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1.
Water Res ; 188: 116456, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039831

RESUMO

Plastic litters in marine environment usually contain varied types and contents of additives that can significantly affect the photochemical aging and fragmentation process of microplastics (MPs). This study investigated the photo aging process of two common polypropylene (PP) food packaging materials (i.e., meal box and tea cup) in artificial seawater within 12 d of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Results revealed that the aging of both plastic materials were critically inhibited compared with pure PP, indicating that PP food packaging materials in natural seawater may share longer aging time than pure ones. GC-MS analysis revealed that antioxidant Irgafos 168 (tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite) was the dominant additive in these plastic materials. Photo reaction between Irgafos 168 and hydroperoxide species on the surface of MPs to prevent the formation of hydroxyl radical was the possible mechanism for the inhibiting effects. After antioxidant was exhausted, its photo degradation products could become the dominant contributor to influence the aging process of MPs. This is the first work exploring the role of antioxidant on the aging process of PP MPs in simulated ocean environment. The findings could be of great help for unraveling the effect of antioxidants on the aging-related environmental risk of hydrocarbon plastics in ocean environment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento da Pele , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Embalagem de Alimentos , Plásticos/análise , Polipropilenos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127962, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841876

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution has become an emerging global concern in marine environments, but research on the uptake of MPs by commercial marine fish is relatively sparse. In this study, 29 commercial fish species (n = 584) with different feeding habits and trophic levels were collected from 8 sites along the Bohai Sea for MP uptake analysis. Approximately 85.4% of the total fish among all species ingested MPs, and there was an average abundance of 2.14 items/individual or 0.043 items/g of wet weight. Compared with other studies, MP pollution in fishes from the Bohai Sea was relatively moderate. The MPs were predominantly fibrous in shape and were cellophane, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) in polymer composition. The highest abundance and polymer composition of MPs was observed in benthivores, suggesting that they might ingest these MPs from their food. The small fish Konosirus punctatus, which had a high level of MPs, may increase the risk of human exposure to the MPs when it is dried and consumed. Moreover, the spatial variation of MPs was determined in terms of abundance, shape composition, and major polymer types, but there was no marked relationship between MP abundance and the trophic levels of fish. Overall, this study provides a basis for the ecological risk assessment of MPs in fish and for a health risk assessment for human beings.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Plásticos/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111744, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171412

RESUMO

We analyzed litter occurrence in 68 underwater video transects performed on the middle/outer continental shelf and submarine canyon off Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean), an area recently declared Site of Community Importance (SCI). Low densities of urban litter were registered on the shelf (7.2 items ha-1), increasing in abundance towards the deepest part of the submarine canyon, with 188 items ha-1 below 1000 m depth. We hypothesize that the strong bottom currents that recurrently affect this area efficiently move litter objects from the shelf towards the deep. Of all litter items, approximately 50% had a fishing-related origin, mostly longlines entangled on rocks in the canyon head and discarded trawl nets in deeper areas. Over 10% of cold-water colonies observed had longlines entangled, indicating the harmful effects of such practices over benthic habitats. These results should be considered when designing mitigation measures to reduce litter pollution in Cap de Creus SCI.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise , Navios , Resíduos/análise
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111670, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022491

RESUMO

Marine debris on the seafloor has not been thoroughly investigated, and there is little information compared to other types of marine debris. We conducted bottom trawl surveys to determine the present situation of marine debris on the seafloor in offshore areas around Japan. The survey was conducted in three sea areas with different characteristics. As a result, it was found that the amount of marine debris in submarine canyons (2926.1 items/km2) was higher than on the continental shelf. It was revealed that most marine debris on the seafloor is comprised of plastic products, and that debris on the seafloor retains its condition for a long time (over 30 years) without deterioration. In addition, the type of marine debris is affected by the industries operating in each area. Continuing to investigate marine debris on the seafloor in more areas will contribute to solving the problem of marine debris.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Japão , Plásticos/análise , Navios , Resíduos/análise
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936800

RESUMO

Synthetic microfibers are found virtually everywhere in the environment, but emission pathways and quantities are poorly understood. By connecting regionalized global datasets on apparel production, use, and washing with emission and retention rates during washing, wastewater treatment, and sludge management, we estimate that 5.6 Mt of synthetic microfibers were emitted from apparel washing between 1950 and 2016. Half of this amount was emitted during the last decade, with a compound annual growth rate of 12.9%. Waterbodies received 2.9 Mt, while combined emissions to terrestrial environments (1.9 Mt) and landfill (0.6 Mt) were almost as large and are growing. Annual emissions to terrestrial environments (141.9 kt yr-1) and landfill (34.6 kt yr-1) combined are now exceeding those to waterbodies (167.2 kt yr-1). Improving access to wastewater treatment is expected to further shift synthetic microfiber emissions from waterbodies to terrestrial environments. Preventing emissions at the source would therefore be a more effective mitigation measure.


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Têxteis , Águas Residuárias/química
6.
Science ; 369(6510): 1515-1518, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943526

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is a planetary threat, affecting nearly every marine and freshwater ecosystem globally. In response, multilevel mitigation strategies are being adopted but with a lack of quantitative assessment of how such strategies reduce plastic emissions. We assessed the impact of three broad management strategies, plastic waste reduction, waste management, and environmental recovery, at different levels of effort to estimate plastic emissions to 2030 for 173 countries. We estimate that 19 to 23 million metric tons, or 11%, of plastic waste generated globally in 2016 entered aquatic ecosystems. Considering the ambitious commitments currently set by governments, annual emissions may reach up to 53 million metric tons per year by 2030. To reduce emissions to a level well below this prediction, extraordinary efforts to transform the global plastics economy are needed.


Assuntos
Água Doce/análise , Plásticos/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Resíduos/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111600, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871434

RESUMO

A simplified particle-tracking model with an idealised coastline was used to investigate how the interaction between variable winds and water level (VaWWL) operates spatially along a coast. The model included a constant along-coast current, horizontal diffusion, onshore/offshore wind drift, beach/cliff combinations and point/distributed litter sources. The default model reproduced basic properties of observed beach litter loadings (zero net accumulation, negatively skewed loading distributions) and the observed spatial pattern along the Scottish east coast, with average loadings increasing in the coastal current direction. The VaWWL effect moved the along-coast flux of floating litter offshore as debeaching events occur during offshore winds. Varying diffusion, coastal current speed, windage, beach/cliff combinations and different foreshore boundary conditions were investigated. Reconciling model predictions with previous estimates of plastic inflow suggested sinking rates of up to 90% soon after first entry into the sea. The VaWWL effect offers a realistic boundary condition for particle-tracking models.


Assuntos
Resíduos , Poluentes da Água , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Vento
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 141676, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827829

RESUMO

It is increasingly recognized that the ubiquity of convenient single-use plastic has resulted in a global plastic pollution challenge, with substantial environmental and health consequences. Physical, chemical, and biological processes result in plastic weathering, with eventual formation of debris in the micro to nano size range. There is an increasing awareness that plastic fragments are dispersed in the air and can be inhaled by humans, which may cause adverse effects on the respiratory system and on other systems. Urban environments are often characterized by high concentrations of fine airborne dust from various sources. To date, however, there is limited information on the distribution, shape, and size of microplastics in the air in urban and other environments. In this article, we review and discuss our current understanding of the exposure characteristics of airborne plastic debris in urbanized areas, focusing on concentration, size, morphology, presence of additives and distributions of different polymers. The natural and extend data are compiled and compared to laboratory-based analyses to further our understanding of the potential adverse effects of inhaled plastic particles on human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111137, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858324

RESUMO

This study assesses the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in coastal and sea surface sediments, as well as water samples, collected from the coastal region of the southern Caspian Sea, Mazandaran province, Iran. A total of 32 sediment and 10 water samples were studied. The mean concentration of MPs was 15 units kg-1 in the sediments and 710 units m-3 in the coastal water. Fibers constituted by far the dominant MPs in both media, accounting for 97% of the MPs in both sediment and water samples. The MPs were mainly black in color. The dominant size of MP particles in sediment samples was between 250 and 500 µm, while the fraction >1000 µm dominated in the water samples. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), and nylon (NYL) were the main polymers and/or copolymers composing MPs in both sediment and water samples. The MP particles had a relatively smooth surface morphology, although signs of weathering were observed. The number of MP particles in sediment and water samples showed a general decrease from west to east in the study area. This may be reflecting the spreading of MP loading from the outlets of Sefidrud, Tonekabon, Chalus, the major rivers entering the Caspian Sea just west of the study area, and the overall decrease in the spatial distribution of touristic and fishery activity. The main sources of MP particles could be local emissions from a large number of domestic wastewater effluents and urban surface runoff due to high population density, and industrial and fishing activities in this region. This study indicated that MP particles, based on their characteristics and chemical composition, are circulated between coastal waters, and shore and sea surface sediments of the Caspian Sea, leading to their uneven distribution in the different depths. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work studying the distribution of MP particles in sea surface sediments and also the most comprehensive on MPs in shoreline sediments and coastal waters in the southern Caspian Sea.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microplásticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Mar Cáspio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Microplásticos/química , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/química , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818952

RESUMO

Financing municipal solid waste (MSW) services is one of the key challenges faced by cities in developing countries. This study used plastic waste, a constituent of MSW, to explore the possibility of generating revenue for financing MSW management in the municipalities of Nepal. The results of this study suggest that plastic material recovery could generate revenue, which is equivalent to 1.38 times of the plastic-waste-related management cost when collection efficiency reaches 66.7%. An increase in 1% of recovery rate and collection efficiency could cover an additional 4.64% and 2.06% of the costs of managing plastic waste, respectively. In addition, an increase in tax on imported plastic materials could also motivate recovery of plastic waste for recycle and reuse. An additional 1% tax on plastic imports would be sufficient to cover plastic-related waste management when plastic waste recovery and collection efficiency rates are low. This plastic recovery- revenue exercise could be expanded to other materials such as paper and metal to fully understand the possibility of sustainable financing of MSW management and reducing environmental harm in developing countries like Nepal.


Assuntos
Reciclagem/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/economia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento , Nepal , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/química , Reciclagem/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115083, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806431

RESUMO

Marine and freshwater plastic pollution is a challenging issue receiving large amounts of research and media attention. Yet, few studies have documented the impact of microplastic ingestion to aquatic organisms. In the Pacific Northwest, Chinook salmon are a culturally and commercially significant fish species. The presence of marine and freshwater microplastic pollution is well documented in Chinook salmon habitat, yet no research has investigated the impacts to salmon from microplastic ingestion. The majority of the marine microplastics found in the Salish Sea are microfibers, synthetic extruded polymers that come from commonly worn clothing. To understand the potential impacts of microfiber ingestion to fish, we ran a feeding experiment with juvenile Chinook salmon to determine if ingested fibers are retained or digestion rates altered over a 10 day digestion period. The experiment was completed in two trials, each consisted of 20 control and 20 treatment fish. Treatment fish were each fed an amended ration of 12 food pellets spiked with 20 polyester microfibers and control fish were fed the same ration without added microfibers. Fish were sampled at day 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 to assess if fibers were retained in their gastrointestinal tract and to determine the rate of digestion. Fibers for the experiment came from washing a red polyester fleece jacket in a microfiber retention bag. Fibers had a mean length of 4.98 mm. Results showed fish were able to clear up to 94% of fed fibers over 10 days. Differences in mean gastrointestinal mass were not statistically significant at any sampled time between treatment and controls, suggesting that the ingestion of microfibers did not alter digestion rates. Further work is needed to understand if repeated exposures, expected in the environment, alter digestion or food assimilation for growth.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Veículos Automotores , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Plásticos/análise , Poliésteres , Salmão
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19844-19853, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747531

RESUMO

The Japanese government developed a strategy for plastics and laid out ambitious targets including the reduction of 25% for single-use plastic waste and the reuse/recycling of 60% for plastic containers and packaging by 2030. However, the current usage situation of single-use plastics including containers and packaging, which should be a basis of the strategy, is unclear. Here, we identify the nationwide material flow of plastics in Japan based on input-output tables. Of the domestic plastic demand of 8.4 Mt in 2015, 1.6 and 2.5 Mt were estimated to be for containers and packaging comprising household and industry inflows, respectively, through the purchase/procurement of products, services, and raw materials. Considering the current amount of recycling collected from households (1.0 Mt) and industries (0.3 to 0.4 Mt), the reuse/recycling target has already been achieved if the goal is limited to household container and packaging waste, as is the focus of Japan's recycling law. Conversely, the results indicate that it will be extremely difficult to reach the target collectively with industries. Therefore, it is essential that efforts be made throughout the entire supply chain. Food containers and packaging that flowed into the food-processing and food service sectors accounted for 15% of the inflow of containers and packaging into industries. Thus, the key to achieving the reuse/recycling target will comprise the collection of plastic food packaging from not only households but also the food industry. Furthermore, the collection of flexible plastic films used between industry sectors will put the target within reach.


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Embalagem de Produtos/instrumentação , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias , Japão , Reciclagem/tendências
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111522, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771665

RESUMO

Airborne microplastics and microfibers are released from daily materials, contaminating both indoor and outdoor air. Sampling in Aveiro, Portugal, revealed concentrations of 6 fibers m-3, with more synthetic fibers found in outdoor than indoor (8.5% vs. 4.1%, n = 6), with variations in fiber characteristics between sampling periods. Suspected microplastics (<10 µm) also followed this trend (12 vs. 5 particles m-3). Synthetic fibers presented peculiar characteristics, with larger median sizes of 513 µm and 90% of lighter colors. Nonetheless, numerous fibers and suspected microplastics were found in field blanks, possibly from sampling contamination, reducing the reliability of results. Few previous works have reported field blanks so far, raising concerns about the quality of their results as well. Thus, quality assurance measures should be more strictly applied when working with airborne fibers and microplastics, while more research should focus on the factors involved in the variation of concentrations and characteristics of airborne fibers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos/análise , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722705

RESUMO

The crisis facing the world's oceans from plastics is well documented, yet there is little knowledge of the perspectives, experiences and options of the coastal communities facing overwhelming quantities of plastics on their beaches and in their fishing waters. In emerging economies such as those in the Coral Triangle, the communities affected are among the poorest of their countries. To understand the consequences of ocean plastic pollution in coastal regions, through the eyes of local people, this study examines the knowledge, use, disposal and local consequences of single use plastics in remote island communities in two archipelagos of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using mixed methods-a survey of plastic literacy and behaviour, household interviews about purchasing and disposal, and focus group discussions to generate shared mental models-we identify a complex set of factors contributing to extensive plastic leakage into the marine environment. The rising standard of living has allowed people in low resource, remote communities to buy more single-use plastic items than they could before. Meanwhile complex geography and minimal collection services make waste management a difficult issue, and leave the communities themselves to shoulder the impacts of the ocean plastic crisis. Although plastic literacy is low, there is little the coastal communities can do unless presented with better choice architecture both on the supply side and in disposal options. Our results suggest that for such coastal communities improved waste disposal is urgent. Responsible supply chains and non-plastic alternatives are needed. Producers and manufacturers can no longer focus only on low-cost packaged products, without taking responsibility for the outcomes. Without access to biodegradable, environmentally friendly products, and a circular plastic system, coastal communities and surrounding marine ecosystems will continue to be inundated in plastic waste.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Indonésia , Oceanos e Mares , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127524, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693254

RESUMO

Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimates for potentially problematic elements like As and Sb could be attributed to abundant base materials in MSW, while other elements, such as Pb, were calculated at much lower concentrations than other published studies. This suggests that trace metals measured in actual MSW compost and WTE ash could originate not only from MSW base components but also from other sources, such as highly concentrated low-mass wastes (e.g., e-waste). While the removal of small quantity components with high metal concentrations may reduce concentrations of some potentially problematic metals (e.g., Pb), others (e.g., As and Sb) are likely to persist in quantities that impede reuse and recycling since they are present in the more abundant base MSW components (e.g., papers, plastics, organics). Promoting meaningful reductions in potentially problematic trace metals in MSW-derived materials may require reevaluating their presence in higher-volume, lower-concentrated MSW components such as paper, plastics, and organics.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Plásticos/análise , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Estados Unidos
16.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127649, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688323

RESUMO

Post-digestion treatment is an important step during sample preparation to facilitate the removal of undigested materials for better detection of ingested microplastics. Sieving, density separation with zinc chloride solution (ZnCl2), and oil extraction protocol (OEP) have been introduced in separating microplastics from sediments. The clean-up methods are rarely highlighted in previous studies, especially in the separation of microplastics from marine biota. Thus, this study proposed and compared the suitability of three techniques, which can reduce the number of undigested particles from the digestate of GIT and gills. Our result has shown excellent removal of non-plastics materials and reduces the coloration of filter paper in all treated samples. Both sieving and density separation achieved optimum post-digestion efficiencies of >95% for both GIT and gill samples, which former showed no effect on polymer integrity. Additionally, high recovery rate was obtained for the larger size microplastics (>500 µm) with approximately 97.7% (GIT) and 95.7% (gill), respectively. Exposure to the ZnCl2 solution led to a significant loss of smaller size PET and changed the absorption spectrums of all tested polymers. Particle morphology determined by SEM revealed such exposure eroded the surface of PET fragments and elemental analysis has shown detectable peaks of zinc and chlorine appeared. Low microplastics recoveries were achieved through OPE and residue of oil was observed from the infrared spectrum of all tested polymer. The findings demonstrate sieving with size fractioning can provide exceptional removal of non-plastics materials from the digestate of GIT and gill samples.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Brânquias/química , Plásticos/análise , Polímeros
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108780, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682208

RESUMO

Several materials such as plastic, wood, cardboard or stainless steel are used as working surfaces or packaging in direct contact with foodstuffs. In food industries, the hygienic surface status is one of the criteria to product conform packaging as described in the European regulation ECR 1935/2004. Today in European Union, it exists one harmonized regulation specific for Food Contact material made of plastic called EU N°10/2011 (Anonymous 2011a). This regulation specifies that materials intended for safe foodstuff contact must not modify food characteristics in terms of chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties. This study aims to compare the survival and transfer of Penicillium expansum conidia and Escherichia coli cells from several materials to apples. Poplar, cardboards, newly manufactured plastic and reusable plastic specimens were artificially inoculated with both microorganisms, subsequently put in contact with apples and stored under realistic storage conditions. After incubation for up to 1 week, apples and specimens were analysed to assess the survival of the microorganisms and their transfer from materials to apples. While P. expansum survived and did not grow on any of the materials, E. coli mortality was observed after 1 h on wood and cardboard and after 1 week on both plastics. The proportion of microorganisms transferred was different according to the considered material. This transfer was lower than 1% for wood.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Malus/microbiologia , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Plásticos/análise , Aço Inoxidável/análise , Madeira/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515288

RESUMO

From a circular economy perspective, feeding livestock with food leftovers or former foodstuff products (FFPs) could be an effective option aimed at exploiting food leftover resources and reducing food losses. FFPs are valuable energy sources, characterised by a beneficial starch/sugar content, and also fats. However, besides these nutritional aspects, safety is a key concern given that FFPs are generally derived from packaged food. Packaging materials, such as plastics and paper, are not accepted as a feed ingredient which means that residues should be rigorously avoided. A sensitive and objective detection method is thus essential for an accurate risk evaluation throughout the former food production chain. To this end, former food samples were collected in processing plants of two different European countries and subjected to multivariate analysis of red, green, and blue (RGB) microscopic images, in order to evaluate the possible application of this non-destructive technique for the rapid detection of residual particles from packaging materials. Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA) was performed on single images at the pixel level, which essentially consisted in an exploratory analysis of the image data by means of Principal Component Analysis, which highlighted the differences between packaging and foodstuff particles, based on their colour. The whole dataset of images was then analysed by means of a multivariate data dimensionality reduction method known as the colourgrams approach, which identified clusters of images sharing similar features and also highlighted outlier images due to the presence of packaging particles. The results obtained in this feasibility study demonstrated that MIA is a promising tool for a rapid automated method for detecting particles of packaging materials in FFPs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Plásticos/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Análise de Alimentos , Análise Multivariada , Valor Nutritivo , Papel
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579874

RESUMO

We spotted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on polystyrene plastic, aluminum, and glass for 96 hours with and without bovine serum albumin (3 g/L). We observed a steady infectivity (<1 log10 drop) on plastic, a 3.5 log10 decrease on glass, and a 6 log10 drop on aluminum. The presence of proteins noticeably prolonged infectivity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Fômites/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Alumínio/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vidro/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , Plásticos/análise , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127472, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599378

RESUMO

In line with the Circular Economy approach, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) with organic waste as the feedstock may a biotechnological application to reduce waste and recover high-value materials. The potential contaminants that could transfer from bio-waste to a PHA include inorganic elements, such as heavy metals. Hence, the total content and migratability of certain elements were evaluated in several PHA samples produced from different origins and following different methods. The total content of certain elements in PHA ranged between 0.0001 (Be) and 49,500 mg kg-1 (Na). The concentrations of some alkaline (Na and K) and alkaline earth (Ca and Mg) metals were highest, which are of little environmental concern. The feedstock type and PHA stabilisation and extraction procedures affected the element contents. Several sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the migration of elements from the PHA samples under different storage times, temperatures, and pH levels. The total contents of some heavy metals (As, Cd, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in PHA produced from fruit waste or crops (commercial PHA) were lower than those in the PHA samples produced from the mixture of the organic fraction of municipal waste and sludge from wastewater treatment. Both the PHA obtained by extraction from wet biomass (acid storage) with aqueous phase extraction reagents and commercial PHA were below the migration limits stipulated by the current Toy Safety Directive and by Commission Regulation (EU) October 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food under frozen and refrigerated conditions.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/análise , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Alimentos , Metais Pesados/análise , Polímeros , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
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