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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1395-1400, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047696

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate of effects of using phase-contrast video technique on education in oral hygiene training. This one blind, parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary clinic. Fifty-three patients who presented to the orthodontics department aged 12-20 years were divided into two groups randomly by computer-generated assigned codes to receive oral hygiene education. The participants were blinded to type of education method. Before orthodontic therapy, the control group was trained only by the conventional method, while the test group was trained by phase-contrast video microscopy method in addition to conventional method. Some images and videos of moving microorganisms in dental plaque were shown to the patients in test group on a computer monitor. Subjects and Methods: The bacterial count, plaque index, and gingival index scores were compared. Measurements were obtained in baseline and follow-ups which were repeated with 1-month intervals after the training. Results: The plaque index scores (1.05 ± 0.1 vs. 1.43 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) and gingival index scores (0.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.14 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) in test group was statistically lower than those in control group at the end of the study. The gingival index scores reduced by 39% in test group vs. 14% in control group. The number of bacteria significantly decreased in the group trained with phase-contrast video microscope technique (8,059,133 ± 3016 vs. 10,830,600 ± 4919; 0.018). Conclusions: The training with phase-contrast microscopy has a more positive effect than the traditional method in oral hygiene education.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Microscopia de Vídeo , Higiene Bucal , Ortodontia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Bactérias , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 69-81, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920608

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in periodontal status and maxillary buccal bone by considering clinical and tomographic parameters during the first year of orthodontic expansion with Invisalign® aligners. Upper first (1PM) and upper second (2PM) premolars of 19 patients with orthodontic expansion requirement treated with Invisalign® aligners were evaluated. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and cone beam tomographic (CBCT) records were collected at 76 sites before starting treatment (T0) and at 12 months (T1). Bone height was measured from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the crest cortical bone (CC). Bone thickness was measured at two levels: 4 mm (CEJ+4) and 6 mm (CEJ+6) apical to the CEJ. A descriptive analysis was made of the variations of bone thickness and height in a series of cases. The average expansion was 1.93 mm for 1PM and 167 mm for 2PM. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 1PM was 3.05 mm at T0, and remained at 3.05 mm at T1. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 2PM was 2.06 mm at T0 and 2.31 at T1. Post-expansion, most of the analyzed sites (86%) exhibited a bone thickness of ≥0.5 mm. The greatest variations between T0 and T1 were observed at the level of 1PM CEJ+ 4 and 2PM CEJ+ 6. The minimal changes in the clinical records (GI, PI, PPD and CAL) between T0 and T1 were compatible with the maintenance of gingivalperiodontal health. Invisalign® for expansion movements did not produce substantial changes in the evaluated periodontal clinical parameters or in the bone measurements. Removable appliances reduce plaque retentive factors and favor adequate oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/etiologia , Má Oclusão/terapia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Saúde Bucal , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação
3.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 20-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661343

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the periodontal status and dental behaviour of heart transplant recipients with systemically healthy controls.Material and Methods: Forty heart transplant recipients and 40 systemically healthy patients were included. A questionnaire was used to record demographic, systemic health and dental behaviour data, and the following clinical parameters were recorded: plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level.Results: Mean probing depth (p = .045), mean gingival recession (p = .016), mean clinical attachment level (p = .021) and mean plaque index scores (p = .001) were higher in heart transplant recipients than the systemically healthy group. However, bleeding on probing was similar in both groups (p > .05). Tooth brushing frequency and number of participants who used dental floss/interdental brush was lower in the heart transplant group.Conclusion: Considering the poor oral hygiene and high clinical periodontal parameters of heart transplant recipients, periodontal evaluation should be done regularly before and after transplantation. The patient's daily oral hygiene regimens should be evaluated carefully in this evaluation session and modified based on their gingival health, manual skill and motivational levels. The importance of oral health and its effects on systemic health should also be explained to the transplant recipients in detail.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Transplante de Coração , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Índice Periodontal , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 270, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries and overweight/obesity are health problems with shared risk factors, but the relationships between caries and BMI need to be further explored. The objective was to evaluate the current status of dental caries and the association between dental caries and Body Mass Index (BMI) among primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen, China, during the 2016-2017 academic year. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study that enrolled a total of 1,196,004 students was conducted in Shenzhen. Physical and dental examinations were given to all primary and secondary school students by certified physicians and dentists following the national specification for student health examinations, and dental caries was diagnosed using WHO criteria. Descriptive analysis was applied to assess current oral health status and a multifactorial, logistic regression model was employed to evaluate the relationship between dental caries and obesity. RESULTS: A total of 1,196,004 students participated in the census. Mean age of the participants was 10.3 years, ranging from 6 to 20 years. The prevalence of dental caries was 41.15% in the present study, which was higher among girls (42.88%) than that in boys (39.77%) with a p-value of < 0.001. Students in public schools showed a significantly lower (p < 0.001) caries prevalence (37.36%) compared with those in private schools (47.96%). The caries restoration rate of students in Shenzhen was only 10.30%, which means only one out of ten students with caries received restorations. The mean dmft and DMFT scores were 0.97 and 0.33, respectively. More girls (10.96%) had their teeth filled than boys (9.78%). The restoration rate was higher (p < 0.001) in public schools (11.73%) than in private ones (8.35%). Children who were overweight or obese had a lower risk of experiencing caries compared to those who were within a normal weight (OR = 0.74/0.64). Caries was inversely associated with BMI among primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries among primary and secondary school children was found to be related to sex, type of schools, region, and BMI. Further studies and more government support are required to confirm the findings of this study and to address current oral health problems.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 933-941, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056925

RESUMO

Bovine periodontitis is a multifactorial disease primarily associated with a potentially pathogenic microbiota housed in the oral biofilm of animals. Biofilms are organized structures, in which the constituents coexist in symbiosis, already described as a predisposing factor to periodontitis in other species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the structure and chemical aspects of the bovine black pigmented supragingival biofilm using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, and determine its relationship with bovine periodontitis. Eleven premolar teeth from different animals were evaluated; five non-pigmented samples and six samples with black pigmented biofilms were initially submitted to SEM, and three areas of these samples were selected for EDS. The structure of the pigmented biofilm was more complex and irregular because of a higher content of mineral elements. The semi-quantitative EDS data indicated an association of iron (p<0.014) and magnesium (p<0.001) with the occurrence of periodontitis, whereas carbon, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sodium, and potassium were not associated with the disease. Carbon (p<0.039), manganese (p<0.007), and iron (p<0.015) were associated with pigmentation, whereas phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium were not associated with it. Spearman correlation test showed the relationships between calcium and phosphorus, and iron and silicon. The strong association of iron in the pigmented supragingival biofilm and with the occurrence of periodontitis suggests the presence of microorganisms that use this element in their metabolism and that are also associated with bovine periodontitis. This study suggests that the pigmented deposits in the crown of the teeth of cattle are an true biofilm with the deposition of iron, and it indicates that the presence of iron and magnesium in these formations may be involved in the metabolism of some microorganisms associated with the etiology of bovine periodontitis.(AU)


A periodontite bovina é uma infecção multifatorial associada primariamente à microbiota potencialmente patogênica presente no biofilme bucal. Biofilmes são estruturas organizadas, nas quais os constituintes convivem em simbiose, descritos em outras espécies como um fator predisponente à periodontite. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar estrutural e quimicamente o biofilme supragengival pigmentado de preto em bovinos, utilizando-se as técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e espectroscopia de dispersão de energia (EDS), respectivamente, correlacionando os elementos identificados à ocorrência de periodontite e pigmentação. Foram avaliados 11 dentes primeiro-molares; cinco amostras sem pigmentação visível e seis amostras com biofilme pigmentado de preto, que foram submetidas inicialmente à MEV; posteriormente foram selecionadas três áreas aleatórias de cada dente para realização da EDS. A estrutura do biofilme pigmentado revelou formações irregulares e mais complexas, provavelmente devido ao maior acúmulo de elementos minerais. Os resultados semi-quantitativos da EDS apontaram associações entre a presença de ferro (p<0,014) e magnésio (p<0,001) com a ocorrência de periodontite. Carbono, fósforo, cálcio, manganês, sódio e potássio não apresentaram associação com a periodontite. Em relação à pigmentação, carbono (p<0,039), manganês (p<0,007) e ferro (p<0,015) foram os elementos estatisticamente significantes, enquanto fósforo, cálcio e magnésio não apresentaram associação com a pigmentação. O teste de correlação de Spearman demonstrou associações entre os elementos cálcio e fósforo, e ferro e silício. A forte associação do ferro presente no biofilme supragengival com a ocorrência de periodontite, sugere a presença de micro-organismos que utilizam este elemento em seu metabolismo e que possivelmente tenham envolvimento com o desenvolvimento da periodontite bovina. Os resultados inéditos do presente trabalho sugerem que os depósitos pigmentados que se formam na coroa dos dentes de bovinos são um biofilme verdadeiro com deposição de ferro, e indicam que a presença de ferro e magnésio nestas formações pode estar envolvida no metabolismo de alguns dos principais micro-organismos associados à etiologia da periodontite bovina.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Periodontite/etiologia , Periodontite/veterinária , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Placa Dentária/química , Periodontite/microbiologia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Ferro , Magnésio
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4305, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-997903

RESUMO

Objective: This parallel, randomized, examiner-blind clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two different toothbrushes (manual and sonic) on plaque control in adolescents. Material and Methods: This study enrolled 56 volunteers, randomly allocated to two different groups: group A (n = 28) for the manual toothbrush (Curaprox 5460 Ultra Soft®) and group B (n = 28) for the sonic toothbrush (Edel White®). Mean age was 17.2 ± 1.1 years. A calibrated periodontist performed a periodontal evaluation to assess the presence of plaque with the Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index (PI) and the gingival inflammation with the Silness & Löe Gingival Index (GI). Adolescents received instructions about the mechanical control of plaque at baseline (T0), with a reexamination after 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2). Non-parametric Mann Whitney test was used to compare the differences between the two toothbrush groups and the Friedman test was used for the comparisons between times. Results: There has been PI reduction concerning the study times (T0, T1 and T2, p<0.05), but not between the groups A and B (p>0.05). As for GI there has been no significant difference between the groups and between the study times (p>0.05). Conclusion: Both toothbrushes were efficient in the control of supragingival plaque (visible biofilm).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Ensaio Clínico Controlado Aleatório , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 127(1): 33-39, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412312

RESUMO

We used novel analytical approaches to identify inflammatory response patterns to plaque accumulation in experimental gingivitis studies in humans. Data from two experimental gingivitis studies [Dataset I (n = 40) and Dataset II (n = 42)], which differed in design and recording methods, were used. Both studies comprised a three-phase program as follows: pre-induction period (oral hygiene as usual for Dataset I; professional tooth cleaning for Dataset II); induction period (plaque accumulation); and resolution period (oral hygiene as usual). Clinical recordings of plaque and gingival inflammation were made on days 0, 4, 9, and 14 for Dataset I and on days -14, 0, 7, 21, and 35 for Dataset II. Group-based-trajectory and growth curve modeling were used for data analysis. In Dataset I, gingival response to plaque accumulation was found to be lagged in time. Different group-based response patterns for gingival inflammation were not identified. However, in Dataset II, 'fast' and 'slow' gingival inflammation responders were identified. 'Slow' responders had lagged inflammation responses, whereas 'fast' responders seemed to respond immediately to plaque. The findings show that analytical approaches which consider the data structure allow investigation of the dynamics of the relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation and facilitate the identification of differential patterns of gingival inflammation development.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Modelos Biológicos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Assistência Odontológica , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/complicações , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal
8.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204674, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the carious status and the microbial profiles of supragingival plaque in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis as well as 30 control subjects. Dental examination was performed and the decayed-missing-filled-teeth was recorded. Supragingival plaque was taken and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon by Illumina MiSeq sequencing to detect microbial composition and community diversity and structure. RESULTS: The level of decayed-missing-filled-teeth was higher in the hemodialysis group than that in the control group. Microbial analysis showed a decrease in α diversity and a increase in relative abundance and prevalence of many acidogenic and aciduric caries related species in the supragingival plaque samples of the hemodialysis patients, including Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Scardovia wiggsiae F0424, and Actinomyces naeslundii. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the hemodialysis patients were more susceptible to caries. More attentions for caries prevention and treatment should be paid to improve their life quality, and even to reduce their cardiovascular events and survival.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana/genética , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(38): e12508, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235763

RESUMO

Limited information on the oral health status of adult heart transplant recipients (HTRs) is known, and no available data exist in China. A prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for patients' postorgan transplantation because lifelong immunosuppression may predispose them to infection spread.The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of Chinese adult HTRs and determine the association between oral health status and history of heart transplantation (HT).We carried out a cross-sectional study to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 81 adult patients who received heart transplantation during 2014 to 2015 in China. Clinical examinations for the presence of dental plaque, dental calculus, dental caries, and periodontal health conditions were performed in a standardized manner by one trained examiner. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. The prevalence of the above conditions was compared with 63 age- and sex-matched controls. General liner regression analysis was used to assess associations between mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and mean community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) scores and history of heart transplant.Mean age of the HT group was 47.7 ±â€Š12.2 years and men accounted for 69.1% of the sample. The overall median DMFT score in the HT group was 3 (1-5) and caries prevalence was 80.2%, which were similar to the control group (P > .05). The overall mean CPITN score of the HT group was 1.84, which was significantly higher than the control group (1.07, P = .001). Participants in the HT group had worse oral hygiene status and more teeth with probing depth ≥ 4 mm than controls (P = .043). Compared with participants who had no history of heart transplantation, HTRs presented worse periodontal health conditions (mean CPITN score, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.71, P = .003) and similar dental caries status (DMFT score, adjusted OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37-0.91, P = .058).Periodontal health status was positively associated with history of heart transplantation in Chinese adult HTRs.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cálculos Dentários/epidemiologia , Cálculos Dentários/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Índice Periodontal , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Autorrelato
10.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 153(6): 852-860, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many studies on removable retainers have focused on retention efficacy and characteristics. However, studies on plaque accumulation, periodontal health, breakages, and patient compliance are still lacking. Thus, in this study, we aimed at evaluating these parameters in 2 groups of young patients wearing Essix or Hawley retainers for a 6-month period. METHODS: Seventy subjects were included. Periodontal health was investigated by measuring the plaque, gingival, calculus, and bleeding on probing indexes. Evaluations were performed at 1, 3, and 6 months of wearing. Accumulation of plaque on the retainers was also evaluated. Furthermore, compliance on wearing retainers and breakage data were collected by specific questionnaires. RESULTS: Subjects wearing Essix retainers had significantly higher levels of plaque, gingival, and calculus indexes and increased percentages of bleeding sites, compared with subjects wearing Hawley retainers. The Essix group also had increased accumulations of plaque and calculus on the retainers. Nonetheless, subjects of the Essix group had better overall experiences, self-perceptions, and comfort compared with those of the Hawley group. Essix retainers had higher incidences of little and serious breakages compared with Hawley retainers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Essix retainers are well accepted by patients for their esthetic and oral comfort characteristics. However, Essix retainers may cause greater accumulations of plaque on both teeth and retainers, presumably because of inhibition of the cleaning effect of saliva caused by the thermoplastic material or the reduced opportunity for good hygiene on the retainer.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Contenções Ortodônticas/efeitos adversos , Cooperação do Paciente , Periodonto , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Int J Prosthodont ; 31(4): 327-333, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate plaque accumulation, peri-implant soft tissue inflammation, and bone resorption in patients with immediately loaded implants supporting fixed full-arch prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 72 patients treated with fixed full-arch prostheses supported by four to six immediately loaded implants was selected. Bleeding on probing (BOP), Plaque Index (PI), and peri-implant bone loss were measured. The Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology definitions of mucositis and peri-implantitis were used, and collected data were analyzed using a nonparametric test (Spearman's rank correlation). Correlation coefficients (ρ) were defined as follows: < 0.2 = very weak; 0.2 to 0.39 = weak; 0.4 to 0.59 = moderate; 0.6 to 0.79 = strong; 0.8 to 1.0 = very strong. RESULTS: A total of 331 implants were analyzed. The mean follow-up observation time was 5.8 years (range: 1 to 14 years); mean PI and BOP were 61.7% and 21.1%, respectively; and mean bone loss was 0.89 mm (standard deviation [SD] 1.09). The mean probing depth was 1.8 mm (range: 0.5 to 5 mm). Five patients presented with one implant each affected by peri-implantitis (6.9%), and 15 patients presented with at least one implant affected by mucositis (20.8%). No correlation was found between PI and bone resorption (P = .08). Very weak correlations were found between BOP and bone resorption (ρ = 0.18; P = .001) and between PI and BOP (ρ = 0.13, P = .019). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that plaque accumulation is correlated with peri-implant mucositis; however, plaque accumulation alone does not appear to be associated with bone resorption.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante/efeitos adversos , Carga Imediata em Implante Dentário , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estomatite/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reabsorção Óssea/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peri-Implantite/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estomatite/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 81, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early recognition of technology together with great ability to use computers and smart systems have promoted researchers to investigate the possibilities of utilizing technology for improving health care in children. The aim of this study was to compare between the traditional educational leaflets and E-applications in improving oral health knowledge, oral hygiene and gingival health in schoolchildren of Damascus city, Syria. METHODS: A clustered randomized controlled trial at two public primary schools was performed. About 220 schoolchildren aged 10-11 years were included in this study and grouped into two clusters. Children in Leaflet cluster received oral health education through leaflets, while children in E-learning cluster received oral health education through an E-learning program. A questionnaire was designed to register information related to oral health knowledge and to record Plaque and Gingival indices. Questionnaire administration and clinical assessment were undertaken at baseline, 6 and at 12 weeks of oral health education. Data was analysed using one way repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc Bonferroni test and independent samples t-test. RESULTS: Leaflet cluster (107 participants) had statistically significant better oral health knowledge than E-learning cluster (104 participants) at 6 weeks (P < 0.05) and at 12 weeks (P < 0.05) (Leaflet cluster:100 participants, E-learning cluster:100 participants). The mean knowledge gain compared to baseline was higher in Leaflet cluster than in E-learning cluster. A significant reduction in the PI means at 6 weeks and 12 weeks was observed in both clusters (P < 0.05) when compared to baseline. Children in Leaflet cluster had significantly less plaque than those in E-learning cluster at 6 weeks (P < 0.05) and at 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Similarly, a significant reduction in the GI means at 6 weeks and 12 weeks was observed in both clusters when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Children in Leaflet cluster had statistically significant better gingival health than E-learning cluster at 6 weeks (P < 0.05) and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Traditional educational leaflets are an effective tool in the improvement of both oral health knowledge as well as clinical indices of oral hygiene and care among Syrian children. Leaflets can be used in school-based oral health education for a positive outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12618000395235 ), Date registered: 16/03/2018, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Bucal/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Criança , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 16(4): 467-475, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients are known to be at higher risk for dental caries. However, the role of potential risk factors such as blood glucose, salivary glucose and glycaemic control in the occurrence of dental caries in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not clearly understood so far, and therefore, it was evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 T2D patients from Saudi Arabia. The caries risk assessment was evaluated using the guidelines of Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA). Cariogenic bacteria load in saliva was determined by a chair-side test kit. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), salivary glucose and HbA1c were analysed. RESULTS: Majority of the patients had dental caries (84%), exposed root surfaces (92%) and heavy plaque (73%), whereas 66% of patients suffered from xerostomia. The frequency of patients with high counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli (LB) were 78% and 42%, respectively. There were significant associations between dental caries risk and FBG, HbA1c and salivary glucose. After categorizing the patients into 3 categories of glycaemic control, we observed a significant association between glycaemic control and dental caries risk. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes patients are at high risk for dental caries, which is directly associated with FBG, HbA1c and salivary glucose. This is the first study measuring dental caries and its risk factors in T2D patients from Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Glucose/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Medição de Risco , Saliva/química , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Raiz Dentária/patologia , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/etiologia
14.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 16(4): 527-534, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a non-antibiotic antimicrobial substance with significant effects on pathogenic oral micro-organisms. The effects of HOCl as an antiplaque agent have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the substantivity of HOCl mouthwashes compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) rinses and a placebo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled trial with 75 participants was conducted. Participants were divided into five groups using block randomization: 0.025% HOCl, 0.05% HOCl, 0.12% CHX, 0.2% CHX, and sterile water as a placebo. Participants were instructed to use each rinse solution for 30 seconds after dental prophylaxis. Samples of saliva were taken at baseline and after 30 seconds, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours to assess substantivity, and bacterial viability was established by the fluorescence method. Visible plaque in all participants was assessed with the Turesky index at baseline and at 7 hours, and adverse events were also assessed. RESULTS: HOCl led to a 33% reduction in bacterial counts in the saliva after 30 seconds compared with a 58% reduction by CHX. HOCl has no substantivity, and bacterial counts returned to baseline after 1 hour. Placebo treatment led to the highest plaque count after 7 hours compared with the CHX and HOCl groups, although the differences were not significant. HOCl rinsing induced the highest percentages of unpleasant taste and dryness sensations. CONCLUSIONS: HOCl rinses have an initial effect on bacterial viability in saliva but have no substantivity. Other mechanisms may explain its antiplaque effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Ácido Hipocloroso/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Oxidantes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Angle Orthod ; 88(4): 483-493, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the scientific evidence regarding the influence of reminder therapy on plaque index, gingival index, and white spots in patients subjected to orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized clinical trials were searched in the electronic databases LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, LIVIVO, and Cochrane Library. The databases OpenThesis and OpenGrey were used to capture the "gray literature," preventing selection and publication biases. The risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Randomized Controlled Trials tool. The software Review Manager was used for the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies was assessed through the I 2 statistic. A summary of the overall strength of evidence available was assessed using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool. RESULTS: A total of 332 records were found, from which only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to analysis. Reminder therapy showed improved scores for the plaque index (standardized mean difference = -1.22; 95% confidence interval = -2.03 to -0.42; P = .003) and the gingival index (standardized mean difference = 1.49; 95% confidence interval = -2.61 to 0.37; P = .009). Moreover, there was lower occurrence of white spots (relative risk = 0.53; 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.74; P < .001) when reminder therapy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: According to the existing high-quality evidence, reminder therapy is a valuable strategy and may contribute to the reduction of plaque and gingival indices as well as to the lower occurrence of white spots in patients subjected to orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Ortodontia , Sistemas de Alerta , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Ortodontia/métodos
16.
Eur J Orthod ; 40(5): 465-474, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293905

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the clinical, microbiological, and patient-based effects of using a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) toothpaste and mouth rinse in orthodontic patients. Design: Parallel randomized controlled, triple-blinded trial (participants, examiners, outcomes' assessors). A computer-generated list was used to allocate treatments. Central allocation was used for concealment. Participants: Thirty-one placebo (10 males, 21 females; mean age 15.2 ± 2.1) and 32 test patients (15 males, 17 females; mean age 15.0 ± 1.8) with fixed orthodontic appliance were included in the study. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to both brush and rinse with placebo or with CPC-based products. Products were purposely prepared in white opaque bottles. After screening and professional prophylaxis, patients received a baseline examination, and started to use the assigned products. Patients were monthly assessed during a 3-month period. Main outcome measures: Plaque (PlI) and gingival (GI) indexes. Secondary outcome variables: Calculus index, tooth staining, subgingival microbiological samples, patient-based variables (questionnaire, compliance, and remaining mouth rinse), side-effects (debonded braces or mucosal injuries). Results: Sixty-three patients were randomized, 13 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropout, leaving 50 patients for intention to treat analysis. PlI in the upper jaw diminished (0.18; SD = 0.82) after 1 month in the test group, while it increased (0.26; SD = 0.62) in the placebo group (P = 0.024). Statistically significant higher GI values were observed in the placebo group at 1 month (mean increase = 0.05; SD = 0.33 versus mean decrease = 0.03; SD = 0.38) and 3 months (mean = 0.05; SD = 0.43 versus mean = 0.02; SD = 0.34). The taste of the test product was rated higher than the placebo at 2- and 3-month visits (P < 0.05). Non-significant changes were observed in microbiological parameters, overgrowth of opportunistic species or remaining secondary outcome variables, including side-effects. Conclusion: The use of CPC-based toothpaste and mouth rinse in orthodontic patients had limited effect in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Effects were little and highly variable. The use of the test products was not associated with relevant adverse effects. Trial registration: Trial registration: Local internal reference: P07/133.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cetilpiridínio/administração & dosagem , Criança , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gengivite/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Índice Periodontal , Descoloração de Dente/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 7, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries among Iranian elementary school children aged 6-12 years continue to rise. To estimate treatment needs and guide health initiatives, current epidemiologic data are required. Such data are currently unavailable for dental health. The purpose of this study was to assess caries experience, dental plaque, and associated factors in elementary school-aged children from Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 988 elementary school children aged 7-12 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Dental caries was studied using the WHO criteria, dental plaque was examined according to O'Leary index. Data on parental education and occupation, living district, dental pain within the past year, and tooth brushing habits under parental supervision were collected through interviews based on questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the elementary school children was 9.64 (1.73) years. The highest dmft was seen in elementary school children aged 7-8 years 6.53 (4.37) and the highest DMFT and dental plaque was in 12 year olds recorded as 1.17 (1.77) and 51.97 (25.86), respectively. The proportion of decayed teeth in 7 years old elementary school based on dmft index was 80.36%, moreover, the proportion in 12 years old elementary school was 40.17% based on the DMFT index. Age, gender, and dental pain within the past year were significantly associated with DMFT and dmft. The odds of developing dental caries (DMFT) was 1.70 times higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001) and 1.72 times higher in the students that reported dental pain frequently than in those who did not (p = 0.005). The chance of developing dental caries (dmft) was 0.47 times lower in girls than boys (p < 0.001). Age was significantly correlated with dental plaque such that Plaque Index increased by 2.44 times per one year increase in age (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Results indicated that dental caries experience and plaque formation among elementary school children in Hamadan were high and they were influenced by their sociodemographic factors. The associations found can be used as a helpful guide for planning accurate preventive programs for elementary school children in this region.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Eur J Orthod ; 40(4): 399-408, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059293

RESUMO

Background: Retainer have the potential to compromise periodontal health. Objectives: Evaluate the periodontal health implications of upper and lower bonded retainers (BRs) versus upper and lower vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) over 12 months. Trial design: Two-arm parallel group multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients completing upper and lower fixed appliance therapy and requiring retainers were recruited from three hospital orthodontic departments. They were randomly allocated to either upper and lower labial segment BRs (n = 30) or upper and lower full-arch VFRs (n = 30). Periodontal health was assessed using the plaque and gingival indices of Silness and Loe, and the calculus index of Greene and Vermillion. Data were collected at debond and placement of the retainers (T0), 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2), and 12 months (T3). A random sequence of treatment allocation was computer-generated and implemented by sealing in sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes independently prepared in advance. Patients, operators, and outcome could not be blinded due to the nature of the intervention. Results: Thirty patients received BRs (median age 16 years, interquartile range [IQR] = 2, 50% female, 50% male) and 30 received VFRs (median age 17 years, IQR = 4, 60% female, 40% male). Gingival inflammation decreased from baseline for both types of retainer. There was significantly less plaque and calculus accumulation and better gingival health with VFRs than BRs over the evaluated 12 months. No serious harm was observed. Limitations: It is not known how much the patients chose to wear their removable retainers. The results reported are after 1 year only. Conclusions: After 1 year, BRs were associated with greater accumulation of plaque and calculus than VFRs and minimally worse gingival inflammation than VFRs, but this did not appear to produce any clinically significant, adverse periodontal health problems. Trial registration: This trial was not registered. Funding: There was no funding.


Assuntos
Gengivite/etiologia , Contenções Ortodônticas/efeitos adversos , Ortodontia Corretiva/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Cálculos Dentários/etiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/terapia , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Ortodontia Corretiva/instrumentação , Índice Periodontal , Vácuo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucositis is well described after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) but other aspects of oral health such as dental plaque and gingivitis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe dental plaque, gingivitis, and mucositis early after HSCT. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational study to describe dental plaque, gingivitis, and mucositis in the peritransplant period. We conducted comprehensive oral evaluations that included the Miyazaki tongue coating, modified simplified oral hygiene, modified gingivitis of Suomi and Barbano, and mucosal ulceration indices at baseline on days 0, +7, +14, and +28. RESULTS: Data were collected from 19 patients with a median age of 8.0 years (5.1-12.8) at time of HSCT. Sixteen patients (85%) had plaque accumulation that progressively worsened, 16 (85%) developed severe gingival inflammation, 13 (68%) developed mucositis, and 11 (58%) had oral ulcerations. All oral indices worsened from baseline during the study period. Gingivitis and oral plaque persisted in most patients at day +28 while mucositis and oral ulcerations slightly improved. DISCUSSION: Gingivitis, dental plaque, mucositis, and oral ulcerations are common after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to ascertain methods that decrease plaque and gingivitis development and severity.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Saúde Bucal , Estomatite , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Placa Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Gengivite/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Estomatite/etiologia , Estomatite/patologia
20.
Oral Dis ; 24(3): 465-475, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sugar consumption has been decreasing in Japan, suggesting higher rates of sucrose-independent supragingival plaque formation. For developing an in vitro biofilm model of sucrose-independent supragingival plaque, this study aimed to investigate the compositions and functions on contributing to cariogenicity in comparison with sucrose-dependent biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro multispecies biofilm containing Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus gordonii, S. mutans, Veillonella parvula and Fusobacterium nucleatum was formed on 24-well plates in the absence or presence of 1% sucrose. Compositions were assessed by plate culture, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescent in situ hybridisation or labelling of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Functions were assessed by acidogenicity, adherence strength and sensitivities to anticaries agents. RESULTS: Although both biofilms exhibited a Streptococcus predominant bacterial composition, there were differences in bacterial and EPS compositions; in particular, little glucan EPS was observed in sucrose-independent biofilm. Compared with sucrose-dependent biofilm, acidogenicity, adherence strength and antimicrobial resistance of sucrose-independent biofilm were only slightly lower. However, dextranase degradation was substantially lower in sucrose-independent biofilm. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that sucrose-independent biofilm may have cariogenicity as with sucrose-dependent biofilm. These in vitro models can help further elucidate plaque-induced caries aetiology and develop new anticaries agents.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Actinomyces , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Streptococcus gordonii , Streptococcus mutans , Sacarose/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Veillonella
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