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1.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126197, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087455

RESUMO

Rapid expansion of nanotechnology and indiscriminate discharge of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment pose a serious hazard to the ecological receptors including plants. To better understand the role of miRNAs in ZnO-NPs stress adaptation, two small RNA libraries were prepared from control and ZnO-NPs (800 ppm, <50 nm particle size) stressed maize leaves. Meager performance of ZnO-NPs treated seedlings was associated with elevated tissue zinc accumulation, enhanced ROS generation, loss of root cell viability, increased foliar MDA content, decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Deep sequencing identified 3 (2 known and 1 novel) up- and 77 (73 known and 4 novel) down-regulated miRNAs from ZnO-NPs challenged leaves. GO analysis reveals that potential targets of ZnO-NPs responsive miRNAs regulate diverse biological processes viz. plant growth and development (miR159f-3p, zma_18), ROS homeostasis (miR156b, miR166l), heavy metal transport and detoxification (miR444a, miR167c-3p), photosynthesis (miR171b) etc. Up-regulation of SCARECROW 6 in ZnO-NPs treated leaves might be responsible for suppression of chlorophyll biosynthesis leading to yellowing of leaves. miR156b.1 mediated up-regulation of CALLOSE SYNTHASE also does not give much protection against ZnO-NPs treatment. Taken together, the findings shed light on the miRNA-guided stress regulatory networks involved in plant adaptive responses to ZnO-NPs stress.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Clorofila/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110315, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058162

RESUMO

Tea (Camellia sinensis), widely planted in the south of China, and often exposed to acid rain. However, research concerning the impacts of acid rain on physiology and biochemistry of tea plants is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the influence of simulated acid rain (SAR) on plant height, root length, photosynthetic pigment, Fv/Fm, proline, malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzyme activity, total nitrogen, caffeine, catechins, and free amino acids. Our results showed that SAR at pH 4.5 did not hinder plant development because growth characteristics, photosynthesis, and ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities did not decrease at this pH compared to those at the other investigated pH values. However, at pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, the activities of antioxidase and concentrations of malondialdehyde and proline increased significantly in response to the decrease of photosynthetic pigments and Fv/Fm. In addition, the increase in acidity increased total nitrogen, certain amino acid content (theanine, cysteine), and decreased catechin and caffeine contents, resulting in an imbalance of the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms. Our results indicated that SAR at pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 could restrict photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system, causing metabolic disorders and ultimately affecting plant development and growth, but SAR at pH 4.5 had no toxic effects on tea seedlings when no other stress factors are involved.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida/toxicidade , Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cafeína/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 148: 368-378, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028134

RESUMO

Root plasticity is controlled by hormonal homeostasis and nutrient availability. In this work, we have determined the influence of different N regimens on growth parameters and on the expression of genes involved in auxin transport and N-assimilation in tomato seedlings. NH4+ nutrition led to an inhibitory effect on root fresh weight (FW), lateral root (LR) number and root density, while an increase in the primary root (PR) length was observed. The expression of N assimilation genes GS2 and ASN1, is affected by NH4+ nutrition. Moreover, in order to relieve the toxic effect of NH4+ on root development, glucose or 2-oxoglutarate was supplied as a C source during NH4+ treatment. The addition of 2-oxoglutarate improved root parameters compared to the NH4+ regimen. N-assimilation gene analysis showed that NH4+-fed tomato plants try to alleviate the toxic effect by concurrently upregulating ASN1 and anaplerotic PEPC2 expression, whereas when 2-oxoglutarate is supplied, ASN1 induction was not observed. The addition of both C skeletons induced the expression of the ROS-scavenging genes GSH and SOD. In addition, since ABA plays a role in root development, the ABA-synthesis-defective mutant flacca was studied under NO3- and NH4+ regimens. It displayed a decrease in LR number under NO3- conditions, whereas, the NH4+-fed seedlings showed a decrease solely in PR length that was reverted when ABA was exogenously supplied. Moreover, flacca seedlings displayed a reprogramming of the N/C assimilation genes. Altogether, these results reflect the importance of N and C sources and ABA homeostasis in root development of tomato seedlings.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Carbono , Lycopersicon esculentum , Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 315: 126275, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004982

RESUMO

The effects of individual epi-brassinolide (eBL) and NaCl, as well as their combination on contents of main phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated. Our results showed that the application of 100 nM eBL decreased the contents of individual and total glucosinolates, while treatments of 160 mM NaCl both alone and combined with 100 nM eBL enhanced the glucosinolates accumulation by promoting the expression of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Chinese kale sprouts and the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most glucosinolate profiles. Moreover, it also elevated the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids, whereas did not influence the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. These findings indicated that the combined treatment of 100 nM eBL plus 160 mM NaCl could provide a new strategy to improve the main health promoting compounds in Chinese kale sprouts.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassinosteroides/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plântula/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Fenóis/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1694-1701, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme temperatures are among the primary abiotic stresses that affect plant growth and development. Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an efficient antioxidant for scavenging relative oxygen species accumulated under stress. Folates play a significant role in DNA synthesis and protect plants against oxidative stress. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.), a crop grown worldwide, is sensitive to extreme temperatures at seedling stage, which may cause yield loss. This study was conducted to explore the biosynthetic regulative mechanism of AsA and folates in sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. RESULTS: The AsA and folate composition and relative gene expression in sweet corn seedlings grown under different temperature stresses (10, 25, and 40 °C) were evaluated. The imposition of temperature stress altered the AsA content mainly by modulating the expression of Zm DHAR, whose encoded enzyme dehydroascorbic reductase (DHAR) is essential in the AsA recycle pathway. Low temperature stress raised the expressions of relative genes, leading to folate accumulation. High temperature stress modulated the folate content by influencing the expression of the correspondence gene for aminodeoxychorismate synthase, Zm ADCS, as well as downstream genes that connected with DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: These results provided a theoretical basis, at a genetic level, for understanding the stress responses mechanism in sweet corn seedlings, offering guidance for sweet corn cultivation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Temperatura , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 151: 111973, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868608

RESUMO

Carbon nitride and WS2 nanocomposite (CN-WS2) with excellent photoelectric activity was prepared by one-step thermal polymerization. By the new strategy of simultaneously loading C and N elements on pure WS2, the formation of CN-WS2 brings high mobility, ultra-fast charge carrier separation and transport, and slows down the recombination rate of electrons and holes. Then, a novel photoelectrochemical biosensor was constructed for 5-formylcytosine detection based on CN-WS2 composite, aldehyde reaction probe (ARP) and ZnFe2O4, where CN-WS2 composite was employed as photoactive material, ARP was used as 5-formylcytosine capture reagent, and ZnFe2O4 was adopted as artificial mimic enzyme. Under the catalysis effect of ZnFe2O4, 4-chloro-1-naphthol was quickly oxidized by H2O2 to produce the insoluble substance of benzo-4-chlorohexadienone, which would be deposited on the electrode surface and caused a decreased PEC response. Under optimal experimental conditions, the biosensor showed low detection limit of 3 pM. This method can also discriminate 5-formylcytosine with other cytosine derivatives. More importantly, the applicability of this method was demonstrated by assessing the effect of antibiotics on the content of 5-formylcytosine in the root, stem and leave of maize seedlings.


Assuntos
Citosina/análogos & derivados , DNA/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nitrilos/química , Plântula/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Zea mays/química , Ligas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Citosina/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Limite de Detecção , Naftóis/química , Óxidos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Propriedades de Superfície , Zinco/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13577-13588, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730344

RESUMO

Light-emitting diode (LED) based light sources, which can selectively and quantitatively provide different spectra, have been frequently applied to manipulate plant growth and development. In this study, the effects of different LED light spectra on the growth, phenolic compounds profile, antioxidant capacity, and transcriptional changes in genes regulating phenolic biosynthesis in soybean microgreens were investigated. The results showed that light illumination decreased the seedling length and yield but increased phenolic compound content. Blue light and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) induced significant increases in total phenolic and total flavonoid content, as compared with the white light control. Sixty-six phenolic compounds were identified in the soybean samples, of which isoflavone, phenolic acid, and flavonol were the main components. Ten phenolic compounds obtained from the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were reflecting the effect of light spectra. The antioxidant capacity was consistent with the phenolic metabolite levels, which showed higher levels under blue light and UV-A compared with the control. The highest transcript levels of phenolic biosynthesis-related genes were observed under blue light and UV-A. The transcript levels of GmCHI, GmFLS, and GmIOMT were also upregulated under far-red and red light. Taken together, our findings suggested that the application of LED light could pave a green and effective way to produce phenolic compound-enriched soybean microgreens with high nutritional quality, which could stimulate further investigations for improving plant nutritional value and should have a wide impact on maintaining human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/química , Luz , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 860-864, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605159

RESUMO

In the present study, a pot-culture experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of mercapto-functionalized nanosilica (MPTS/nano-silica) on Cd stabilization and uptake by wheat seedling. Four different dosages of MPTS/nano-silica were applied: 0%, 0.3%, 0.6% and 1% (w/w), and the changes of DTPA-extractable Cd in soil, soil properties, wheat biomass, and uptake of Cd to wheat tissues (shoots and roots) were measured throughout the experiment. The results showed that the application of MPTS/nano-silica (at dose of 1%) reduced the DTPA-extractable Cd from 4.21 to 1.45 mg/kg in the soil. Whereas the addition of MPTS/nano-silica hardly changed soil properties and slightly decreased the biomass of wheat seedling. In addition, Cd concentration in wheat tissues decreased from 6.388 to 2.625 mg/kg for shoot, and from 18.622 to 6.368 mg/kg for root. These results indicated that MPTS/nano-silica is an ideal candidate for remediation of Cd contaminated agricultural soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Biomassa , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3027-3036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529805

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Se (Selenium) treatment on nutritional quality in radish sprouts. The results showed that 15 µM sodium selenite significantly increased phenolics compounds, flavonoids compounds, anthocyanins, and some essential amino acid content, while improving the total antioxidant capacity of radish sprouts. Besides, the Se-enriched radish sprouts significantly alleviated the liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in mice and improved the antioxidant capacity of the liver in mice, whereas the Se-enriched radish sprouts alleviated the inflammatory reaction and apoptosis caused by CCl4 . These results imply that Se-enriched radish sprouts have a positive impact on mice with CCl4 -induced liver injury, and that in future Se-enriched radish sprouts could be developed into an effective food and health care product for the liver injury prevention. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Because selenium is an essential trace element in the human body, selenium-enriched sprouts can help eliminate free radicals in the body, relieve aging, and selenium-deficient diseases. They are easy to grow and have low costs. Hence, selenium-enriched sprouts have a great potential of being widely consumed.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/dietoterapia , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Raphanus/química , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9772-9781, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398019

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the response profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids on transcription and metabolic levels of sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. The treated temperatures were set as 10 °C (low temperature, LT), 25 °C (control, CK), and 40 °C (high temperature, HT) for sweet corn seedlings. The gene expression profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids biosynthesis pathways were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the composition profiles were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitamin E gradually accumulated in response to LT stress but was limited by HT stress. The increase of carotenoids was suppressed by LT stress whereas HT stress promoted it. The existing results elaborated the interactive and competitive relationships of vitamin E and carotenoids in sweet corn seedlings to respond to extreme temperature stress at transcriptional and metabolic levels. The present study would improve sweet corn temperature resilience with integrative knowledge in the future.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8452-8458, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294967

RESUMO

Insights into the environmental fates of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in edible vegetables are of great significance for better evaluating human exposure to NPAHs through the dietary pathway. In this work, a fluorescence quenching method using graphene quantum dots as a fluorescent probe was first applied for the in vivo determination of 9-nitroanthracene (9-NAnt) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NPyr) adsorbed on the leaf surfaces of living lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Moreover, the photolysis kinetics and mechanisms of the two adsorbed NPAHs were discussed. The photodegradation kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order equation, and the photodegradation half-life of 1-NPyr (7.4 ± 0.2 h) was greater than that of 9-NAnt (2.3 ± 0.1 h). Anthraquinone and pyrenediones were identified to be the main photolytic products of 9-NAnt and 1-NPyr, respectively. Intramolecular rearrangement was the most reasonable mechanism for the NPAH photolysis. The photolysis-driven degradation exhibited a key role in scavenging NPAHs from the vegetable leaf, indicating the reduction of NPAH transportation in the food chain.


Assuntos
Alface/química , Nitratos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Cinética , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/efeitos da radiação , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 223: 117335, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288169

RESUMO

Luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) have been used to develop a new type of molecular probes based on analyte-triggered aggregation, but it still remains a challenge to design water-soluble AIE-active probe for specific detection of metal ions. Herein, we designed and synthesized a water-soluble molecular probe with AIE property for discriminative detection of aluminum ion and lead ion. Four carboxylic acid groups were incorporated into a tetraphenylethylene unit to enhance the coordination affinity and increase water-solubility in aqueous solution. The designed probe can be selectively lighted up by aluminum ion and lead ion via coordination-triggered AIE process. Discrimination of aluminum ion and lead ions based on the probe can be achieved in quantitative manner with the assistance of suitable masking reagents. This probe was further used to image aluminum ions in living cells of seedling roots of Arabidopsis, and the results showed that this probe is capable of imaging aluminum ions in living cells avoiding the interference of lead ions, and is suited for long-term imaging due to its excellent photostability. This work expands the application scope of AIE-active probes in discriminative detection of metal ions, and provides a design direction for water-soluble AIE probes to avoid the false signals from self-precipitation under physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Arabidopsis/química , Chumbo/análise , Imagem Molecular , Sondas Moleculares/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula/química , Água/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Íons , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estilbenos/química
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261930

RESUMO

We examined whether gastric acidity would affect the activity of myrosinase, co-delivered with glucoraphanin (GR), to convert GR to sulforaphane (SF). A broccoli seed and sprout extract (BSE) rich in GR and active myrosinase was delivered before and after participants began taking the anti-acid omeprazole, a potent proton pump inhibitor. Gastric acidity appears to attenuate GR bioavailability, as evidenced by more SF and its metabolites being excreted after participants started taking omeprazole. Enteric coating enhanced conversion of GR to SF, perhaps by sparing myrosinase from the acidity of the stomach. There were negligible effects of age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, vegetable consumption, and bowel movement frequency and quality. Greater body mass correlated with reduced conversion efficiency. Changes in the expression of 20 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated as possible pharmacodynamic indicators. When grouped by their primary functions based on a priori knowledge, expression of genes associated with inflammation decreased non-significantly, and those genes associated with cytoprotection, detoxification and antioxidant functions increased significantly with bioavailability. Using principal components analysis, component loadings of the changes in gene expression confirmed these groupings in a sensitivity analysis.


Assuntos
Brassica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosinolatos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Imidoésteres/administração & dosagem , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Plântula , Sementes , Adulto , Idoso , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/efeitos adversos , Glucosinolatos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/efeitos adversos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imidoésteres/efeitos adversos , Imidoésteres/isolamento & purificação , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Plântula/química , Sementes/química , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109802, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349442

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), as a hazardous pollutant present in the environment as well as within biological samples, needs to be detected and remediated at the same time. Although many types of Cd detection techniques have been developed globally, there is no evidence to analyse Cd2+ ion electrochemically using graphene-based electrode for bioaccumulation of Cd in bacteria and plants. The present study describes the fabrication and characterization of a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-based electrode to detect bioaccumulation of Cd within the bacterial cell and rice tissues applying differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. In addition, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were performed as supporting tools for this study in the selected Cd resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strain, Klebsiella michiganensis MCC3089. This strain was characterized based on its plant growth promoting (PGP) traits and exhibited bioaccumulation of Cd both under high and low Cd concentrations, of which the latter is more environmentally significant. The Cd-sequestration ability of this strain was found to reduce Cd uptake within rice seedlings.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Klebsiella/química , Oryza/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(3): 461-467, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222423

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the impact of treated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and reserve mobilization from Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum L.). Seeds were germinated by soaking in distilled water (H2O) or wastewater treated with various methods: activated sludge processes (T1), facultative lagoons treatment (T2) and dilution. Results show high levels of organic matter (OM), suspended solids (TSS) and nutrients in TWW (T2) than that of TWW (T1). The embryo length and biomass of fenugreek imbibed by TWW were higher in TWW (T2) compared with TWW (T1). There was more reduction in free amino acids and soluble sugar contents in fenugreek treated with TWW (T1) than treated by TWW (T2). Important solutes leakage is recorded by measuring electric conductivity during seed imbibition with TWW. Improving the quality of wastewater by dilution (50%) stimulated germination of seeds and the growth of the tested plant. Moreover, it significantly reduces the solutes leakage and enhanced seed metabolites accumulation.


Assuntos
Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Agricultura , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Esgotos/efeitos adversos , Esgotos/química , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química
16.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 877-886, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154743

RESUMO

Brewing with buckwheat as an ingredient has been proven to be successful in several previous studies. However, few studies have focused on the effects of buckwheat on the rutin content and antioxidant activity of beer. In order to develop a lager beer with high rutin content and desirable sensory characteristics, tartary buckwheat malt was used as a brewing adjunct. The results showed that the rutin-degrading enzyme was the key factor affecting the rutin content in the wort and beer. Compared to beer made using the common mashing method, the rutin content in the buckwheat beers produced using an improved mashing method was approximately 60 times higher. The total flavonoid contents in buckwheat beers also depended strongly on the mashing methods, ranging from 530.75 to 1,704.68 mg QE/l. The rutin-rich beers also showed better oxidative stability during forced-aging. Meanwhile, the buckwheat beers were found to be acceptable in terms of the main quality attributes, flavor, and taste.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Fagopyrum/química , Rutina/química , Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonoides/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Quercetina/química , Rutina/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Sensação , Paladar
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24362-24371, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230242

RESUMO

The effects of different biotransformation temperatures (250, 550, and 850 °C) and different dose (0-1%) of biochar on the physiological characteristics of maize seedlings under the stress of atrazine were studied. The results show that atrazine significantly inhibits the growth of maize seedlings, while biochar can alleviate the toxicity of atrazine to seedlings. Compared with the low temperature of biochar, the addition of BC850, the germination rate of maize was significantly increased. The biochars prepared at higher temperatures and adding 1% dose could significantly increase the plant height, while the effect of biochar on root growth of maize seedlings was not significant. According to the data, with the increase of biochar application, the accumulation of atrazine in maize leaves and roots gradually decreased. At the maximum application rate of 1%, the content of atrazine in maize leaves decreased by 58.94%, 60.70%, and 62.75%. The content of atrazine in maize roots decreased by 52.93%, 54.57%, and 55.42%, respectively. Meanwhile, the addition of biochar could slightly increase the chlorophyll content, but the change was not significant statistically, while the content of chlorophyll b increases with the application amount. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in roots and leaves decreased first and the increased with the dose of biochar from 0 to 1%. Compared with the atrazine treatment, the content of MDA in leaves and roots decreased significantly, and the lipid peroxidation of maize significantly decreased. With the addition of three kinds of biochar, the soluble content of plant tissues increased gradually, BC550 biochar has the most noticeable remediation effect. Given the toxicity of atrazine in soil, the quality and yield of agricultural products, and the potential health risks to human beings, biochar can be the soil remediation product.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Atrazina/análise , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Temperatura , Triticum , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Protoplasma ; 256(5): 1299-1316, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049757

RESUMO

The cotyledonary petiole (CP) completely envelops the embryo axis during embryogenesis in Arecaceae. There is little information available, however, on the roles of that structure in seed germination and initial seedling development-crucial plant life cycle phases. The study therefore sought to evaluate the roles of CP in the germination and post-seminal development of the recalcitrant seeds of Mauritia flexuosa, an ecologically and economically important neotropical palm. The CP and the embryo/vegetative axis were evaluated during germination and initial seedling development using standard morphological, anatomical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methodologies. Evaluations of dormant seeds incubated for 60 days were also performed. The CP (a) promotes seedling protrusion in the germination, extending the embryo axis outside the seed; (b) protects the vegetative axis through the development of coating rich in phenolic compounds and lignin; (c) participates in reserve translocation, with the conversion of its own proteinaceous/mucilaginous reserves into transitional starch, as well as acting in the transport of endospermic reserves; (d) favors aeration, with the formation of pathways among stomata, substomatal chambers, and intercellular spaces; (e) controls seedling morphogenesis by modulating the curvature of the vegetative axis; and (f) contributes to overcoming seed bank dormancy through cytological alterations (protein synthesis and mitochondrial proliferation). The cotyledonary petiole of palms is a unique and multifunctional structure among angiosperms, with crucial roles in germination and seedling establishment.


Assuntos
Cotilédone/química , Germinação/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Dormência de Plantas
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(7): 1305-1313, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090285

RESUMO

As an important signal molecule, extracellular ATP(eATP) can regulate many physiological and biochemical responses to plant stress. In this study, the regulation of extracellular ATP(eATP) on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Angelica sinensis seedlings were studied under drought and low temperature stress. The results showed that all the chlorophyll content, the actual photochemical efficiency [Y(Ⅱ)], the electron transfer rate(ETR), the photochemical quenching coefficient(qP and qL) of A. sinensis leaves were significantly decreased under drought and low temperature stress, respectively. At the same time, non-photochemical quenching(NPQ and qN) were also all significantly increased, respectively. The application of eATP alleviated the decrease of chlorophyll content, Y(Ⅱ), ETR, qP and qL of A. sinensis leaves under drought and low temperature stress, and eliminated the increase of qN and NPQ. The results indicated that eATP could effectively increase the open ratio of PSⅡ reaction centers, and improve the electron transfer rate and light energy conversion efficiency of PSⅡ of A. sinensis leaves under drought and low temperature stress. It is beneficial to enhance the chlorophyll synthesis and the adaptability of PSⅡ about A. sinensis seedlings to drought and low temperature stress.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Angelica sinensis/química , Clorofila/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico , Angelica sinensis/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula/química , Plântula/fisiologia , Água
20.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1340-1345, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112293

RESUMO

Barley sprouts and wheat sprouts have received much interest as functional foods in many countries. In this study, the effects of heat processing and extraction temperature on the bioactive components and antioxidative properties were examined in barley and wheat sprout teas. Both barley and wheat sprout teas were processed with two different methods (steaming or pan-roasting). Crude protein was increased, and moisture content was the lowest, in the roasted barley and wheat sprout teas. Total phenolics content and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in the roasted teas than in the steamed teas. Vitamin C content was the highest after an extraction temperature of 55 °C (24.05 mg/mL) in the roasted wheat sprout tea. Both roasted barley and wheat sprout teas exhibited the most antioxidative effects in vitro, demonstrated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and nitrite-scavenging activities. Therefore, the roasting method can be considered an appropriate technique for the production of barley and wheat sprout teas. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Barley and wheat sprouts have received much attention in recent years as functional food materials in many countries and can be consumed as a form of tea. Heat processing methods such as steaming and roasting were applied and compared to increase the bioactive components and antioxidative activity in barley and wheat sprout teas. We found that roasting showed higher bioactive components and antioxidative activity than steaming in both barley and wheat sprout teas. In addition, wheat sprouts tea showed better bioactive components and antioxidative activity compared with the barley sprout tea.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Hordeum/química , Temperatura Alta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plântula/química , Triticum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chá
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