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1.
Zootaxa ; 4903(1): zootaxa.4903.1.4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757106

RESUMO

Considering the importance of establishing different approaches to the early detection of invasive species, the present study aimed to describe and illustrate the morphology of the early larval stages of the shrimp Lysmata lipkei, an invasive species in the Western Atlantic. Additionally, we did a morphological comparison and a review of the other Lysmata species from the Western Atlantic Ocean with a known larvae description. The larvae used in this study were obtained by the maintenance, under laboratory conditions, of ovigerous hermaphrodites of L. lipkei, collected in the wild. Then, larvae were dissected under a stereo microscope and illustrated using a microscope equipped with a camera lucida. The first three larval stages (zoeae) of L. lipkei were illustrated, described, and compared to other species of Lysmata previously described of the Western Atlantic. Some features of the larval morphology of L. lipkei are very similar when compared to other Lysmata species with previous larval descriptions, such as a rostrum long and simple, the eyes stalked with a long peduncle from the second zoeae, one pterygostomian spine and several denticles along the anterior ventral margin of the carapace, similarities in the segmentation of the maxillipeds, and the presence of dorsolateral spines on the posterior margin of the 5th pleomere, among other features. Also, unique features were observed for L. lipkei, such as differences in the setation of some structures, including the antennule, antenna, maxillule, and maxillipeds. Using the morphological descriptions, we expect to identify species from the plankton, especially invaders, that might be present in the Western Atlantic, as well as assist in several areas in which the larval morphology is relevant.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva , Plâncton
2.
Nature ; 592(7852): 76-79, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647927

RESUMO

In ecosystems, the efficiency of energy transfer from resources to consumers determines the biomass structure of food webs. As a general rule, about 10% of the energy produced in one trophic level makes it up to the next1-3. Recent theory suggests that this energy transfer could be further constrained if rising temperatures increase metabolic growth costs4, although experimental confirmation in whole ecosystems is lacking. Here we quantify nitrogen transfer efficiency-a proxy for overall energy transfer-in freshwater plankton in artificial ponds that have been exposed to seven years of experimental warming. We provide direct experimental evidence that, relative to ambient conditions, 4 °C of warming can decrease trophic transfer efficiency by up to 56%. In addition, the biomass of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was lower in the warmed ponds, which indicates major shifts in energy uptake, transformation and transfer5,6. These findings reconcile observed warming-driven changes in individual-level growth costs and in carbon-use efficiency across diverse taxa4,7-10 with increases in the ratio of total respiration to gross primary production at the ecosystem level11-13. Our results imply that an increasing proportion of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis will be lost to the atmosphere as the planet warms, impairing energy flux through food chains, which will have negative implications for larger consumers and for the functioning of entire ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce , Aquecimento Global , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Lagos , Fotossíntese , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145318, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736365

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) causes cancer and non-cancer health effects in humans. Previous research revealed As concentrations over 200 µg g-1 in lake sediments in the south-central Puget Sound region affected by the former ASARCO copper smelter in Ruston, WA, and significant bioaccumulation of As in plankton in shallow lakes. Enhanced uptake occurs during summertime stratification and near-bottom anoxia when As is mobilized from sediments. Periodic mixing events in shallow lakes allow dissolved As to mix into oxygenated waters and littoral zones where biota reside. We quantify As concentrations and associated health risks in human-consumed tissues of sunfish [pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)], crayfish [signal (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and red swamp (Procambarus clarkii)], and snails [Chinese mystery (Bellamya chinensis)] from lakes representing a gradient of As contamination and differing mixing regimes. In three shallow lakes with a range of arsenic in profundal sediments (20 to 206 µg As g-1), mean arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 46.4 µg g-1 in snails, 2.6 to 13.9 µg g-1 in crayfish, and 0.07 to 0.61 µg g-1 in sunfish. Comparatively, organisms in the deep, contaminated lake (208 µg g-1 in profundal sediments) averaged 11.8 µg g-1 in snails and 0.06 µg g-1 in sunfish. Using inorganic As concentrations, we calculated that consuming aquatic species from the most As-contaminated shallow lake resulted in 4-10 times greater health risks compared to the deep lake with the same arsenic concentrations in profundal sediments. We show that dynamics in shallow, polymictic lakes can result in greater As bioavailability compared to deeper, seasonally stratified lakes. Arsenic in oxygenated waters and littoral sediments was more indicative of exposure to aquatic species than profundal sediments, and therefore we recommend that sampling methods focus on these shallow zones to better indicate the potential for uptake into organisms and human health risk.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Plâncton , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 58-64, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780186

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To construct a polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) detection method using ChlB gene and NIES gene, investigate the method's specificity and sensitivity, and to evaluate its application value in drowning diagnosis. Methods The specific primers ChlB and NIES were designed for the conserved sequence of chlorophyte ChlB gene and cyanophyte NIES gene in GenBank to construct PCR-CE detection method; 50 species of standard DNA samples were amplified; the sensitivity was determined by gradient concentration detection of positive standard samples; 25 actual cadaver lung tissue samples (drowned: 20, natural death: 5) were detected, and the simultaneous detection results of microwave digestion-vacuum filtration-automated scanning electron microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) were simultaneously compared. Results The minimum DNA detection concentration of primers ChlB and NIES was 0.161 ng and 0.109 ng, respectively, which could specifically amplify chlorophyte (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and cyanophyte [Microcystis aeruginosa (producing and not producing toxin)] widespread in water. The product fragments were 156 bp and 182 bp, respectively. The results of non-drowning tissues were negative. Conclusion This method has high sensitivity and specificity. It can be applied to the detection of plankton related to drowning and combined with MD-VF-Auto SEM method, can increase the detection range of plankton related to drowning and improve the evidence power of drowning diagnosis.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Diatomáceas , Afogamento , Diatomáceas/genética , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Pulmão , Plâncton/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1857, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767153

RESUMO

How oligotrophic marine cyanobacteria position themselves in the water column is currently unknown. The current paradigm is that these organisms avoid sinking due to their reduced size and passive drift within currents. Here, we show that one in four picocyanobacteria encode a type IV pilus which allows these organisms to increase drag and remain suspended at optimal positions in the water column, as well as evade predation by grazers. The evolution of this sophisticated floatation mechanism in these purely planktonic streamlined microorganisms has important implications for our current understanding of microbial distribution in the oceans and predator-prey interactions which ultimately will need incorporating into future models of marine carbon flux dynamics.


Assuntos
Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Plâncton/fisiologia , Prochlorococcus/fisiologia , Synechococcus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Fímbrias Bacterianas/classificação , Oceanos e Mares , Suspensões
6.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116765, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647805

RESUMO

Biodegradation is responsible for most contaminant removal in plumes of organic compounds and is fastest at the plume fringe where microbial cell numbers and activity are highest. As the plume migrates from the source, groundwater containing the contaminants and planktonic microbial community encounters uncontaminated substrata on which an attached community subsequently develops. While attached microbial communities are important for biodegradation, the time needed for their establishment, their relationship with the planktonic community and the processes controlling their development are not well understood. We compare the dynamics of development of attached microbial communities on sterile substrata in the field and laboratory microcosms, sampled simultaneously at intervals over two years. We show that attached microbial cell numbers increased rapidly and stabilised after similar periods of incubation (∼100 days) in both field and microcosm experiments. These timescales were similar even though variation in the contaminant source evident in the field was absent in microcosm studies, implying that this period was an emergent property of the attached microbial community. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that attached and planktonic communities differed markedly, with many attached organisms strongly preferring attachment. Successional processes were evident, both in community diversity indices and from community network analysis. Community development was governed by both deterministic and stochastic processes and was related to the predilection of community members for different lifestyles and the geochemical environment.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plâncton , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Science ; 371(6535): 1253-1256, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737486

RESUMO

The ecomorphological diversity of extinct elasmobranchs is incompletely known. Here, we describe Aquilolamna milarcae, a bizarre probable planktivorous shark from early Late Cretaceous open marine deposits in Mexico. Aquilolamna, tentatively assigned to Lamniformes, is characterized by hypertrophied, slender pectoral fins. This previously unknown body plan represents an unexpected evolutionary experimentation with underwater flight among sharks, more than 30 million years before the rise of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae), and shows that winglike pectoral fins have evolved independently in two distantly related clades of filter-feeding elasmobranchs. This newly described group of highly specialized long-winged sharks (Aquilolamnidae) displays an aquilopelagic-like ecomorphotype and may have occupied, in late Mesozoic seas, the ecological niche filled by mobulids and other batoids after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/fisiologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Elasmobrânquios/anatomia & histologia , Elasmobrânquios/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , México , Oceanos e Mares , Paleodontologia , Plâncton , Tubarões/classificação , Natação , Dente/anatomia & histologia
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656050

RESUMO

The accuracy of traditional methods to sample planktonic microcrustaceans depends on two assumptions: that organisms are alive during sampling and that all carcasses can be identified despite their degradation state, but fresh carcasses are not easy to distinguish by traditional methods. Previous studies about mortality have shown that neglecting dead organisms can provide biased ecological information. Thus, our objective was to determine the mortality rate and the proportion of dead microcrustacean in three tropical reservoirs. Sampling was carried out in 12 stations during two periods. The proportion of dead organisms was verified using aniline blue and it varied between 0.6% and 90.6%. The carcass decomposition period varied between 3 to 16 days and microcrustaceans mortality rate varied between 0.005 and 0.314 d-1. Traditional preservation techniques with formalin do not significantly overestimate species abundance. However, these values should not be disregarded, because corrected (disregarding organisms that were dead) and formalin-preserved abundances were correlated with distinct limnological descriptors. Therefore, the traditional formalin preservation technique could provide misleading ecological interpretations. Other studies over larger temporal scales in addition to experiments to evaluate the effects of viruses, parasitism and the toxic effects of cyanobacteria on zooplankton would enlighten mortality rate patterns in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Copépodes , Animais , Ecossistema , Plâncton , Zooplâncton
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112105, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549997

RESUMO

Numerous researches have been conducted to study the impact of Port activities on water quality. However, investigation on the response of the inhabiting biota to Port related extrinsic factors is extremely limited. Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis, comprehensive assessment of plankton population dynamics and distribution corresponding to the spatial heterogeneity in physico-chemical characteristics of harbour and adjacent coastal water is conducted. The results revealed resource competition for nitrate, predator mediated co-existence of species favoured by active switching and Port influenced environmental filtering due to suspended solids, and oil and grease as the predominant factor to modulate the plankton community structure and succession in harbour. The higher heterogeneity in the measured environmental variables at coast revealed dispersion of nutrient and other pollutants from harbour into the adjacent coastal water during ebb tide. Our results indicate reengineering of Port infrastructures and efficient management policies including water quality standards to facilitate proper water circulation and minimize pollution with a long term goal to reconcile economic interest with ecosystem conservation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plâncton , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos , Qualidade da Água
10.
Nature ; 590(7844): 97-102, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536651

RESUMO

Following early hypotheses about the possible existence of Arctic ice shelves in the past1-3, the observation of specific erosional features as deep as 1,000 metres below the current sea level confirmed the presence of a thick layer of ice on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean and elsewhere4-6. Recent modelling studies have addressed how an ice shelf may have built up in glacial periods, covering most of the Arctic Ocean7,8. So far, however, there is no irrefutable marine-sediment characterization of such an extensive ice shelf in the Arctic, raising doubt about the impact of glacial conditions on the Arctic Ocean. Here we provide evidence for at least two episodes during which the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent Nordic seas were not only covered by an extensive ice shelf, but also filled entirely with fresh water, causing a widespread absence of thorium-230 in marine sediments. We propose that these Arctic freshwater intervals occurred 70,000-62,000 years before present and approximately 150,000-131,000 years before present, corresponding to portions of marine isotope stages 4 and 6. Alternative interpretations of the first occurrence of the calcareous nannofossil Emiliania huxleyi in Arctic sedimentary records would suggest younger ages for the older interval. Our approach explains the unexpected minima in Arctic thorium-230 records9 that have led to divergent interpretations of sedimentation rates10,11 and hampered their use for dating purposes. About nine million cubic kilometres of fresh water is required to explain our isotopic interpretation, a calculation that we support with estimates of hydrological fluxes and altered boundary conditions. A freshwater mass of this size-stored in oceans, rather than land-suggests that a revision of sea-level reconstructions based on freshwater-sensitive stable oxygen isotopes may be required, and that large masses of fresh water could be delivered to the north Atlantic Ocean on very short timescales.


Assuntos
Água Doce/análise , Camada de Gelo/química , Oceanos e Mares , Regiões Árticas , Foraminíferos/isolamento & purificação , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , História Antiga , Isótopos/análise , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação , Protoactínio/análise , Tório/análise , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 708-718, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583096

RESUMO

Understanding how community composition is reshaped by changing climate is important for interpreting and predicting patterns of community assembly through time or across space. Community composition often does not perfectly correspond to expectations from current environmental conditions, leading to community-climate mismatches. Here, we combine data analysis and theory development to explore how species climate response curves affect the community response to climate change. We show that strong mismatches between community and climate can appear in the absence of demographic delays or limited species pools. Communities simulated using species response curves showed temporal changes of similar magnitude to those observed in natural communities of fishes and plankton, suggesting no overall delays in community change despite substantial unexplained variation from community assembly and other processes. Our approach can be considered as a null model that will be important to use when interpreting observed community responses to climate change and variability.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Peixes , Animais , Ecossistema , Plâncton
12.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 812-818, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617685

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid contemporary evolution can play a significant role in regulating population dynamics on ecological timescales. Here we identify a previously unrecognised mode by which rapid evolution can promote species coexistence via temporal fluctuations and a trade-off between competitive ability and the speed of adaptive evolution. We show that this interaction between rapid evolution and temporal fluctuations not only increases the range of coexistence conditions under a gleaner-opportunist trade-off (i.e. low minimum resource requirement [R* ] vs. high maximum growth rate) but also yields stable coexistence in the absence of a classical gleaner-opportunist trade-off. Given the propensity for both oscillatory dynamics and different rates of adaptation between species (including rapid evolution and phenotypic plasticity) in the real world, we argue that this expansion of fluctuation-dependent coexistence theory provides an important overlooked solution to the so-called 'paradox of the plankton'.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Plâncton , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 30-37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427216

RESUMO

More than 700 microbial species inhabit the complex environment of the oral cavity. For years microorganisms have been studied in pure cultures, a highly artificial situation because microorganisms in natural habitats grow as complex ecologies, termed biofilms. These resemble multicellular organisms and are characterized by their overall metabolic activity upon multiple cellular interactions. Microorganisms in biofilms express different genes than their planktonic counterparts, resulting in higher resistance to antimicrobials, different nutritional requirements, or creation of a low redox potential allowing the growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen. Multiple in vitro biofilm models have been described in the literature so far. The main emphasis here will be on multispecies biofilm batch culture models developed in Zurich. The standard 6-species supragingival biofilm model has been used to study basic aspects of oral biofilms such as structure, social behavior, and spatial distribution of microorganisms, or diffusion properties. Numerous parameters related to the inhibition of dental plaque were tested illustrating the high reliability of the model to predict the in vivo efficiency of antimicrobials. Modifications and advancements led to a 10-species subgingival model often combined with human gingival epithelial cells, as an integral part of the oral innate immune system, eliciting various cell responses ranging from cytokine production to apoptosis. In conclusion, biofilm models enable a multitude of questions to be addressed that cannot be studied with planktonic monocultures. The Zurich in vitro biofilm models are reproducible and reliable and may be used for basic studies, but also for application-oriented questions that could not be addressed using culture techniques. Oral biofilm research will certainly lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of microorganisms in the oral cavity in health and disease. In this respect, substantial progress has been made, but there is still more to explore.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Boca , Gengiva , Humanos , Plâncton , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(2): 147-148, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510437
15.
Nature ; 589(7843): 548-553, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505038

RESUMO

Proxy reconstructions from marine sediment cores indicate peak temperatures in the first half of the last and current interglacial periods (the thermal maxima of the Holocene epoch, 10,000 to 6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial period, 128,000 to 123,000 years ago) that arguably exceed modern warmth1-3. By contrast, climate models simulate monotonic warming throughout both periods4-7. This substantial model-data discrepancy undermines confidence in both proxy reconstructions and climate models, and inhibits a mechanistic understanding of recent climate change. Here we show that previous global reconstructions of temperature in the Holocene1-3 and the last interglacial period8 reflect the evolution of seasonal, rather than annual, temperatures and we develop a method of transforming them to mean annual temperatures. We further demonstrate that global mean annual sea surface temperatures have been steadily increasing since the start of the Holocene (about 12,000 years ago), first in response to retreating ice sheets (12 to 6.5 thousand years ago), and then as a result of rising greenhouse gas concentrations (0.25 ± 0.21 degrees Celsius over the past 6,500 years or so). However, mean annual temperatures during the last interglacial period were stable and warmer than estimates of temperatures during the Holocene, and we attribute this to the near-constant greenhouse gas levels and the reduced extent of ice sheets. We therefore argue that the climate of the Holocene differed from that of the last interglacial period in two ways: first, larger remnant glacial ice sheets acted to cool the early Holocene, and second, rising greenhouse gas levels in the late Holocene warmed the planet. Furthermore, our reconstructions demonstrate that the modern global temperature has exceeded annual levels over the past 12,000 years and probably approaches the warmth of the last interglacial period (128,000 to 115,000 years ago).


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global/história , Temperatura Alta , Camada de Gelo , Estações do Ano , Cálcio/análise , Foraminíferos/química , Efeito Estufa/história , História Antiga , Magnésio/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Plâncton/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 164: 105245, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429217

RESUMO

Marine heterotrophic prokaryotes degrade, transform, and utilize half of the organic matter (OM) produced by photosynthesis, either in dissolved or particulate form. Microbial metabolic rates are affected by a plethora of different factors, spanning from environmental variables to OM composition. To tease apart the environmental drivers underlying the observed organic matter utilization rates, we analysed a 21 year-long time series from the Gulf of Trieste (NE Adriatic Sea). Heterotrophic carbon production (HCP) time series analysis highlighted a long-term structure made up by three periods of coherent observations (1999-2007; 2008-2011; 2012-2019), shared also by OM concentration time series. Temporal patterns of HCP drivers, extracted with a random forest approach, demonstrated that a period of high salinity anomalies (2002-2008) was the main driver of this structure. The reduced river runoff and the consequent depletion of river-borne inorganic nutrients induced a long-term Chl a decline (2006-2009), followed by a steady increase until 2014. HCP driving features over the three periods substantially changed in their seasonal patterns, suggesting that the years following the draught period represented a transition between two long-term regimes. Overall, temperature and particulate organic carbon concentration were the main factors driving HCP rates. The emergence of these variables highlighted the strong control exerted by the temperature-substrate co-limitation on microbial growth. Further exploration revealed that HCP rates did not follow the Arrhenius' linear response to temperature between 2008 and 2011, demonstrating that microbial growth was substrate-limited following the draught event. By teasing apart the environmental drivers of microbial growth on a long-term perspective, we demonstrated that a substantial change happened in the biogeochemistry of one of the most productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea. As planktonic microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems, understanding their past dynamics may help to explain present and future changes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Carbono/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plâncton
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111990, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461075

RESUMO

The hydromedusa Blackfordia virginica is an invasive species that has disrupted coastal marine food webs throughout the world. Here, we report the response of plankton community to B. virginica blooms in a subtropical lagoon in China. Chlorophyll-a concentrations increased after the peak of B. virginica abundance, which was coincident with high concentrations of ammonium. An increase of the biomass and composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton during the bloom resulted from bottom-up effects due to the nutrients excreted by B. virginica. The average size and grazing rates of microzooplankton concurrently decreased. The negative correlation between the abundances of B. virginica and microzooplankton was accurately simulated by a generalized linear model and redundancy analysis. This study provided empirical evidence of the impacts of the B. virginica bloom on the food web and the mechanisms responsible for those effects. These impacts may lead to serious ecological and environmental consequences for the lagoonal ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plâncton , Biomassa , China , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton
18.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 24, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Freshwater ecosystems are inhabited by members of cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages despite the disconnected nature of these habitats. The lineages are delineated based on > 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, but their intra-lineage microdiversity and phylogeography, which are key to understanding the eco-evolutional processes behind their ubiquity, remain unresolved. Here, we applied long-read amplicon sequencing targeting nearly full-length 16S rRNA genes and the adjacent ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences to reveal the intra-lineage diversities of pelagic bacterioplankton assemblages in 11 deep freshwater lakes in Japan and Europe. RESULTS: Our single nucleotide-resolved analysis, which was validated using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, uncovered 7-101 amplicon sequence variants for each of the 11 predominant bacterial lineages and demonstrated sympatric, allopatric, and temporal microdiversities that could not be resolved through conventional approaches. Clusters of samples with similar intra-lineage population compositions were identified, which consistently supported genetic isolation between Japan and Europe. At a regional scale (up to hundreds of kilometers), dispersal between lakes was unlikely to be a limiting factor, and environmental factors or genetic drift were potential determinants of population composition. The extent of microdiversification varied among lineages, suggesting that highly diversified lineages (e.g., Iluma-A2 and acI-A1) achieve their ubiquity by containing a consortium of genotypes specific to each habitat, while less diversified lineages (e.g., CL500-11) may be ubiquitous due to a small number of widespread genotypes. The lowest extent of intra-lineage diversification was observed among the dominant hypolimnion-specific lineage (CL500-11), suggesting that their dispersal among lakes is not limited despite the hypolimnion being a more isolated habitat than the epilimnion. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel approach complemented the limited resolution of short-read amplicon sequencing and limited sensitivity of the metagenome assembly-based approach, and highlighted the complex ecological processes underlying the ubiquity of freshwater bacterioplankton lineages. To fully exploit the performance of the method, its relatively low read throughput is the major bottleneck to be overcome in the future. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Água Doce , Filogeografia , Plâncton/genética , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Europa (Continente) , Japão , Filogenia , Plâncton/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144357, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477050

RESUMO

Shallow lakes have a tendency to settle into turbid or clear-water states, the latter having lower concentrations of total phosphorus (TP). However, how P-cycling is affected by and perhaps contributes to maintaining the different states is not well understood, in part because quantifying the processes involved by traditional methods is difficult. To elucidate these processes, we conducted experiments using 32P-PO4 as a tracer on samples collected from the unrestored, unvegetated sections of Huizhou West Lake where turbid water prevails as well as the restored, clear-water, macrophyte-rich waters of the lake. We measured PO4 uptake rates, 32P-PO4 accumulation by various plankton size-fractions (picoplankton (0.2-2 µm), nanoplankton (2-20 µm) and microplankton (>20 µm)) as well as release rates of 32P-PO4 by labelled plankton. Our results revealed slow PO4 uptake in the turbid state due to low PO4 concentration, slow recycling of the high particulate P, and high levels of particulate 32P which may allow for continuous high growth and biomass of phytoplankton. In contrast, in the clear water state, the uptake of PO4 was rapid due to a higher PO4 concentration, the recycling rates of particulate 32P were high and the levels of particulate 32P were low, potentially constraining the phytoplankton growth. A greater proportion of particulate 32P was in the microplankton fraction in clear waters, suggesting that grazing by microplankton may play an important role in the rapid P recycling in clear-waters. Our results provide some evidence for a reinforcement of the turbid conditions (low recycling rate) when the lake is in a turbid state and vice versa when in the clear water state. The results add new knowledge to the understanding of P cycling in shallow lakes and illustrate the utility of using P-kinetics in contrasting states in plankton communities.


Assuntos
Lagos , Plâncton , Biomassa , Eutrofização , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 234-241, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372475

RESUMO

Planktonic fungi are important components of aquatic ecosystems, and analyses of their community composition and function have far-reaching significance for the ecological management and maintenance of the Danjiangkou reservoir. The composition and function of the planktonic fungal community in the surface water layer of the Danjiangkou Reservoir in October 2019 was investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with FUNGuild analyses. According to the results, the reservoir community is primarily composed of 6 phyla 213 genera, with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota being the dominant phyla. The water quality monitoring results for the Danjiangkou Reservoir met the Grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ water quality standards for the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 38382-2002). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the planktonic fungal community and environmental factors showed that TN, TP, T, ORP, and TLI are important factors influencing the distribution of planktonic fungi. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Lodderomyces, and Acremonium were significantly correlated with physical and chemical water quality parameters. FUNGuild was used to predict the nutritional and functional groups of planktonic fungi, and the results showed that pathotrophs, saprotrophs, and pathotroph-saprotrophs were the major components. The pathotroph composition analysis showed that the proportions of plant pathogens and animal pathogens in the Heijizui samples were significantly higher than those observed in the other monitoring sites. The community composition, function, and influencing factors of the planktonic fungi community in the Danjiangkou Reservoir were investigated and indicated that it is potentially at ecological risk and more attention needs to be paid to planktonic fungi in the biological monitoring of water quality.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Plâncton , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Fungos/genética , Qualidade da Água
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