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1.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(3): 166-173, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980829

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a new mouth wash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine and chitosan on dental plaque and its reduction to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial with a parallel group design of 3 months duration. Patients (20-40 years) who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned equally to group 1: chlorhexidine (0.2%), group 2: chitosan (0.5%) or group 3: chlorhexidine - chitosan combination group. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 6weeks and at 3months. All patients received thorough oral prophylaxis and were instructed to rinse with 10ml of mouthwash twice daily for 1 minute. RESULTS: The combination of chitosan and chlorhexidine showed a statistically significant reduction (p less than0.05) in plaque indices from baseline at all time intervals when compared to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that by unifying the properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine may result in a superior antiplaque effect than that of chlorhexidine alone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Quitosana , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Método Simples-Cego
2.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 102-123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844420

RESUMO

There is increasing public interest in natural or herbal-based healthcare products. This trend is not only visible in supermarkets and dental practices, but also in the scientific world. An improving number of clinical trials are being conducted to validate the claims made about these products in regards to periodontal health. Among single component preparations, Aloe vera and green tea are the most studied natural ingredients. Concerning polyherbal mixtures, triphala has garnered great interest. The effects of these natural products on periodontal health is encouraging, with almost all studies showing an inhibitory effect on plaque accumulation and an improvement in gingival health. However, more studies are needed to be able to design clinical guidelines to guide the use of these natural products in periodontal practice. For most of these products, few studies are available and, moreover, the available studies are limited in duration, the number of participants, and the specific composition of the natural product is often not described in detail.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Cremes Dentais
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 198, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review of randomized clinical trials aimed to evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy of propolis-based mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 2019. Clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of propolis mouthwashes compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) were included. The primary outcomes comprised dental plaque and/or gingival inflammation. Two authors assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Due to marked heterogeneity of the available data, studies were assessed qualitatively, and no metaanalysis was performed. RESULTS: Nine clinical trials, comprising 333 subjects, fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of the included studies showed high risk of bias. Overall, propolis mouthwashes showed good efficacy on plaque and gingivitis in all of the included studies. Out of the eight studies that reported on plaque index, 5 studies found equal efficacy of propolis and CHX in reducing plaque, two studies found superior efficacy in favor of CHX, while one study found superior efficacy in favor of propolis. Six studies assessed gingival inflammation outcome, four of which reported better results with propolis, while two studies reported comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that propolis-based mouthwashes have potential benefits in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation. However, methodological limitations along with small sample sizes in some of the included studies weaken the strength of the evidence. Therefore, further well-designed clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow-up period are recommended to discern the efficacy of propolis mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Método Simples-Cego
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614918

RESUMO

Recurrent caries, the development of carious lesions at the interface between the restorative material and the tooth structure, is highly prevalent and represents the primary cause for failure of dental restorations. Correspondingly, we exploited the self-assembly and strong antibiofilm activity of amphipathic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) to form novel coatings on dentin that aimed to prevent recurrent caries at susceptible cavosurface margins. AAMPs are alternative to traditional antimicrobial agents and antibiotics with the ability to target the complex and heterogeneous organization of microbial communities. Unlike approaches that have focused on using these AAMPs in aqueous solutions for a transient activity, here we assess the effects on microcosm biofilms of a long-acting AAMPs-based antibiofilm coating to protect the tooth-composite interface. Genomewise, we studied the impact of AAMPs coatings on the dental plaque microbial community. We found that non-native all D-amino acids AAMPs coatings induced a marked shift in the plaque community and selectively targeted three primary acidogenic colonizers, including the most common taxa around Class II composite restorations. Accordingly, we investigated the translational potential of our antibiofilm dentin using multiphoton pulsed near infra-red laser for deep bioimaging to assess the impact of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms along dentin-composite interfaces. Multiphoton enabled us to record the antibiofilm potency of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms throughout exaggeratedly failed interfaces. In conclusion, AAMPs-coatings on dentin showed selective and long-acting antibiofilm activity against three dominant acidogenic colonizers and potential to resist recurrent caries to promote and sustain the interfacial integrity of adhesive-based interfaces.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Dentina/química , Dentina/microbiologia , Durapatita/química , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Imobilizadas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104777, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the fluoride/mineral kinetics in an oral biofilm following concurrent application of fluoride and other mineral ions released from experimental toothpaste containing S-PRG filler using depth-specific analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty subjects wore in situ plaque-generating devices, comprised of a pair of enamel slabs, and a biofilm was allowed to form. The devices were removed after three days, immersed in the toothpaste filtrate containing Al, B, Sr and F ions for 1 min, and then reinserted at the same location. After 30 min, the devices were removed and samples were obtained by sectioning into outer, middle and inner biofilm layers (300-µm thick). Samples treated with filtrate containing F without S-PRG filler extract served as the control. Fluoride and the three other mineral ions extracted from 4-µm sections were quantified using a fluoride electrode and ICP-AES, respectively. The results were corrected for biomass volume, estimated by the area measurement of stained 2-µm sections. RESULTS: The mean uptake ratios (S-PRG/control, ng/mm3) of Al, B, Sr and F were 186.6/53.7, 58.4/25.0, 456.9/125.7 and 43.6/12.0, respectively, in the outer layer, indicating that the mineral ions could easily diffuse into the biofilm. F concentrations in the outer biofilm treated using filtrate with S-PRG filler extract were significantly higher than those in controls, although both biofilms were exposed to filtrates containing the same level of F. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that toothpaste containing S-PRG filler promotes fluoride retention in oral biofilms via the uptake of other mineral ions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Placa Dentária , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Cremes Dentais/química , Esmalte Dentário , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(4): 372-376, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584271

RESUMO

AIM: The review is to highlight the use of antibiotics in periodontal infections and prevent indiscriminate use of antibiotics. BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the most common disease of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and its etiological factor can be related to the existence of virulent microorganisms in the dental plaque biofilm which harbors millions of microorganisms. In addition, the pathogenesis of this disease is greatly influenced by the host immune response that leads to the cyclic destruction and healing pattern. REVIEW RESULTS: Periodontitis is mostly treated through mechanical debridement using surgical and nonsurgical therapy. However, many times, this treatment does not render desired results due to poor patient compliance, altered immune response, or other host-related factors. This leads to the administration of antibiotics as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. Antibiotics are useful in eliminating periodontopathic microbes, but these agents should be cautiously used and prescribed only if indicated. CONCLUSION: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to unforeseen adverse effects as well as the development of resistant strains of microorganisms. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, it is crucial for the dentists to know the indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, correct choice, and dosage of the antimicrobial agent before prescribing it to their patients thereby ensuring the success of periodontal therapy. Thus, the clinician should keep in mind that the antibiotics are merely adjuncts to mechanical therapy and not its replacement.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções , Periodontite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Humanos
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 151, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) on plaque micro-ecology is seldom studied. This study investigated micro-ecological changes in dental plaque on extensive caries of deciduous teeth after topical SDF treatment. METHODS: Deciduous teeth with extensive caries freshly removed from school children were collected in clinic. Unstimulated saliva collection and initial plaque sampling were done before tooth extraction, then each caries was topically treated with 38% SDF in vitro. After intervention, each tooth was stored respectively in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Repeated plaque collections were done at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. Post-intervention micro-ecological changes including microbial diversity, microbial metabolism function as well as species correlations were analyzed and compared after pyrosequencing of the DNA from the plaque sample using Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS: After SDF application, microbial diversity decreased (P > 0.05), although not statistically significant. Microbial community composition post-intervention was noticeably different from that of supragingival and pre-intervention plaque as well as saliva. At 1 week post-intervention, the relative content of Pseudomonas, Fusobacterium and Pseudoramibacter were higher than before, while most of the other bacteria were reduced, although the changes were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The inter-microbial associations became more complex, much more positive associations among survived bacteria were observed than negative ones. COG function classification diagram showed carbohydrate transportation and metabolic functions in the plaque were significantly reduced at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: SDF has extensive antimicrobial effect on dental plaque, which may reduce carbohydrate metabolism in dental plaque and help promote new balance of the plaque flora.


Assuntos
Amônia/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Criança , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Dente Decíduo
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 126, 2020 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances has been associated with significant biofilm accumulation, thus putting patients at a higher risk of oral health deterioration. The use of probiotics has been proposed to be useful in the prevention or treatment of oral pathologies such as caries and diseases of periodontal tissues. Our aim was to investigate the effects of probiotic use on inflammation of the gingival tissues and the decalcification of the enamel in patients being treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. METHODS: We searched without restrictions 8 databases and performed hand searching until September 2019. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating whether individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances benefit from probiotic treatment in terms of the inflammation of the gingivae and decalcification of the enamel. Following the selection of studies and the extraction of pertinent data, we appraised the risk of bias and the confidence in the observed effects based on established methodologies. RESULTS: From the final qualifying studies, three did not show any statistically significant effect on gingival inflammation after probiotic administration of up to 1 month. Similarly, non-significant differences were noted in another study regarding white spot lesions development (mean administration for 17 months). No adverse effects were reported and the level of evidence was considered moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of orthodontic patients with probiotics did not affect the development of inflammation in the gingivae and decalcification in the enamel. Additional RCTs, with longer intervention and follow-up periods, and involving different combinations of probiotic strains are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42018118008).


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Profilaxia Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Descoloração de Dente , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5658212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076608

RESUMO

Dental caries is the most common oral disease. The bacteriological aetiology of dental caries promotes the use of antibiotics or antimicrobial agents to prevent this type of oral infectious disease. Antibiotics have been developed for more than 80 years since Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, and systemic antibiotics have been used to treat dental caries for a long time. However, new types of antimicrobial agents have been developed to fight against dental caries. The purpose of this review is to focus on the application of systemic antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents with respect to their clinical use to date, including the history of their development, and their side effects, uses, structure types, and molecular mechanisms to promote a better understanding of the importance of microbial interactions in dental plaque and combinational treatments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/classificação , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Remineralização Dentária
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tooth brushing with Salvadora persica (miswak) sticks on Streptococcus mutans count and the mean plaque score relative to brushing with fluoridated tooth paste (FTP). METHODS: Our sample included 94 healthy, high caries-risk, 8 to 9-year-old students recruited from a government school, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between February and April 2016. Subjects were randomly grouped into test (provided with miswak sticks) and control groups (provided with FTP and soft brushes). Both groups were introduced to a preparatory period (PPP) of 3 weeks. Plaque score and saliva sampling were conducted prior to the PPP and in follow-up visits by a single, calibrated and blinded dentist. RESULTS: Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the mean plaque score across the study (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, subjects in the test group with abundant S. sanguinis increased from zero to six after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvadora Persica (miswak) and brushing with FTP significantly reduced plaque scores among school children. In addition, Salvadora persica was found to change the proportions of salivary bacteria in favor of species with less risk of inducing caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID #: NCT04137393.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Fitoterapia/instrumentação , Salvadoraceae , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Criança , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita
11.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 43, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of trials conducted using herbal oral care products for the reduction of dental plaque or gingivitis, results are conflicting and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of herbal oral care products compared to conventional products in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adults. METHODS: We searched the following databases for Randomised controlled trials (RCTs): MEDLINE Ovid, EMBASE Ovid etc. which yielded 493 trails. Of which 24 RCTs comparing herbal toothpaste or mouth rinse with over the counter toothpaste or mouth rinse in adults aged 18 to 65 years were included. Two authors extracted information and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted for four outcomes for tooth paste and mouth rinse respectively. Mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to estimate the effect, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 1597 adults participated in 24 RCT studies. These were classified as herbal toothpaste (HTP) (15 trials, 899 participants) and herbal mouth rinse (HMR) (9 trials, 698 participants) compared with non-herbal toothpaste (NHTP) or non-herbal mouth rinse (NHMR). We found that HTP was superior over NHTP (SMD 1.95, 95% CI (0.97-2.93)) in plaque reduction. The long-term use of NHMR was superior in reduction of dental plaque over HMR (SMD -2.61, 95% (CI 4.42-0.80)). From subgroup analysis it showed that HTP was not superior over fluoride toothpaste (SMD 0.99, 95% CI (0.14-2.13)) in reducing dental plaque. However, HTP was favoured over non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD 4.64, 95% CI (2.23-7.05)). CONCLUSION: For short-term reduction in dental plaque, current evidence suggests that HTP is as effective as compared to NHTP; however, evidence is from low quality studies.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1654-1661, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793470

RESUMO

Background: Incomplete eradication of plaque bacteria from the plaque retentive sites and the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance led the scientific community to explore new antimicrobial strategies for improved results and shun antibiotic resistance. Objective: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a novel light based therapy and to assess the susceptibility of oral plaque bacteria to light based technologies with and without photosensitizers. Materials and Methods: Four oral plaque bacterial strains were isolated from the dental plaque sample collected from the patients and exposed to various light based technologies and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with and without photosensitizers. The cultures were analysed for viable colony forming unit (CFU) counts. One-way analysis of variance was used to statistically analyse differences and the Student-Newman-Keuls method to perform multiple comparison procedures. Results: All groups showed remarkable reduction in the CFUs as compared to control group with use of light based technologies and PDT in this study. The difference of antimicrobial effect between all tested groups either with light based technologies and PDT with control group showed significant reduction in CFUs. Conclusions: From the results of this study, we concluded that light based technologies and PDT could be a valuable alternative therapy to mechanical debridement in the prevention of growth and recolonisation of oral plaque bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/terapia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Titânio
13.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859706

RESUMO

Laboratory evidence has demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (MEL) against oral microorganisms. This randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, compared the anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of MEL nanoparticles with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on biofilm-free (BF) and biofilm-covered (BC) surfaces. Before each experimental period, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene practices for 72 hours. The 60 participants were randomly assigned to professional prophylaxis in two quadrants (Q1-Q3 or Q2-Q4), and rinsed with MEL or CHX for four days. The Quigley & Hein plaque index (QHPI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, and participants' perceptions were assessed. CHX showed significantly lower mean QHPI on BF (2.65 ± 0.34 vs. 3.34 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) and BC surfaces (2.84 ± 0.37 vs. 3.37 ± 0.33, p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons indicated reductions in GCF in all the groups, with significant differences only for CHX on BF surfaces (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Based on individual perceptions, CHX had better taste and biofilm control, but resulted in a greater change in taste. Nevertheless, MEL demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of CHX. Further clinical trials testing different protocols, concentrations and follow-up periods are required to establish its clinical application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
14.
Complement Ther Med ; 47: 102193, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque-inhibiting effects of oil pulling using 4- day plaque regrowth study model compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) containing mouthrinse. DESIGN: The study was an observer-masked, randomized, cross-over design clinical trial, involving 29 volunteers to compare 0.2% CHX and oil pulling therapy in a 4- day plaque regrowth model. After the preparatory period, in which the subjects received professional prophylaxis, the subjects commenced rinsing with their allocated rinsed. On day 5 plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), stain index (SI), bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded from the subjects. Each participant underwent a 14- day wash out period and then used the other mouthrinse for four days. RESULTS: Oil pulling therapy presented similar inhibitory activity on plaque regrowth compared with CHX (PI = 1.67 ±â€¯0.24, 1.61 ±â€¯0.20, respectively) with less staining (SI = 0.21 ±â€¯0.13, 0.47 ±â€¯0.27, respectively). In addition, GI and BOP was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oil pulling with coconut oil seems to have similar plaque inhibition activity as CHX. In addition it caused less tooth staining than CHX. These findings suggest that oil pulling therapy may be an alternative to CHX rinse.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Óleo de Coco/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mar Drugs ; 17(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635432

RESUMO

Dextranase, a hydrolase that specifically hydrolyzes α-1,6-glucosidic bonds, has been used in the pharmaceutical, food, and biotechnology industries. In this study, the strain of Catenovulum agarivorans MNH15 was screened from marine samples. When the temperature, initial pH, NaCl concentration, and inducer concentration were 30 °C, 8.0, 5 g/L, and 8 g/L, respectively, it yielded more dextranase. The molecular weight of the dextranase was approximately 110 kDa. The maximum enzyme activity was achieved at 40 °C and a pH of 8.0. The enzyme was stable at 30 °C and a pH of 5-9. The metal ion Sr2+ enhanced its activity, whereas NH4+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Li+ had the opposite effect. The dextranase effectively inhibited the formation of biofilm by Streptococcus mutans. Moreover, sodium fluoride, xylitol, and sodium benzoate, all used in dental care products, had no significant effect on dextranase activity. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that dextran was mainly hydrolyzed to glucose, maltose, and maltoheptaose. The results indicated that dextranase has high application potential in dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dextranase/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dextranase/química , Dextranos/química , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Glucose/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Maltose/química , Peso Molecular , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes Dentais/química
16.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e47, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565890

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop effective dental hygiene chews for cats based on the anatomical features of the dentition and patterns of chewing motion. All cats were volunteered for dental prophylaxis followed by dental impressions using yellow stone and alginate under general anesthesia. Twenty parameters related to dentition were defined in order to compare dental impressions using digital caliper. For the chewing motion study, patterns of chewing motion were identified based on recordings made with a digital camera. Ten cats (4 domestic shorthairs, 2 Russian blues, 1 American shorthair, 1 Persian, 1 Turkish Angora, and 1 Devon Rex) were recruited for the study. The parameters related to teeth and oral size were similar among the studied cats. Chewing motion can be described as more of a guillotine-like motion rather than a crushing motion, with cats chewing 3-7 times before swallowing. The chewing pattern of cats involves shearing for a short period of time followed by immediate swallowing. Therefore, the overall size of the dental hygiene chew could be determined based on the measurement of the oral size for inducing chewing. The surface details of the dental hygiene chew could be designed for prevention and removal of dental calculus and plaque in cats considering the anatomical teeth parameters. Dental hygiene chews customized for cats considering the different anatomical features of their teeth might be effective for oral care.


Assuntos
Goma de Mascar/análise , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Higiene Bucal/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentição , Higiene Bucal/métodos
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 383, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chitosan nanoparticle (nanochitosan) has a broad antimicrobial spectrum against diverse pathogenic microorganisms. However, its effect on dental caries-associated microorganisms, such as Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans is yet to be explored. These microorganisms are known for causing early childhood caries. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating nanochitosan inhibition capacity against dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans. In this study, nanochitosan antimicrobial activity is reported against mono and dual biofilm species of S. mutans and/or C. albicans at 3 and 18 h incubation time. Nanochitosan inhibition capacity was observed through biofilm mass quantity and cell viability. RESULTS: The present study successfully synthesized nanochitosan with average diameter of approximately 20-30 nm, and also established dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans in vitro. With nanochitosan treatment, the cell viability of both microorganisms significantly decreased with the increasing concentration of nanochitosan. There was no significant decrease in biofilm mass both in the dual and single-species biofilms after 3 h of incubation. However, greater inhibition of biofilm was observed at 18 h incubation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Nanopartículas/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 263-268, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257792

RESUMO

Polyphosphate (polyP) is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Here we evaluated the effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10) on four major oral bacterial species, in both single- and mixed-culture. PolyP3 inhibited three opportunistic pathogenic species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. On the contrary, a commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was relatively less susceptible to polyP3 than the pathogens. When all bacterial species were co-cultured, polyP3 (≥ 0.09%) significantly reduced their total growth and biofilm formation, among which the three pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited. Collectively, polyP3 may be an alternative antibacterial agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria.Polyphosphate (polyP) is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Here we evaluated the effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10) on four major oral bacterial species, in both single- and mixed-culture. PolyP3 inhibited three opportunistic pathogenic species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. On the contrary, a commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was relatively less susceptible to polyP3 than the pathogens. When all bacterial species were co-cultured, polyP3 (≥ 0.09%) significantly reduced their total growth and biofilm formation, among which the three pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited. Collectively, polyP3 may be an alternative antibacterial agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevotella intermedia/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus gordonii/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(1): 7-15, ene.-abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183376

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio consiste en evaluar la eficacia clínica y microbiológica de un colutorio a base de digluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) 0,05% y cloruro de cetilpiridinio (CPC) 0,05%, y otro colutorio sin propiedades antisépticas, empleados como coadyuvantes de los métodos de higiene oral. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio microbiológico que evaluó la capacidad de los colutorios para inhibir la formación y adherencia de un biofilm bacteriano de Streptococcus oralis mediante espectrofotometría, y un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado y doble ciego sobre una muestra de 48 pacientes, los cuales fueron asignados aleatoriamente a cada colutorio. A: CHX 0,05%, CPC 0,05% y lactato de cinc 0,14% y B: permethol 0.10% y provitamina B5 0.50%. El índice de placa (IP), el índice gingival modificado (IGM) y el índice de sangrado (IS) fueron evaluados con periodicidad mensual y trimestral. Resultados: El colutorio a base de CHX 0,05% y CPC 0,05% evidenció una elevada capacidad para inhibir la formación (P=0,013) y adherencia (P=0,001) del biofilm bacteriano Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el IP inter-grupos a los tres meses de observación (P<0,001). También se observaron diferencias en el IGM al mes (P=0,034) y a los tres meses de observación (P<0,001); y en el IS al mes (P=0,004) y a los tres meses de observación (P=0,002). Conclusiones: El colutorio a base de CHX 0,05% y CPC 0,05% posee una capacidad superior para reducir la placa bacteriana y la gingivitis


Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of a mouthrinse containing 0.05% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and another mouthrinse without antiseptic properties, used as adjuvants to oral hygiene methods. Material and methods: First a microbiological study using spectrophotometry was done to assess the ability of both mouthrinses to inhibit the formation and adhesion of an Streptococcus oralis biofilm. Then, a randomised, double-blind clinical trial was performed on a sample of 48 patients, who were randomly assigned to each mouthrinse. A: 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC, and B: 0.10% permethol and 0.50% provitamin B5. Plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (MGI) and bleeding index (BI) were assessed at one and three months. Results: The 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouthrinse showed a high capacity to inhibit the formation (P=0.013) and adhesion (P=0.001) of the bacterial biofilm. Statistically significant differences were observed in the inter-group PI after three months of monitoring (P<0.001). Differences were also observed in MGI after one month (P=0,034) and after three months of monitoring (P<0,001); and in BI after one month (P=0,004) and after three months of monitoring (P=0,002). Conclusions: The 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouthrinse has a good capacity to reduce bacterial plaque and gingivitis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/administração & dosagem , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrofotometria , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
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