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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206953

RESUMO

Quercetin, classified as a flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant that plays a significant role in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, which is particularly important in the case of biotic and abiotic stresses. The study investigated the effect of the use of potassium quercetin solutions in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%) on the physiological and biochemical properties of wheat seedlings. A pot experiment was carried out in order to determine the most beneficial dose of this flavonoid acting as a bio-stimulant for wheat plants. Spraying with quercetin derivative solutions was performed twice, and physiological measurements (chlorophyll content and fluorescence as well as gas exchange) were carried out on the first and seventh days after each application. The total phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant capacity were also determined. It was shown that the concentrations of potassium quercetin applied have a stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes. In the case of most of the tested physiological parameters (chlorophyll content and fluorescence and gas exchange) and the total antioxidant capacity, no significant differences were observed in their increase as a result of application with concentrations of 3.0 and 5.0%. Therefore, the beneficial effect of quercetin on the analysed parameters is already observed when spraying with a concentration of 3.0%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112369, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090109

RESUMO

Soil salinization seriously restricts the growth and yield of soybeans. However, little information is available on the early growth stages of soybeans which are subjected to the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, prohexadione-calcium (Pro-Ca). This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous Pro-Ca on saline-alkali stress-induced damages to photosynthesis and antioxidant defenses in soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. At the V3 growth stage, salt-tolerant genotype Hefeng 50 (HF50) and salt-sensitive genotype Kenfeng 16 (KF16) were subjected to 110 mmol L-1 mixed saline-alkali stress respectively, and then 100 mg L-1 Pro-Ca was sprayed on the leaves. Our results showed that saline-alkali stress accelerated the degradation of thylakoids, inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, reduced shoot dry weight, electron transfer rate (ETR), and peroxidase (POD) activity, the concentration of ascorbic acid (AsA) and soluble sugar, but enhanced the concentration of proline, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2∙-) generation. Additionally, saline-alkali stress induced a lower decrease of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), potential activity of PSII (Fv/F0), and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in salt-tolerant HF50 than in salt-sensitive KF16. Nevertheless, foliar spraying of exogenous Pro-Ca increased the chlorophyll content, Pn, Fv/F0, and Fv/Fm. These results were more prominent when Pro-Ca was applied to KF16 under saline-alkali conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of Pro-Ca retarded the degradation of thylakoids, increased the ETR and the accumulation of AsA, soluble sugar, and proline, activated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and POD, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), O2∙-, and H2O2. These results indicated that Pro-Ca could effectively protect soybean seedlings against damage from saline-alkali stress by regulating seedling phenotype, photosynthetic apparatus, antioxidant defense, and osmoregulation.


Assuntos
Álcalis/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilacoides/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112410, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126303

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) toxicity is a growing serious environmental pollution that threatens human health and crop productivity. Poplar, as an important economic and ecological forest species, has the characteristics of fasting growth and accumulating heavy metals, which is a powerful model plant for phytoremediation. Here, a novel label-free quantitative proteomic platform of SWATH-MS was applied to detect proteome changes in poplar seedling roots following Pb treatment. In total 4388 unique proteins were identified and quantified, among which 542 proteins showed significant abundance changes upon Pb(II) exposure. Functional categorizations revealed that differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) primarily distributed in specialized biological processes. Particularly, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were strongly activated upon Pb exposure, implicating their potential roles for Pb detoxification in poplar. Furthermore, hemicellulose and pectin related cell wall proteins exhibited increased abundances, where may function as a sequestration reservoir to reduce Pb toxicity in cytoplasm. Simultaneously, up-regulation of glutathione metabolism may serve as a protective role for Pb-induced oxidative damages in poplar. Further correlation investigation revealed an extra layer of post-transcriptional regulation during Pb response in poplar. Overall, our work represents multiply potential regulators in mediating Pb tolerance in poplar, providing molecular targets and strategies for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1883-1892, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062161

RESUMO

Biocontrol of soil-borne pathogens by recruiting soil microbiota brings forth benefits to soil quality and plant production while lowers environmental impact. Succinoglycan possesses various biological activities, but its role in soil amendment is still elusive. The succinoglycan Riclin was investigated in this study as a polysaccharide-type biocontrol agent for improving the soil suppressiveness on a typical fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Results demonstrated that addition of Riclin increased the soil microbial carbon and lowered the species richness of soil fungal communities. After addition of 2.5 mg/g Riclin for 90 days, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were increased by 76.6% and 193.4%, compared with the control. Meanwhile, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were decreased by 25.9% and 30.4%. The relative abundance of beneficial genera, namely Nocardioides, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Gaiella, Marmoricola, Bacillus, and Rhizobium, became 1.13, 5.17, 0.87, 0.45, 3.57, 4.53, and 6.30 folds higher than the control, respectively. Antagonism towards soil-borne pathogens was probably enhanced as both hydrolase activity and biosynthesis of bioactive secondary compounds were improved. Importantly, Riclin-treated soil significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt of cucumber seedlings by suppression of FOC. In conclusion, addition of Riclin was conducive to the improvement of soil suppressiveness.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodiversidade , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Food Chem ; 361: 130177, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077883

RESUMO

Carotenoid content in maize sprouts can be increased by NaCl stress, although high NaCl concentrations negatively impact plant growth. The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on contents of carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of yellow maize sprouts under NaCl stress were investigated. Our results showed that treatments of NaCl both alone and combined with MeJA enhanced the carotenoid accumulation in maize sprouts. Moreover, the carotenoid biosynthesis related genes showed different expression patterns under addition of MeJA treatment. Additionally, the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most carotenoids profiles and the addition of MeJA could alleviate the harmful effect caused by NaCl stress. Furthermore, the combined treatment improved antioxidant enzyme activities and radical scavenging capacity. The results implied that MeJA is kind of effective plant growth regulator for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in maize sprouts by up-regulating the expression levels of key genes involved in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/fisiologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068646

RESUMO

Nowadays, the use of biostimulants to reduce agrochemical input is a major trend in agriculture. In this work, we report on calcium phosphate particles (CaP) recovered from the circular economy, combined with natural humic substances (HSs), to produce a plant biostimulant. CaPs were obtained by the thermal treatment of Salmo salar bones and were subsequently functionalized with HSs by soaking in a HS water solution. The obtained materials were characterized, showing that the functionalization with HS did not sort any effect on the bulk physicochemical properties of CaP, with the exception of the surface charge that was found to get more negative. Finally, the effect of the materials on nutrient uptake and translocation in the early stages of development (up to 20 days) of two model species of interest for horticulture, Valerianella locusta and Diplotaxis tenuifolia, was assessed. Both species exhibited a similar tendency to accumulate Ca and P in hypogeal tissues, but showed different reactions to the treatments in terms of translocation to the leaves. CaP and CaP-HS treatments lead to an increase of P accumulation in the leaves of D. tenuifolia, while the treatment with HS was found to increase only the concentration of Ca in V. locusta leaves. A low biostimulating effect on both plants' growth was observed, and was mainly scribed to the low concentration of HS in the tested materials. In the end, the obtained material showed promising results in virtue of its potential to elicit phosphorous uptake and foliar translocation by plants.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Valerianella/química , Difração de Raios X
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070927

RESUMO

Citric acid (CA), as an organic chelator, plays a vital role in alleviating copper (Cu) stress-mediated oxidative damage, wherein a number of molecular mechanisms alter in plants. However, it remains largely unknown how CA regulates differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in response to Cu stress in Brassica napus L. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the proteome changes in the leaves of B. L. seedlings in response to CA-mediated alleviation of Cu stress. Exposure of 21-day-old seedlings to Cu (25 and 50 µM) and CA (1.0 mM) for 7 days exhibited a dramatic inhibition of overall growth and considerable increase in the enzymatic activities (POD, SOD, CAT). Using a label-free proteome approach, a total of 6345 proteins were identified in differentially treated leaves, from which 426 proteins were differentially expressed among the treatment groups. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways analysis revealed that most of the differential abundance proteins were found to be involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and defense, metal detoxification, and cell wall reorganization. Our results suggest that the downregulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic proteins involved in photosynthesis were consistent with reduced chlorophyll content. The increased abundance of proteins involved in stress and defense indicates that these DAPs might provide significant insights into the adaptation of Brassica seedlings to Cu stress. The abundances of key proteins were further verified by monitoring the mRNA expression level of the respective transcripts. Taken together, these findings provide a potential molecular mechanism towards Cu stress tolerance and open a new route in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cu through exogenous application of CA in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/antagonistas & inibidores , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Peroxidases/classificação , Peroxidases/genética , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 239, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that magnesium (Mg) remobilization in citrus plants is regulated by Mg supply and contributes to differences in the growth of the parent and branch organs. Citrus seedlings were grown in sand under Mg deficient (0 mmol Mg2+ L-1, -Mg) and Mg sufficient (2 mmol Mg2+ L-1, + Mg) conditions. The effects on biomass, Mg uptake and transport, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as related morphological and physiological parameters were evaluated in different organs. RESULTS: Mg deficiency significantly decreased plant biomass, with a decrease in total plant biomass of 39.6%, and a greater than twofold decrease in the branch organs compared with that of the parent organs. Reduced photosynthesis capacity was caused by a decreased in pigment levels and photosynthetic electron transport chain disruption, thus affecting non-structural carbohydrate accumulation and plant growth. However, the adaptive responses of branch leaves to Mg deficiency were greater than those in parent leaves. Mg deficiency inhibited plant Mg uptake but enhanced Mg remobilization from parent to branch organs, thus changing related growth variables and physiological parameters, including protein synthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, in the principal components analysis, these variations were highly clustered in both the upper and lower parent leaves, but highly separated in branch leaves under the different Mg conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Mg deficiency inhibits the growth of the parent and branch organs of citrus plants, with high Mg mobility contributing to differences in physiological metabolism. These findings suggest that Mg management should be optimized for sustainable citrus production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citrus/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus/genética , Magnésio , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112370, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058673

RESUMO

A 6 weeks pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the stabilization effects of a modified biochar (BCM) on metals in contaminated soil and the uptake of these metals by wheat seedlings. The results showed that the application of BCM significantly increased the soil fertility, the biomass of wheat seedling roots increased by more than 50%, and soil dehydrogenase (DHA) and catalase (CAT) activities increased by 369.23% and 12.61%, respectively. In addition, with the application of BCM, the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable (DTPA-extractable) Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soil were reduced from 2.34 to 0.38 mg/kg, from 49.27 to 25.65 mg/kg, from 3.55 mg/kg to below the detection limit and from 4.05 to 3.55 mg/kg, respectively. Correspondingly, the uptake of these metals in wheat roots and shoots decreased by 62.43% and 79.83% for Cd, 73.21% and 66.32% for Pb, 57.98% and 68.92% for Cu, and 40.42% and 43.66% for Zn. Furthermore, BCM application decreased the abundance and alpha diversity of soil bacteria and changed the soil bacterial community structure dramatically. Overall, BCM has great potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils, but its long-term impact on soil metals and biota need further research.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112312, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989917

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) pollution is common in the soil. Due to the widespread application of TiO2 NPs, there is a high propensity for the co-occurrence of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and Cu in agricultural soils. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the joint effects of TiO2 NPs and Cu on crops. In this study, the mutual effects of TiO2 NPs and Cu on their toxicity and accumulation in soybean seedlings and on their fates in a hydroponic system were determined. When Cu was at levels of 1 and 2 mg/L, the co-occurring TiO2 NPs at a non-toxic concentration (10 mg/L) significantly enhanced the toxicity and accumulation of Cu and Ti in soybeans, and inhibited the translocation of Cu from soybean roots to shoots. However, when the Cu concentration for co-exposure was ≥ 5 mg/L, such mutual effects disappeared. The amount of Cu ions adsorbed onto TiO2 NPs after 48 h of co-exposure gradually increased from 31 to 118 mg/g when the Cu concentration was increased from 1 to 20 mg/L. The aggregation and sedimentation of TiO2 NPs were significantly increased after 48 h of co-exposure with the Cu at a concentration higher than 5 mg/L, as compared to the single TiO2 NPs exposure. The increasing aggregation and sedimentation might reduce the bioavailability of TiO2 NPs associated with the adsorbed Cu to soybeans, and consequently alleviate or even neutralize the enhanced toxicity and accumulation of Cu in soybeans exerted by the co-existing TiO2 NPs. Our results thus suggest that consideration of the impact of TiO2 NPs on the phytotoxicity of heavy metals, and specifically Cu, needs to be interpreted with care, and highlight the importance of integrating the interaction and fates of TiO2 NPs and metals into their risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Fabaceae , Hidroponia , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Soja
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112313, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004453

RESUMO

The intolerable levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater and its application in rice cultivation are continuously affecting the rice production in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain. The reduced germination and plant growth rates under excessive As stress ultimately lead to lower yield. To mitigate this concerning issue, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of K-humate priming on seed germination and plant growth under As stress. Seeds were primed with 100 mg/l K-humate for 12 h prior to germination. The germination percentages in unprimed seeds were 65 ±â€¯5.0% and 58.3 ±â€¯7.6% under stress level of 50 µM AsV and 50 µM AsIII, respectively. However, germination percentage in K-humate primed seeds were 75 ±â€¯5.0% and 68.3 ±â€¯2.9% under AsV and AsIII stress, respectively. The vigour index I (VG I) and vigour index II (VG II) recorded on 12 DAS (days after seeding) were also increased by 1.47 and 1.51 fold, respectively with K-humate supplementation under As stress. Detrimental effects of AsIII on seed germination, seedling growth and other physiological parameters were more suppressive than AsV. Application of K-humate not only improved seed germination, seedling growth and nutrient uptake but also decreased the oxidative stress markers and antioxidant activities by minimizing As uptake and translocation in the seedlings.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Oryza/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arsênio/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2290: 271-284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009596

RESUMO

Various steps of micropropagation include selection of suitable explant, establishment of adventitious shoot induction cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. A systematic protocol is provided for the micropropagation and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of a fast growing, multipurpose tree, Paulownia elongata. Our studies show that optimum shoot induction is on half leaf with petiole explant on MS medium supplemented with 25 µM thidiazuron and 10 µM indole-3 acetic acid. Micropropagation protocols provided here are applicable to explants collected from the primed in vitro raised seedlings on MS medium containing 2.5 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or actively growing shoots collected from greenhouse or field growing plants. We also discuss a possible role of "Python" script guided protocol optimization for higher and consistent multiplication of shoots that can be very helpful for scaled up production in commercial settings. To facilitate future plant improvement and gene editing possibilities, an A. tumefaciens based genetic transformation protocol and molecular identification of transgenic plants using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) techniques have also been optimized.


Assuntos
Lamiales/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Lamiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Transformação Genética/genética , Transformação Genética/fisiologia , Árvores/genética
13.
Gene ; 792: 145742, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051336

RESUMO

Given the complexity of nutrient stress responses and the availability of a few validated reference genes, we aimed to identify robust and stable reference genes for macronutrient stress in rice and soybean. Ten potential reference genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Comparative ΔCt method, and RefFinder algorithms under low and completely starved conditions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulphur (S). Results revealed distinct sets of reference gene pairs, showing stable expression under different experimental conditions. The gene pairs TIP41/UBC(9/10/18) and F-box/UBC10 were most stable in rice and soybean, respectively under N stress. Under P stress, UBC9/UBC10 in rice and F-Box/UBC10 in soybean were most stable. Similarly, TIP41/UBC10 in rice and RING FINGER/UBC9 in soybean were the best gene pairs under K stress while F-Box/TIP41 in rice and UBC9/UBC10 in soybean were the most stable gene pairs under S stress. These reference gene pairs were validated by quantifying the expression levels of high-affinity transporters like NRT2.1/NRT2.5, PT1, AKT1, and SULTR1 for N, P, K, and S stress, respectively. This study reiterates the importance of choosing reference genes based on crop species and the experimental conditions, in order to obtain concrete answers to missing links of gene regulation in response to macronutrient deficiencies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Essenciais , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hidroponia/métodos , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Fósforo/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/farmacologia , Deficiência de Potássio/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Enxofre/deficiência , Enxofre/farmacologia
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 12-22, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892040

RESUMO

Polysaccharides derived from seaweeds can be used as biostimulants to enhance plant resistance to different stressors. In this study, we investigated the effects of applying low molecular weight polysaccharides (LPU) derived from Ulva prolifera with 14.2 kDa on the responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to osmotic stress. The results showed that osmotic stress simulated using polyethylene glycol inhibited seedling growth, whereas we observed increases in the fresh weights and shoot lengths of seedlings treated with polysaccharide for 120 h. Furthermore, we observed enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and significant reductions in malondialdehyde content of 23.13%, 19.82%, and 20.04% in response treatment for 120 h with 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% LPU, respectively, relative to those in the group treated with polyethylene glycol alone. In all treatments, expression of the P5CS gene was upregulated to promote proline accumulation. Moreover, after 120 h, exogenously applied LPU induced the expression of stress-related genes, including SnRK2, Wabi5, Wrab18, and Wdhn13. Collectively, these findings indicate that LPU might have the effect of regulating the abscisic acid-dependent pathway in wheat, thereby increasing seedling antioxidant capacity and growth. Application of LPU may accordingly represent an effective approach for enhancing the resistance to osmotic stress in wheat.


Assuntos
Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ulva/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112217, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862431

RESUMO

Microplastics are widespread in freshwater environments, their biological effects and combined effects of other pollutants have attracted extensive attention. In this study, we investigated the adsorption properties of heavy metals onto polystyrene (PS) microplastics as well as the bioavailability and toxicity of microplastics and heavy metals by hydroponic wheat seedlings experiment. Results showed that PS microplastics (0.5 µm, 100 mg/L) had no significant effect on wheat seedlings growth, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. However, PS microplastics could adsorb copper and cadmium, with a predominantly chemisorption. The accumulation of copper and cadmium in wheat seedlings reduced in the presence of PS microplastics, which meant the toxic effect by heavy metals might be mitigated. Compared with single heavy metals treatments, the combination of PS microplastics and heavy metals increased chlorophyll content, enhanced photosynthesis and reduced the accumulation of ROS. These findings suggest that PS microplastics (0.5 µm, 100 mg/L) have a mitigating effect on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper and cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Clorofila , Hidroponia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112248, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901782

RESUMO

Melatonin (Mel), a powerful antioxidant that has the ability to regulate physiological and biochemical processes in plants under abiotic stresses. However, its roles in pesticide detoxification is poorly understood. Herein, selecting leaf spraying insecticide imidacloprid (IMD) as the model, we demonstrated the detoxification mechanism underlying root pretreatment of Mel on IMD in cucumber. IMD treatment affected the primary light conversion efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), reduced the quantum yield, and increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions contents as well as the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, indicating that excessive IMD treatment induces oxidative stress. Nonetheless, by increasing the appropriate levels of exogenous Mel, the photosynthesis of cucumber under IMD treatment reached the control levels, effectively removing reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the content and ratio of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) were decreased under IMD treatment; Mel treatment enhanced the AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG ratios, as well as the activities of MDHAR, DHAR and GR, suggesting that Mel could alleviate oxidative stress of cucumber treated with IMD by regulating the ascorbic acid-glutathione cycle. Importantly, IMD degradation rate and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased after Mel treatment. The levels of transcripts encoding antioxidant enzymes GPX and GST (GST1,2 and 3) were also increased, indicating that Mel accelerated IMD degradation. These results suggest that Mel plays an important role in the detoxification of IMD by promoting GST activity and transcription and the AsA-GSH cycle, thus providing an approach for plants to reduce IMD residue through the plant's own detoxification mechanism.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Melatonina/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924609

RESUMO

Osmotic stress severely inhibits plant growth and development, causing huge loss of crop quality and quantity worldwide. Melatonin is an important signaling molecule that generally confers plant increased tolerance to various environmental stresses, however, whether and how melatonin participates in plant osmotic stress response remain elusive. Here, we report that melatonin enhances plant osmotic stress tolerance through increasing ROS-scavenging ability, and melatonin receptor CAND2 plays a key role in melatonin-mediated plant response to osmotic stress. Upon osmotic stress treatment, the expression of melatonin biosynthetic genes including SNAT1, COMT1, and ASMT1 and the accumulation of melatonin are increased in the wild-type plants. The snat1 mutant is defective in osmotic stress-induced melatonin accumulation and thus sensitive to osmotic stress, while exogenous melatonin enhances the tolerance of the wild-type plant and rescues the sensitivity of the snat1 mutant to osmotic stress by upregulating the expression and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase to repress H2O2 accumulation. Further study showed that the melatonin receptor mutant cand2 exhibits reduced osmotic stress tolerance with increased ROS accumulation, but exogenous melatonin cannot revert its osmotic stress phenotype. Together, our study reveals that CADN2 functions necessarily in melatonin-conferred osmotic stress tolerance by activating ROS-scavenging ability in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pressão Osmótica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799521

RESUMO

Climate change, environmental pollution and pathogen resistance to available chemical agents are part of the problems that the food industry has to face in order to ensure healthy food for people and livestock. One of the promising solutions to these problems is the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP). Plasma is suitable for efficient surface decontamination of seeds and food products, germination enhancement and obtaining higher yields in agricultural production. However, the plasma effects vary due to plasma source, treatment conditions and seed type. In our study, we tried to find the proper conditions for treatment of barley grains by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge, in which positive effects of CAPP, such as enhanced germination or decontamination effects, would be maximized and harmful effects, such as oxidation and genotoxic potential, minimized. Besides germination parameters, we evaluated DNA damage and activities of various germination and antioxidant enzymes in barley seedlings. Plasma exposure resulted in changes in germination parameters and enzyme activities. Longer exposures had also genotoxic effects. As such, our findings indicate that appropriate plasma exposure conditions need to be carefully optimized in order to preserve germination, oxidation balance and genome stability, should CAPP be used in agricultural practice.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Hordeum/enzimologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Brotos de Planta , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916510

RESUMO

Amino acids have a wide range of biological activities, which usually rely on the stereoisomer presented. In this study, glycine and 21 common α-amino acids were investigated for their herbicidal property against Chinese amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.). Both d- and l-isomers, as well as a racemic mixture, were tested and found that most compounds barely inhibited germination but moderately suppressed seedling growth. Various ratios of d:l-mixture were studied and synergy between enantiomers was found. For Chinese amaranth, the most toxic d:l-mixtures were at 3:7 (for glutamine), 8:2 (for methionine), and 5:5 (for tryptophan). For barnyard grass, rac-glutamine was more toxic than the pure forms; however, d-tryptophan exhibited greater activity than racemate and l-isomer, indicating the sign of enantioselective toxicity. The mode of action was unclear, but d-tryptophan caused bleaching of leaves, indicating pigment synthesis of the grass was inhibited. The results highlighted the enantioselective and synergistic toxicity of some amino acids, which relied upon plant species, chemical structures, and concentrations. Overall, our finding clarifies the effect of stereoisomers, and provides a chemical clue of amino acid herbicides, which may be useful in the development of herbicides from natural substances.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Echinochloa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/fisiologia , Química Verde , Herbicidas/química , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920363

RESUMO

As one of the common abiotic stresses, chilling stress has negative effects on rice growth and development. Minimization of these adverse effects through various ways is vital for the productivity of rice. Nanoparticles (NPs) serve as one of the effective alleviation methods against abiotic stresses. In our research, zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs were utilized as foliar sprays on rice leaves to explore the mechanism underlying the effect of NPs against the negative impact of chilling stress on rice seedlings. We revealed that foliar application of ZnO NPs significantly alleviated chilling stress in hydroponically grown rice seedlings, including improved plant height, root length, and dry biomass. Besides, ZnO NPs also restored chlorophyll accumulation and significantly ameliorated chilling-induced oxidative stress with reduced levels of H2O2, MDA, proline, and increased activities of major antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). We further found that foliar application of ZnO NPs induced the chilling-induced gene expression of the antioxidative system (OsCu/ZnSOD1, OsCu/ZnSOD2, OsCu/ZnSOD3, OsPRX11, OsPRX65, OsPRX89, OsCATA, and OsCATB) and chilling response transcription factors (OsbZIP52, OsMYB4, OsMYB30, OsNAC5, OsWRKY76, and OsWRKY94) in leaves of chilling-treated seedlings. Taken together, our results suggest that foliar application of ZnO NPs could alleviate chilling stress in rice via the mediation of the antioxidative system and chilling response transcription factors.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofila/biossíntese , Nanopartículas/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/agonistas , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroponia/métodos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/agonistas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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