As a dependent variable, delayed acceptance of sexual orientation is positively associated with an increase of age and internalised homophobia, while being negatively associated with reporting as being gay, compared to being bisexual or queer. As an independent variable, delayed acceptance of sexual orientation was associated with a delayed age of coming out to siblings and parents, suicide ideation, historical use of substances including smoking tobacco cigarettes and consuming marijuana, as well as reporting higher levels of experienced, internalised and perceived homophobia. CONCLUSION: Greater levels of early intervention and efforts are required to reduce the heightened experience of minority stress resulting from communal and institutional hostilities. Areas of improvement may include community-based counselling and psychological support for GBQ men, while not forsaking greater education of the social and healthcare sectors. Most importantly, disrupting the stigma narrative of a GBQ 'lifestyle' is paramount in establishing an accepting social environment that reduces the health disparity faced by GBQ men.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Bissexualidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Homofobia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Singapura/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida
11.
Indoor Air ; 31(6): 2312-2328, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969921

RESUMO

In this paper, a three-dimensional non-isothermal computational model for predicting indoor SVOC distribution is proposed, considering the effects of turbulence diffusion and suspended particles. The realizable k-ε model is introduced for turbulent flow simulation in a room. The Euler-Euler method is adopted to deal with the gas-particle two-phase flow coupled problem. Inertia slip velocity and irreversible first-order absorption boundary are employed for more accurate prediction of particle motion. The simulated curve of outlet gas-phase di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentration with emission time is verified by available experimental data. The emission process of DEHP in a 15 m2 room in Beijing during 100 days with or without air cleaner is simulated by the developed model considering air leak through window and door gaps. It is found that if the air cleaner keeps on all the time during 100 days the gas-phase DEHP concentration in the room will tend to be uniform, while the emission process is far from equilibrium without an air cleaner even the emission lasts 100 days. Results also suggest that floor heating, decrease of particle concentration, weaken of heat transfer, enhancement of mass transfer, and air infiltration in window gap contribute to decrease DEHP concentration.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Dietilexilftalato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799654

RESUMO

Resuspension of particulate matter (PM) in classrooms, which increases the risk of negative impact on student health from exposure to PM, is influenced by humidity level in the indoor environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the properties of PM resuspension in accordance with relative humidity through classroom test chamber experiments. In actual classrooms, it is challenging to control factors influencing resuspension. Therefore, the classroom chamber that reflects the environment of elementary school classroom (e.g., structure, floor material) is used in this study. The humidity of the classroom chamber is adjusted to 35%, 55%, 75%, and 85% by placing it inside a real-size environmental chamber, which allows artificial control of climatic conditions. At the respective humidity conditions, PM resuspension concentration and resuspension factor caused by occupant walking across the classroom chamber are analyzed. The results show that both of the resuspension concentration and resuspension factor reveal a linear negative correlation to humidity increase. Furthermore, coefficient of determination (R2) indicating goodness-of-fit of the linear regression model between the resuspension concentration and humidity is 0.88 for PM10 and 0.93 for PM2.5. It implies that accuracy of the regression model for estimating PM10 and PM2.5 resuspension concentrations is 88% and 93%, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Umidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Gait Posture ; 86: 157-161, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate footwear is an important factor for reducing the risk of slipping; as shoe outsoles wear down, friction decreases, and slip and fall risk increases. Wear theory suggests that gait kinetics may influence rate of tread wear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do the kinetics of walking (i.e., the shoe-floor force interactions) affect wear rate? METHODS: Fourteen participants completed dry walking trials during which ground reaction forces were recorded across different types of shoes. The peak normal force, shear force, and required coefficient of friction (RCOF) were calculated. Participants then wore alternating pairs of shoes in the workplace each month for up to 24 months. A pedometer was used to track the distance each pair of shoes was worn and tread loss was measured. The wear rate was calculated as the volumetric tread loss divided by the distance walked in the shoes. Three, mixed linear regression models were used to assess the impact of peak normal force, shear force, and RCOF on wear rate. RESULTS: Wear rate was positively associated with peak RCOF and with peak shear force, but was not significantly related to peak normal forces. SIGNIFICANCE: The finding that shear forces and particularly the peak RCOF are related to wear suggests that a person's gait characteristics can influence wear. Therefore, individual gait kinetics may be used to predict wear rate based on the fatigue failure shoe wear mechanism.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Sapatos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fricção , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672661

RESUMO

Vinyl floors are widely used in public areas for their low cost and easy cleaning. From 1960 to 1980, asbestos was often added to improve vinyl floor performances. The Italian Ministerial Decree (M.D.) 06/09/94 indicates asbestos vinyl tiles as non-friable materials and, therefore, few dangerous to human health. This work aims to check through three different experimental tests if asbestos floor tiles, after decades of use, maintain their characteristics of compactness and non-friability. The effect of a small stone fragment stuck in the sole of rubber shoes was reproduced by striking the vinyl floor with a crampon. A vinyl tile was broken into smaller pieces with the aid of pliers to simulate what normally happens when workers replace the floors or sample it to verify the presence of asbestos. The third test reproduced the abrasion of the tile surface due to the dragging of furniture or heavy materials or sand grains that remain attached to the soles of shoes. The tests were carried out in safe conditions, working under an extractor hood with a glove box. Airborne sampling in the hood obtained the concentration of asbestos fibers produced in each test. The simulation tests performed confirms the possible release of fibers if the vinyl tiles are cut, abraded or perforated, as indicated by the Italian M.D.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Asbestos , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Asbestos/análise , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Itália , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Cloreto de Polivinila
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 196, 2021 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the characteristics of older adults patients who suffered a head injury after a ground-level fall in comparison to non-head injury patients as well as the factors associated with severity in those with head injury only. METHODS: Patients were classified into two groups, the head injury group and the non-head injury group. The characteristics were compared and factors associated with head injury were evaluated. Factors relating to severe injury in the head injury group were also investigated. RESULTS: The head injury group comprised 42 % of a study subjects. Male sex; fall time of 18:00-23:59; fall location of medical facility, transportation area, and public or commercial facility; fall in an outdoor area; fall during daily activity; alcohol ingestion; fall from stairs; non-slippery floor conditions; concrete flooring; sloped flooring; and presence of obstacles on the floor were risk factors for head injury in the older adults after a ground-level fall. Male sex and age over 70 years; fall time of 00:00-05:59; fall in a residential facility; fall in an indoor area; fall during daily activity; fall from stairs; non-slippery floor conditions; and presence of obstacles on the floor were factors associated with severe injury in the head injury group. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex with advanced age, indoor fall, and the presence of obstacles on the floor were risk factors for severe injury in the head injury group in older adults individuals who suffered a ground-level fall. It is necessary to develop appropriate ground-level fall prevention programs by evaluating the individual and environmental characteristics of older adults patients.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Exp Gerontol ; 149: 111307, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741457

RESUMO

Fall accidents lead to hospitalization and medical costs among all age groups, especially severe for older adults. Both intrinsic (e.g., visual impairment, fear of falling) and extrinsic (e.g., inappropriate carpet design, poor lighting) factors contribute to fall accidents. Older adults increasingly rely on visual perception to maintain balance as their health conditions decline. Patterned carpet is common in the built environment, which is one of the factors contributing to fall accidents among older adults. This study examined the role of path-based visual cues (provide visual guidance while walking along the patterned carpet) in helping older adults maintain safe movement and overcome the fear of falling. The experimental field study was conducted at a Continuing Care Retirement Community. Thirty-two residents were recruited. Within-subjects design was employed to examine the effects of path-based visual cues (light color and brightness) on the gait characteristics of older adults with and without visual impairment while walking on patterned carpet. Wearable sensors collected older adults' gait characteristics and questionnaires were used to evaluate their perceptions of confidence and safety with different visual cues provided. Individual repeated measures analysis results indicated that older adults significantly decreased stride length and stride velocity under 8.3 fc white and 7.3 fc blue lighting conditions compared to the baseline condition. In addition, the principal component analysis also indicated significant differences in gait performance among lighting colors and lighting brightness. The subjective responses indicated that the path-based visual cues were helpful in improving walking confidence, particularly for older adults with visual impairment.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Medo , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Marcha , Humanos , Aposentadoria , Caminhada
17.
Indoor Air ; 31(5): 1402-1416, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682978

RESUMO

Risk factors at home for ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue were studied in a nationwide questionnaire survey in Sweden, the BETSI study in 2006. Totally, 5775 adults from a stratified random sample of multi-family buildings participated. Associations between home environment factors and weekly symptoms were analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. In total, 8.3% had ocular symptoms; 11.9% nasal symptoms; 7.1% throat symptoms; 11.9% dermal symptoms; 8.5% headache and 23.1% fatigue. Subjects in colder climate zones had more mucosal and throat symptoms but less fatigue and ocular symptoms. Rented apartments had poorer indoor environment than self-owned apartments. Those living in buildings constructed from 1961 to 1985 had most symptoms. Building dampness, mold and mold odor were risk factors, especially headache and ocular symptoms. Lack of mechanical ventilation system was another risk factor, especially for headache. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), electric radiators, and crowdedness were other risk factors. Oiled wooden floors, recent indoor painting, and new floor materials were negatively associated with symptoms. In conclusion, building dampness, mold, poor ventilation conditions, crowdedness, ETS, and emissions from electric radiators in apartments in Sweden can increase the risk of ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fungos , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Umidade , Modelos Logísticos , Síndrome do Edifício Doente , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ventilação
18.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(7): 1687-1702, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antineoplastic drugs (ADs) pose risks to healthcare staff. Surface disinfectants are used in hospitals to prevent microbial contamination but the efficiency of disinfectants to degrade ADs is not known. We studied nine disinfectants on ten ADs in the standardized laboratory and realistic in situ hospital conditions. METHODS: A survey in 43 hospitals prioritized nine most commonly used disinfections based on different ingredients. These were tested on inert stainless steel and in situ on contaminated hospital flooring. The effects against ten ADs were studied by LC-MS/MS (Cyclophosphamide CP; Ifosfamide IF; Capecitabine CAP; Sunitinib SUN; Methotrexate MET; Doxorubicin DOX; Irinotecan IRI; Paclitaxel PX; 5-Fluorouracil FU) and ICP-MS (Pt as a marker of platinum-based ADs). RESULTS: Monitoring of the floor contamination in 26 hospitals showed that the most contaminated are the outpatient clinics that suffer from a large turnover of staff and patients and have limited preventive measures. The most frequent ADs were Pt, PX, FU and CP with maxima exceeding the recommended 1 ng/cm2 limit by up to 140 times. IRI, FU, MET, DOX and SUN were efficiently removed by hydrolysis in clean water and present thus lower occupational risk. Disinfectants based on hydrogen peroxide were efficient against PX and FU (> 70% degradation) but less against other ADs, such as carcinogenic CP or IF, IRI and CAP. The most efficient were the active chlorine and peracetic acid-based products, which however release irritating toxic vapors. The innovative in situ testing of ADs previously accumulated in hospital flooring showed highly problematic removal of carcinogenic CP and showed that alcohol-based disinfectants may mobilize persistent ADs contamination from deeper floor layers. CONCLUSION: Agents based on hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, quaternary ammonium salts, glutaraldehyde, glucoprotamine or detergents can be recommended for daily use for both disinfection and AD decontamination. However, they have variable efficiencies and should be supplemented by periodic use of strong chlorine-based disinfectants efficient also against the carcinogenic and persistent CP.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes , Detergentes , Diaminas , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Glutaral , Hospitais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Laboratórios , Ácido Peracético , Pirrolidinonas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Aço Inoxidável
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 189: 105296, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662883

RESUMO

A controlled trial on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms was conducted to determine the effect of environmental and comfort improvements on sucking and lying behaviours in heifer calves on Kenyan smallholder dairy farms. The study involved 187 heifer calves from 150 farms in two Kenyan counties, 75 farms per county. Farms in one county received animal welfare training and improvements in the calf pen that included: 1) placement of rubber mats on the lying area; 2) fixing gaps/holes in the flooring and roofing; and 3) attaching a rubber nipple on the wall of the calf pen. During the 16-month data collection period, bimonthly farm visits were used to collect data on lying time (using accelerometers) and other animal- and farm-level factors. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to model daily lying times and frequency of lying bouts, with the animal as a random effect. Over the visits, daily lying times and lying bout durations averaged 12.6-86.7 min/bout, respectively, while the median for the frequency of lying bouts was between 30-46/day. Provision of rubber nipples for non-nutritive sucking lowered proportions of cross-sucking, self-sucking and object-sucking behaviours slightly but not significantly. In a final daily lying time model, superficial lymph node enlargement, body condition score and use of wood shaving/ sawdust/ crop waste as beddings had positive associations. In contrast, group housing and rubber mat use had negative associations with daily lying time. In an interaction term, lying time was significantly higher for calves on clean versus dirty floors if the age was <190 days but this difference diminished significantly in older animals. In a second interaction term, lying time was lower for calves with leaking versus non-leaking roofs, regardless of the pen floor level, but lying time was higher on elevated than non-elevated floors if the roof was intact. In the final model of the frequency of lying bouts, the use of a rubber mat, the years of experience in dairy farming, and calf body weight had negative associations. In contrast, body condition score had a positive association. In an interaction, the frequency of daily lying bouts was lower on clean floors than dirty floors, irrespective of tethering status, but when the floor was dirty, the lying bouts were higher for animals not tethered than the ones sometimes tethered. We conclude that the comfort improvements enhanced the welfare and lying experience of heifer calves on smallholder dairy farms.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Quênia
20.
Environ Res ; 195: 110758, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the serum of the general US population. Food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, and air have been assessed as PFAS exposure sources for humans. The effects of various types of carpeting on serum PFAS concentrations have been less studied, despite the known use of PFAS in stain-resistant carpet treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations between serum PFAS concentrations and type of residential flooring among the general US population aged 12 years and older using the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: We used multiple linear regressions adjusted for complex survey design and relevant covariates to analyze the relations between serum PFAS concentrations and type of floor covering (smooth surface, low pile carpet, medium to high pile carpet, and combination of carpet and smooth surface), as well as other potential exposure factors. We used multiple imputation to address missing values. RESULTS: We found significantly higher serum concentrations of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (MeFOSAA) in US residents residing in homes with low pile carpeting compared with those residing in homes with smooth surface. We concluded that among US residents aged 12 years and older residing in homes with low pile carpeting in the home in 2005-2006, on average 24% and 19% of the PFHxS and MeFOSAA body burdens, respectively, could be attributed to carpeting. We found associations between other types of floor covering (medium to high pile carpet, combination of carpet and smooth surface) and some PFAS concentrations compared with the smooth surface, but these results were less consistent and generally not statistically significant. Additionally, a group Wald Chi-squared test showed a significant result for PFOS, indicating different contributions of various types of flooring to PFOS serum concentration. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are representative of the general US population at the time of the survey, and potentially informative regarding ongoing PFAS exposure from a variety of sources including carpeting.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Criança , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Ácidos Sulfônicos
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