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1.
Rev. esp. cir. ortop. traumatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(6): 485-490, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210660

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Durante la artroplastia de rodilla se produce una pérdida sanguínea importante. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es valorar la eficacia y la seguridad de la administración tópica de 3 g de ácido tranexámico (TXA) en cuanto a la reducción de pérdidas sanguíneas en artroplastia de rodilla. Material y método: Se ha realizado un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, fase iii, doble ciego, controlado con placebo. Se incluyó a 150 pacientes en 2grupos paralelos de tratamiento (75 por brazo). La solución se administró de forma tópica intraarticular tras la cementación y previo al cierre capsular. Se realizaron determinaciones analíticas antes y después de la cirugía. Resultados: La pérdida total de sangre media para el grupo placebo fue de 831,5ml y 662,3ml para el grupo TXA con una diferencia entre ambos de 169,2ml, lo que supone un ahorro del 20,4%, siendo estadísticamente significativa (p<0,001). No se obtuvieron diferencias en el inicio de la deambulación, días de ingreso o escala visual analógica al mes de la cirugía. Se retiró a 10pacientes por infección del tracto urinario prequirúrgico, alergia a metales, fallo de selección, debilitamiento rotuliano, inestabilidad protésica, fractura tibial intraquirúrgica, cambio de indicación a prótesis unicompartimental y una pérdida de seguimiento. Hubo una única complicación no relacionada con el fármaco (globos vesicales de repetición). Conclusión: La administración de TXA de forma tópica tras la cementación de los componentes protésicos en artroplastia de rodilla en una única dosis demuestra que es segura y eficaz.(AU)


Background and objective: Knee arthroplasty is a major surgery with potential significant blood loss. Assess the efficacy and safety of topical administration of 3g of tranexamic acid (TXA) in terms of reducing blood loss in knee arthroplasty. Material and method: A randomized, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been conducted. We included 150 patients in 2parallel treatment groups (75 per arm). The solution was administered topically intra-articular after cementation and prior to capsular closure. Analytical determinations were made before and after surgery to quantify blood loss. Results: Total blood loss for the placebo group was 831.5ml and 662.3ml for the TXA group. The difference between the 2groups was 169.2ml; which means a save of 20.4 per cent; this difference being statistically significant (P<.001). There were no differences in terms of the onset of ambulation, days of admission or Visual Analogue Scale at one month of surgery. Ten patients were rejected for presurgical urinary tract infection, metal allergy, selection failure, patellar weakening, prosthetic instability, intrasurgical tibial fracture, change of indication to unicompartimental prosthesis and a loss of follow-up. There was only one complication unrelated to the investigational drug (bladder balloon). Conclusion: The administration of TXA topically after cementation of the prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty in a single dose has demonstrated being safe and effective.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Placebos , Efeito Placebo , Ácido Tranexâmico , Eficácia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Joelho/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Ferimentos e Lesões , Traumatologia , Ortopedia , Cirurgia Geral
2.
Rev. esp. cir. ortop. traumatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(6): T67-T72, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-210674

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Durante la artroplastia de rodilla se produce una pérdida sanguínea importante. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es valorar la eficacia y la seguridad de la administración tópica de 3 g de ácido tranexámico (TXA) en cuanto a la reducción de pérdidas sanguíneas en artroplastia de rodilla. Material y método: Se ha realizado un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, fase iii, doble ciego, controlado con placebo. Se incluyó a 150 pacientes en 2grupos paralelos de tratamiento (75 por brazo). La solución se administró de forma tópica intraarticular tras la cementación y previo al cierre capsular. Se realizaron determinaciones analíticas antes y después de la cirugía. Resultados: La pérdida total de sangre media para el grupo placebo fue de 831,5ml y 662,3ml para el grupo TXA con una diferencia entre ambos de 169,2ml, lo que supone un ahorro del 20,4%, siendo estadísticamente significativa (p<0,001). No se obtuvieron diferencias en el inicio de la deambulación, días de ingreso o escala visual analógica al mes de la cirugía. Se retiró a 10pacientes por infección del tracto urinario prequirúrgico, alergia a metales, fallo de selección, debilitamiento rotuliano, inestabilidad protésica, fractura tibial intraquirúrgica, cambio de indicación a prótesis unicompartimental y una pérdida de seguimiento. Hubo una única complicación no relacionada con el fármaco (globos vesicales de repetición). Conclusión: La administración de TXA de forma tópica tras la cementación de los componentes protésicos en artroplastia de rodilla en una única dosis demuestra que es segura y eficaz.(AU)


Background and objective: Knee arthroplasty is a major surgery with potential significant blood loss. Assess the efficacy and safety of topical administration of 3g of tranexamic acid (TXA) in terms of reducing blood loss in knee arthroplasty. Material and method: A randomized, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been conducted. We included 150 patients in 2parallel treatment groups (75 per arm). The solution was administered topically intra-articular after cementation and prior to capsular closure. Analytical determinations were made before and after surgery to quantify blood loss. Results: Total blood loss for the placebo group was 831.5ml and 662.3ml for the TXA group. The difference between the 2groups was 169.2ml; which means a save of 20.4 per cent; this difference being statistically significant (P<.001). There were no differences in terms of the onset of ambulation, days of admission or Visual Analogue Scale at one month of surgery. Ten patients were rejected for presurgical urinary tract infection, metal allergy, selection failure, patellar weakening, prosthetic instability, intrasurgical tibial fracture, change of indication to unicompartimental prosthesis and a loss of follow-up. There was only one complication unrelated to the investigational drug (bladder balloon). Conclusion: The administration of TXA topically after cementation of the prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty in a single dose has demonstrated being safe and effective.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Placebos , Efeito Placebo , Ácido Tranexâmico , Eficácia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Joelho/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Ferimentos e Lesões , Traumatologia , Ortopedia , Cirurgia Geral
3.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 101(10): 778-779, 2022 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174563
5.
Psychosom Med ; 84(9): 997-1005, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Placebos being prescribed with full honesty and disclosure (i.e., open-label placebo [OLP]) have been shown to reduce symptom burden in a variety of conditions. With regard to allergic rhinitis, previous research provided inconclusive evidence for the effects of OLP, possibly related to a separate focus on either symptom severity or symptom frequency. Overcoming this limitation of previous research, the present study aimed to examine the effects of OLP on both the severity and frequency of allergic symptoms. METHODS: In a randomized-controlled trial, patients with allergic rhinitis ( N = 74) were randomized to OLP or treatment as usual (TAU). Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, OLP was administered remotely in a virtual clinical encounter. Participants took placebo tablets for 14 days. The primary outcomes were the severity and frequency of allergic symptoms. The secondary end point was allergy-related impairment. RESULTS: OLP did not significantly improve symptom severity over TAU ( F (1,71) = 3.280, p = .074, η2 = 0.044) but did reduce symptom frequency ( F (1,71) = 7.272, p = .009, η2 = 0.093) and allergy-related impairment more than TAU ( F (1,71) = 6.445, p = .013, η2 = 0.083), reflecting medium to large effects. The use of other antiallergic medication did not influence the results. CONCLUSIONS: Although OLP was able to lower the frequency of allergic symptoms and allergy-related impairment substantially, its effects on symptom severity were weaker. The remote provision of OLP suggests that physical contact between patients and providers might not be necessary for OLP to work.


Assuntos
Placebos , Rinite Alérgica , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/psicologia , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Efeito Placebo , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Telemedicina , Relações Médico-Paciente
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058795, 2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention in randomised clinical trials in relation to human vaccine development. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis assessing the certainty of evidence with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). DATA SOURCES: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science until 29 June 2021, and Chinese databases until September 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials irrespective of type, status and language of publication, with trial participants of any sex, age, ethnicity, diagnosis, comorbidity and country of residence. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias with Cochrane's RoB tool 1. Dichotomous data were analysed as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences. We explored both fixed-effect and random-effects models, with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was quantified with I2 statistic. We GRADE assessed the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 102 randomised clinical trials (26 457 participants). Aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention may have no effect on serious adverse events (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43; very low certainty) and on all-cause mortality (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.41; very low certainty). No trial reported on quality of life. Aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention may increase adverse events (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.20; very low certainty). We found no or little evidence of a difference between aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention when assessing serology with geometric mean titres or concentrations or participants' seroprotection. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence at very low certainty, we were unable to identify benefits of aluminium adjuvants, which may be associated with adverse events considered non-serious.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Alumínio , Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Placebos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 223, 2022 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with chronic coronary syndromes undergo invasive procedures but the efficacy of such interventions remains to be robustly established by randomised sham-controlled trials (RCTs). PURPOSE: To determine the sham effect in patients with chronic coronary syndromes enrolled in RCTs by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: In April 2022, we performed a literature search for published patient-blind RCTs (CENTRAL, MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, and reference lists) with sham procedures, reporting the pre-post effects in the invasive sham arm among patients with Canadian cardiovascular society (CCS) angina or angina equivalents. RESULTS: 16 RCTs were included with 546 patients in the sham arm. Pooled results showed that sham interventions were associated with: improvement of 7% (95% CI 2-11%; I2 = 0%) in exercise time; decrease of 0.78 (95% CI - 1.10 to - 0.47; I2 = 75%) in CCS angina class; decrease of 53% (95% CI 24-71%; I2 = 96%) and 25% (95% CI 20-29%; I2 = 0%) in anginal episodes and nitroglycerine (NTG) use, respectively. Pooled results also showed an improvement in the physical functioning, angina frequency, treatment satisfaction, and disease perception domains of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). CONCLUSION: Sham interventions in patients with chronic coronary syndromes were associated with a significant decrease in anginal episodes, NTG use, and CCS angina class and increased SAQ quality of life and exercise time. These results highlight the need for previous non sham-controlled trials to be interpreted with caution, and the importance of new invasive interventions to be evaluated versus a sham procedure.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Canadá , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Placebos , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome
9.
Stat Med ; 41(16): 3076-3089, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396728

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve and the vaccine efficacy against variants is challenging to estimate. It is now common in phase III vaccine trials to provide vaccine to those randomized to placebo once efficacy has been demonstrated, precluding a direct assessment of placebo controlled vaccine efficacy after placebo vaccination. In this work, we extend methods developed for estimating vaccine efficacy post placebo vaccination to allow variant specific time varying vaccine efficacy, where time is measured since vaccination. The key idea is to infer counterfactual strain specific placebo case counts by using surveillance data that provide the proportions of the different strains. This blending of clinical trial and observational data allows estimation of strain-specific time varying vaccine efficacy, or sieve effects, including for strains that emerge after placebo vaccination. The key requirements are that the surveillance strain distribution accurately reflects the strain distribution for a placebo group throughout follow-up after placebo group vaccination, and that at least one strain is present before and after placebo vaccination. For illustration, we develop a Poisson approach for an idealized design under a rare disease assumption and then use a proportional hazards model to address staggered entry, staggered crossover, and smoothly varying strain specific vaccine efficacy. We evaluate these methods by theoretical work and simulations, and demonstrate that useful estimation of the efficacy profile is possible for strains that emerge after vaccination of the placebo group. An important principle is to incorporate sensitivity analyses to guard against misspecification of the strain distribution.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Eficácia de Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Placebos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
10.
Londres; NICE; rev; Mar. 11, 2022. tab, ilus.
Não convencional em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1379308

RESUMO

This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute otitis media can be caused by viruses or bacteria. It lasts for about a week, and most children get better in 3 days without antibiotics. Serious complications are rare. In March 2022, we reviewed the evidence and added a recommendation on eardrops containing an anaesthetic and an analgesic because a licensed preparation is now available in the UK. For more information, see update information.


Assuntos
Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Tabagismo/complicações , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Superinfecção/prevenção & controle , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
11.
Cell Rep ; 38(6): 110337, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139373

RESUMO

Influenza is an important cause of illness and morbidity for infants. Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy aims to provide protection to mothers, but it can also provide immunity to infants. The precise influence of maternal vaccination on immunity in infants and how vaccine-elicited antibodies provide protection in some but not all infants is incompletely understood. We comprehensively profiled the transfer of functional antibodies and defined humoral factors contributing to immunity against influenza in a clinical trial of maternal influenza vaccination. Influenza-specific antibody subclass levels, Fc ɣ receptor (FCGR) binding levels, and antibody-dependent innate immune functions were all profiled in the mothers during pregnancy and at birth, as well as in cord blood. Vaccination increased influenza-specific antibody levels, antibody binding to FCGR, and specific antibody-dependent innate immune functions in both maternal and cord blood, with FCGR binding most enhanced via vaccination. Influenza-specific FCGR binding levels were lower in cord blood of infants who subsequently developed influenza infection. Collectively these data suggest that in addition to increased antibody amounts, the selective transfer of FCGR-binding antibodies contributes to the protective immune response in infants against influenza.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Vacinação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Placebos , Gravidez , Vacinação/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental condition that begins in infancy or earlier and lasts through the individual's lifetime. The aetiology and mechanisms of ASD are not yet fully understood, and current treatment comprises mainly education and rehabilitation, without significant improvement in the core symptoms. Recent studies suggest that microbiota change in children with ASD after the ingestion of probiotics may improve the balance of microbiota and thus ASD symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on the symptoms of children with ASD and the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: This is a prospective controlled trial. A total of 160 children with ASD will be stratified and allocated to placebo and probiotics groups randomised according to the severity of their ASD symptoms. The probiotics group will be given probiotics supplements orally twice a day for 3 months and the control group will be given a placebo at the same amount, in addition to the baseline therapy of education and rehabilitation. All the children will be evaluated systematically by using different scales, questionnaires before, during, and after 3 months' treatment, as well as 3 months after discontinuation. The potential impact of probiotics on immunity and inflammation, metabolism, and metagenome will also be investigated. DISCUSSION: Our previous study showed that the abundance of intestinal flora was greatly different in children with ASD, and that Bifidobacterium was associated with the severity of ASD. In the present study, we will investigate the impact of probiotics supplementation on the symptoms of Children with ASD, with the purpose of evaluating the possible therapeutic effects of additives on ASD and of providing a reference for clinical treatment. The results will help to disclose as yet unknown relationship between probiotics and ASD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-2000037941).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenoma/genética , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Metagenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Placebos , Probióticos/efeitos adversos
13.
JAMA ; 327(2): 138-150, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015037

RESUMO

Importance: Phase 3 trials have not compared semaglutide and liraglutide, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues available for weight management. Objective: To compare the efficacy and adverse event profiles of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, 2.4 mg, vs once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide, 3.0 mg (both with diet and physical activity), in people with overweight or obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label, 68-week, phase 3b trial conducted at 19 US sites from September 2019 (enrollment: September 11-November 26) to May 2021 (end of follow-up: May 11) in adults with body mass index of 30 or greater or 27 or greater with 1 or more weight-related comorbidities, without diabetes (N = 338). Interventions: Participants were randomized (3:1:3:1) to receive once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, 2.4 mg (16-week escalation; n = 126), or matching placebo, or once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide, 3.0 mg (4-week escalation; n = 127), or matching placebo, plus diet and physical activity. Participants unable to tolerate 2.4 mg of semaglutide could receive 1.7 mg; participants unable to tolerate 3.0 mg of liraglutide discontinued treatment and could restart the 4-week titration. Placebo groups were pooled (n = 85). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was percentage change in body weight, and confirmatory secondary end points were achievement of 10% or more, 15% or more, and 20% or more weight loss, assessed for semaglutide vs liraglutide at week 68. Semaglutide vs liraglutide comparisons were open-label, with active treatment groups double-blinded against matched placebo groups. Comparisons of active treatments vs pooled placebo were supportive secondary end points. Results: Of 338 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 49 [13] years; 265 women [78.4%]; mean [SD] body weight, 104.5 [23.8] kg; mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [6.8]), 319 (94.4%) completed the trial, and 271 (80.2%) completed treatment. The mean weight change from baseline was -15.8% with semaglutide vs -6.4% with liraglutide (difference, -9.4 percentage points [95% CI, -12.0 to -6.8]; P < .001); weight change with pooled placebo was -1.9%. Participants had significantly greater odds of achieving 10% or more, 15% or more, and 20% or more weight loss with semaglutide vs liraglutide (70.9% of participants vs 25.6% [odds ratio, 6.3 {95% CI, 3.5 to 11.2}], 55.6% vs 12.0% [odds ratio, 7.9 {95% CI, 4.1 to 15.4}], and 38.5% vs 6.0% [odds ratio, 8.2 {95% CI, 3.5 to 19.1}], respectively; all P < .001). Proportions of participants discontinuing treatment for any reason were 13.5% with semaglutide and 27.6% with liraglutide. Gastrointestinal adverse events were reported by 84.1% with semaglutide and 82.7% with liraglutide. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with overweight or obesity without diabetes, once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide compared with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide, added to counseling for diet and physical activity, resulted in significantly greater weight loss at 68 weeks. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04074161.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus , Dietoterapia , Esquema de Medicação , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/terapia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Redução de Peso
14.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 157-167, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1376039

RESUMO

Estudos mostram que o tabagismo é responsável por afetar algumas funções cognitivas. No entanto, a nicotina é apenas um dos componentes existentes no cigarro e existem evidências de que pode servir como agente neuroprotetivo e causar melhoras em algumas funções cognitivas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar como a nicotina interage com algumas funções cognitivas. Um ensaio clínico piloto com administração de gomas de nicotina contendo 2-mg ou 4-mg, ou gomas placebo contendo a mesma textura, sabor e aparência, foi realizado. Quarenta e dois participantes participaram da pesquisa e os resultados indicaram que a relação entre nicotina e o desempenho na tarefa Go/No-Go podem ser bidirecionais. Os resultados indicaram que participantes do grupo que utilizaram 4-mg de nicotina apresentaram menor desempenho, enquanto os participantes que fizeram uso de 2-mg de nicotina tiveram melhor desempenho do que os demais. Esta pesquisa tem aplicações biopsicossociais e podem ajudar na compreensão da relação entre tabagismo e nicotina, além de contribuir para estratégias que possam ajudar no abandono do cigarro ou na melhora de condições que afetem a cognição (AU).


Past findings in the literature indicated that smoking could affect given cognitive functions. However, nicotine is only one of the components in cigarettes and there is evidence that it may act as a neuroprotective agent and improve some cognitive functions. The purpose of this research was to investigate how nicotine interacts with certain cognitive functions. We conducted a pilot clinical trial using nicotine gum containing 2-mg or 4-mg, or placebo gum with the same texture, flavor, and appearance. Forty-two healthy nonsmokers were enrolled in this research. Our findings indicated that the relationship between nicotine and performance on the Go/No-Go task might be opposite. The results showed that participants in the 4-mg group performed worse, while participants who used 2-mg of nicotine performed better than the others. This research supports biopsychosocial applications and can help interpret the relationship between smoking and nicotine, and contribute to strategies that may support smoking cessation, or improve conditions that affect cognition (AU).


Estudios demuestran que el tabaquismo es responsable de afectar a algunas funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, la nicotina es solo uno de los componentes de los cigarrillos, y existen evidencias de que la nicotina puede actuar como un agente neuroprotector y mejorar algunas funciones cognitivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la nicotina interactúa con algunas funciones cognitivas. Se realizó un ensayo clínico piloto con la administración de chicles de nicotina de 2 mg o 4 mg, o chicles de placebo con la misma textura, sabor y apariencia. Cuarenta y dos participantes participaron en la investigación y los resultados indicaron que la relación entre la nicotina y el rendimiento en la tarea Go/No-go puede ser bidireccional. Los resultados indicaron que los participantes del grupo de 4 mg obtuvieron un menor rendimiento en las variables del Go/No-Go, mientras que los participantes que utilizaron 2 mg de nicotina obtuvieron un mejor rendimiento que los demás. Esta investigación respalda las aplicaciones biopsicosociales y puede ayudar a interpretar la relación entre el tabaquismo y la nicotina, además de contribuir a las estrategias que pueden ayudar a dejar de fumar o mejorar las condiciones que afectan la cognición (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Função Executiva , Goma de Mascar de Nicotina , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Tabagismo/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Projetos Piloto , Método Duplo-Cego , Análise de Variância
15.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011083

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health problem that is caused by body fat accumulation and that can lead to metabolic diseases. Owing to several side effects of the currently used antiobesity drugs, natural plants have risen as safe and potential candidates to alleviate obesity. We have previously reported the antiobesity effect of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. leaves extract (WHS) and its underlying mechanisms. As an extension of our preclinical studies, this study aimed to investigate the effect of WHS on body weight and body fat reduction in overweight or obese humans. A total of 93 healthy overweight or obese males and females, aged 19-65 years, with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥ 25 and <32 kg/m2, were recruited and received either an oral administration of 600 mg of WHS, or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. Daily supplementation with WHS decreased body weights, body fat masses, and BMIs compared with the placebo-treated group. The hip circumferences, visceral fat areas, abdominal fat areas, and visceral-to-subcutaneous ratios decreased after WHS supplementation. No significant side effects were observed during or after the 12 weeks of WHS intake. In conclusion, WHS, which has beneficial effects on body weight and body fat reduction, could be a promising antiobesity supplement that does not produce any side effects.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hydrangea/química , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Antiobesidade , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Placebos
16.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011093

RESUMO

The current fast-moving, hectic lifestyle has increased the number of individuals worldwide with difficulties in managing stress, which in turn is also affecting their sleep quality. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to assess a natural plant-based dietary supplement comprised of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) extract, purified in phenylpropanoids, in alleviating stress and improving quality of sleep. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week washout period. Both validated questionnaires and functional tests were performed during the study, whereas questionnaires were used after the washout. As a result, the group taking the lemon verbena extract significantly reduced their perception of stress after 8 weeks, which was corroborated by a significant decrease in cortisol levels. After the washout period, the subjects reported to present even lower stress levels, due to the lasting effect of the ingredient. As for sleep quality, the subjects taking the supplement reported feeling better rested, with a stronger effect observed in women. Sleep tracking using a wearable device revealed that the supplement users improved their times in the deeper stages of sleep, specifically their percentage of time in deep sleep and REM. In conclusion, lemon verbena extract purified in phenylpropanoids is revealed as a natural solution to help individuals to improve their stress and sleep quality.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Lippia/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Placebos , Folhas de Planta/química , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018899, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014600

RESUMO

Intestinal bacteria may influence lung homeostasis via the gut-lung axis. We conducted a single-center, quadruple-blinded, randomized trial in adult symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid19) outpatients. Subjects were allocated 1:1 to probiotic formula (strains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP022, KABP023, and KAPB033, plus strain Pediococcus acidilactici KABP021, totaling 2 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)) or placebo, for 30 days. Co-primary endpoints included: i) proportion of patients in complete symptomatic and viral remission; ii) proportion progressing to moderate or severe disease with hospitalization, or death; and iii) days on Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three hundred subjects were randomized (median age 37.0 years [range 18 to 60], 161 [53.7%] women, 126 [42.0%] having known metabolic risk factors), and 293 completed the study (97.7%). Complete remission was achieved by 78 of 147 (53.1%) in probiotic group compared to 41 of 146 (28.1%) in placebo (RR: 1.89 [95 CI 1.40-2.55]; P < .001), significant after multiplicity correction. No hospitalizations or deaths occurred during the study, precluding the assessment of remaining co-primary outcomes. Probiotic supplementation was well-tolerated and reduced nasopharyngeal viral load, lung infiltrates and duration of both digestive and non-digestive symptoms, compared to placebo. No significant compositional changes were detected in fecal microbiota between probiotic and placebo, but probiotic supplementation significantly increased specific IgM and IgG against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) compared to placebo. It is thus hypothesized this probiotic primarily acts by interacting with the host's immune system rather than changing colonic microbiota composition. Future studies should replicate these findings and elucidate its mechanism of action (Registration: NCT04517422).Abbreviations: AE: Adverse Event; BMI: Body Mass Index; CONSORT: CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; CFU: Colony-Forming Units; eDRF: Electronic Daily Report Form; GLA: Gut-Lung Axis; GSRS: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale; hsCRP: High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein; HR: Hazard Ratio; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; OR: Odds Ratio; PCoA: Principal Coordinate Analysis; RR: Relative Risk; RT-qPCR: Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction; SARS-CoV2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SpO2: Peripheral Oxygen Saturation; WHO: World Health Organization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos
18.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057434

RESUMO

High salt intake ranks among the most important risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Western diets, which are typically high in salt, are associated with a high prevalence of obesity. High salt is thought to be a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake, although the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. A high salt diet could influence energy expenditure (EE), specifically diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), which accounts for about 10% of total EE. We aimed to investigate the influence of high salt on DIT. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 40 healthy subjects received either 6 g/d salt (NaCl) or placebo in capsules over 2 weeks. Before and after the intervention, resting EE, DIT, body composition, food intake, 24 h urine analysis, and blood pressure were obtained. EE was measured by indirect calorimetry after a 12 h overnight fast and a standardized 440 kcal meal. Thirty-eight subjects completed the study. Salt intake from foods was 6 g/d in both groups, resulting in a total salt intake of 12 g/d in the salt group and 6 g/d in the placebo group. Urine sodium increased by 2.29 g/d (p < 0.0001) in the salt group, indicating overall compliance. The change in DIT differed significantly between groups (placebo vs. salt, p = 0.023). DIT decreased by 1.3% in the salt group (p = 0.048), but increased by 0.6% in the placebo group (NS). Substrate oxidation indicated by respiratory exchange ratio, body composition, resting blood pressure, fluid intake, hydration, and urine volume did not change significantly in either group. A moderate short-term increase in salt intake decreased DIT after a standardized meal. This effect could at least partially contribute to the observed weight gain in populations consuming a Western diet high in salt.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade/etiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Método Duplo-Cego , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Termogênese/fisiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057571

RESUMO

Micro-inflammation in the gut, assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC), is considered a component of the pathogenesis of functional diarrhea (FD). Since probiotics may suppress micro-inflammation in the intestine by competing with harmful bacteria, we hypothesized that they would reduce the ratio of loose stool symptoms and gut inflammation in patients with FD. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the clinical and laboratory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP243 in FD patients with elevated FC levels for two months. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with FD with elevated FC levels were randomly assigned to either a probiotic group or a placebo group. After 2 months, 10 patients in the probiotic group and 12 patients in the placebo group completed the study, and FD symptoms, FC values, and intestinal flora were re-evaluated in these subjects. The percentage of subjects who had adequate FD relief (decrease in loose stool frequency) in the probiotic group was significantly increased after two months compared with the baseline. In addition, the probiotic group showed a statistically significant decrease in log-transformed FC values compared with the pre-treatment group, whereas the placebo group showed no difference before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the levels of Leuconostoc genus organisms in the gut microbiota composition in the probiotic group increased significantly after the end of the study compared with the baseline values. In this preliminary exploratory research, we found that two months of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CJLP243 treatment resulted in FD symptom improvement, reduced FC values, and increased Leuconostoc levels, suggesting that the intake of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was helpful in those patients. These findings need to be validated via further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Fezes/química , Lactobacillus plantarum , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Diarreia/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos
20.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057577

RESUMO

The intermediate state between normal glucose tolerance and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with micro- and macrovascular diseases, requiring safe and cost-effective treatment measures interventions. A novel source of LC n-3 FAs is Calanus finmarchicus Oil, which showed promising effects on glucose homeostasis in preclinical studies due to anti-obesity effects and/or anti-inflammatory properties. In total, 43 obese patients (BMI: 31.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2) were allocated in the following two groups: (1) Calanus oil group (2 g CO/day) and (2) placebo group (2 g paraffin oil/day). Markers of glucose metabolism, body composition and energy intake were measured at the beginning (t0), after 12 weeks (t12) and 16 weeks (t16). Overall, parameters reflecting abnormal glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in the liver, including fasting insulin (-2.9 mU/L ± 4.10, p < 0.05), HOMA-IR (-0.9 ± 1.28, p < 0.05) and hepatic insulin resistance index (-1.06 ± 1.72 × 106, p < 0.05) significantly enhanced after a 12-week CO-intervention, while no differences were observed in HbA1c, AUC0-2h Glucose, AUC0-2h Insulin, 2 h plasma glucose and muscle insulin sensitivity index. Our results indicate that Calanus oil causes beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in obese patients, with clinical relevance to be verified in further studies. In addition, the possible active compounds and their mechanisms of action should be elucidated.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Copépodes/química , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Placebos , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo
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