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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between placental measurements and perinatal and later life outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To report placental measurements and evaluate their association with birth weight in a Brazilian birth cohort. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 958 mothers, placentas, and newborns delivered at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School Hospital, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, in 2010 and 2011. The information was collected from interviews, medical records, and pathology reports. The placental measurements were: weight, largest and smallest diameters, eccentricity, thickness, shape, area, and birth weight/placental weight and placental weight/birth weight ratios. We analyzed the associations between birth weight and placental measurements using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Placental weight alone accounted for 48% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001), whereas placental measurements combined (placental weight, largest and smallest diameters, and thickness) were responsible for 50% (p < 0.001). When adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics, placental measurements explained 74% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Placental measurements are powerful independent predictors of birth weight. Placental weight is the most predictive of them, followed by the smallest diameter.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Theriogenology ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479776

RESUMO

Puppy neonatal mortality may be related to low birth weight, which has been shown in humans to be linked to placental factors. The relation between the newborn puppy and the placental characteristics has been poorly investigated in dogs. Twenty bitches, 9 toy-sized (i.e. < 5 Kg) and 11 small-sized (i.e. 5 to 10 Kg), were included in this study. During natural delivery or c-section, puppies were identified and their order of birth, sex and weight were recorded. Puppy weights were registered at birth and daily until Day 6. Placentas were weighed after removal of extraplacental adnexa, after which a photo was taken and morphometrically assessed. The Total Placental Area (TPA) and the Transfer Zone Area (TZA) were calculated and their surface expressed in mm2. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal mouse anti CD31 antibody was used to identify fetal and maternal vessels in the placental labyrinth zone. A vascularization index (VI) was determined for each placenta and the Total Vascular Area (TVA) was estimated. Puppies' birth weight correlated positively with placental weight (P < 0.001, r = 0.689). A positive correlation was found between the puppies' birth weight and TPA (P < 0.001, r = 0.786), TZA (P < 0.001, r = 0.772), and TVA (P < 0.001, r = 0.482). A positive correlation was also found between placental weight and TPA (P < 0.001, r = 0.661), TZA (P < 0.001, r = 0.583), and TVA (P < 0.001, r = 0.333). In the small-sized breeds, the placentas of low-weight puppies were lighter and had a smaller TZA and TVA (P < 0.05). The VI was higher in the placentas of the toy-sized compared to small-sized bitches (P < 0.01). No effect of parity, litter size, or sex of the puppy was observed on birth weight or growth rates on Day 6. The growth pattern of low-weight puppies did not differ from that of the other puppies during the first 6 days of life. As in humans, placental weight, the extension of the transfer zone and placental total vascular area correlates closely with the puppies' birth weight in normal pregnancies. Our data could represent reference values for placental weight, TZA, TVA and VI in toy and small-sized dog breeds.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Tamanho Corporal , Cães/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Gravidez
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1294-1298, Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040127

RESUMO

La placenta es un anexo embrionario de los mamíferos que tiene por función principal el intercambio de nutrientes y gases y proteger al concepto de un potencial daño inmune provocado por diferencias alogénicas en los Complejos Principales de Histocompatibilidad paternos. Se han descrito diversas proteínas asociadas a su función, siendo Calreticulina una de ellas. Si bien existen estudios de la presencia de Calreticulina en placenta humana, no existen reportes de esta proteína en la placenta canina. Se obtuvieron muestras de placenta canina de las que se extrajo el contenido proteico total y se determinó la presencia de Calreticulina por western blot e inmunohistoquímica. Los resultados mostraron presencia de Calreticulina en placenta canina con un peso molecular aparente de 60 kDa, concordante con lo descrito para la molécula por otros autores. El análisis inmunohistoquímico mostró que Calreticulina canina está presente principalmente en el trofoblasto de las vellosidades, no existiendo diferencias en cuanto a su localización al compararla con placenta humana, pese a sus diferencias morfológicas e histológicas. Esta información permitirá establecer un protocolo estandarizado de extracción de Calreticulina desde placenta, así como orientar acerca de los posibles roles de esta molécula en la placenta.


The placenta is an embryonic organ present in mammals, whose main functions are the exchange of nutrients and gases and to protect the fetus from potential immune damage mediated by paternal and maternal allogeneic differences in the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Several proteins associated with its function have been described, being Calreticulin one of them. Although there are studies on the presence of Calreticulin in human placenta, there are no reports of this protein in canine placenta. Samples from canine placenta were obtained, proteins extracted and Calreticulin was subsequently detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed the presence of Calreticulin in canine placenta with an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa, in agreement with the results from other authors. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that canine Calreticulin is present mainly in the trophoblast of the villi, and there is no difference in its localization when compared with a blood-filled placenta such as human one, despite its morphological and histological differences. We also propose a standardized protocol for the extraction of Calreticulin from placenta, given its abundant expression in this organ. Future studies are aimed at elucidating possible roles of this protein in placenta.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Western Blotting
4.
In Vivo ; 33(5): 1703-1706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: For many years clinical research has been concerned with doppler sonography as a non-invasive tool for intrauterine fetal status assessment. A new focus is now placed on the measurement of cerebroplacental index (CPR) as a predictor of fetal outcome. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR), the delivery mode and the fetal outcome in singleton pregnancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pregnancies in which doppler sonography of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) was conducted up to 9 weeks before delivery took place. Patients with pathological (CPR≤1.0) and normal CPR (>1.0) were compared by umbilical cord pH, APGAR scores, birth weight, delivery week and delivery mode. RESULTS: A total of 2,270 singleton pregnancies were included. The APGAR score for 1, 5 and 10 minutes and the gestational age at delivery were significantly lower in the group of patients with pathological CPR (p<0.001). Overall, 50% of the cohort had a cesarean section, the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.001), with a higher amount of cesareans in the group of patients with pathological CPR. The multiple regression analysis showed a significantly improved pH of delivery when cesarean section (p<0.001), female sex of fetus (p=0.013) and higher CPR (p=0.035) were present. CONCLUSION: The measurement of CPR is an important, non-invasive predictive parameter and leads to the identification of a risk collective even in the non-selected patient population and thus probably to a reduction of perinatal morbidity.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Índice de Apgar , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349643

RESUMO

Minimizing exposure of the fetus to medication and reducing adverse off-target effects in the mother are the primary challenges in developing novel drugs to treat pregnancy complications. Nanomedicine has introduced opportunities for the development of novel platforms enabling targeted delivery of drugs in pregnancy. This review sets out to discuss the advances and potential of surface-functionalized nanoparticles in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications. We first describe the human placental anatomy, which is fundamental for developing placenta-targeted therapy, and then we review current knowledge of nanoparticle transplacental transport mechanisms. Meanwhile, recent surface-functionalized nanoparticles for targeting the uterus and placenta are examined. Indeed, surface-functionalized nanoparticles could help prevent transplacental passage and promote placental-specific drug delivery, thereby enhancing efficacy and improving safety. We have achieved promising results in targeting the placenta via placental chondroitin sulfate A (plCSA), which is exclusively expressed in the placenta, using plCSA binding peptide (plCSA-BP)-decorated nanoparticles. Others have also focused on using placenta- and uterus-enriched molecules as targets to deliver therapeutics via surface-functionalized nanoparticles. Additionally, we propose that placenta-specific exosomes and surface-modified exosomes might be potential tools in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications. Altogether, surface-functionalized nanoparticles have great potential value as clinical tools in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications.


Assuntos
Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Nanopartículas , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Transporte Biológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Nanopartículas/química , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109148, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347503

RESUMO

Development and implementation of products incorporating nanoparticles are occurring at a rapid pace. These particles are widely utilized in domestic, occupational, and biomedical applications. Currently, it is unclear if pregnant women will be able to take advantage of the potential biomedical nanoproducts out of concerns associated with placental transfer and fetal interactions. We recently developed an ex vivo rat placental perfusion technique to allow for the evaluation of xenobiotic transfer and placental physiological perturbations. In this study, a segment of the uterine horn and associated placenta was isolated from pregnant (gestational day 20) Sprague-Dawley rats and placed into a modified pressure myography vessel chamber. The proximal and distal ends of the maternal uterine artery and the vessels of the umbilical cord were cannulated, secured, and perfused with physiological salt solution (PSS). The proximal uterine artery and umbilical artery were pressurized at 80 mmHg and 50 mmHg, respectively, to allow countercurrent flow through the placenta. After equilibration, a single 900 µL bolus dose of 20 nm gold engineered nanoparticles (Au-ENM) was introduced into the proximal maternal artery. Distal uterine and umbilical vein effluents were collected every 10 min for 180 min to measure placental fluid dynamics. The quantification of Au-ENM transfer was conducted via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, we were able to measure Au-ENM within uterine and umbilical effluent with 20 min of material infusion. This novel methodology may be widely incorporated into studies of pharmacology, toxicology, and placental physiology.


Assuntos
Ouro/farmacologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Perfusão , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Vet J ; 249: 80-81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239170

RESUMO

Combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) has been used for many years to assess fetal well-being and placental health in the mare and most recently the combined thickness of the uterus and interplacentome region (CTUIR) in water buffalo. The aim of this study was to develop normal reference ranges in regards to the CTUIR in 25 Holstein cows throughout pregnancy. The CTUIR was measured every 30 days from 60 days of gestation until 270 days of gestation. Measurements were obtained by transrectal ultrasonography with the position of the ultrasound probe being placed cranial and lateral to the cervix. CTUIR measurements increased every month beginning with an average of 4.6mm at 60 days and culminating with an average thickness of 11.7mm at 270 days of gestation. The greatest increases in CTUIR thickness occurred during the first and second trimesters.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(7): 996-1002, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059204

RESUMO

Macroscopic evaluation of the placenta is an essential post-partum examination in the alpaca and can be of special interest in case of abortion, premature birth or stillbirth. Since there are not many reference values regarding macroscopic properties of normal alpaca placentas, a small descriptive study was conducted. Only placentae from normally foaling alpaca mares, giving birth to healthy crias, after a full-term and uneventful gestation (±350 days; range 335-360 days) were taken into account (N = 11). Crias weighed (±SD) 7.7 ± 2.25 kg (range 5.5-10 kg), while the mean weight of the full-term placentas was 0.8 ± 0.19 kg, that is 10% of the bodyweight of the crias. The weight of the allantoamnion and chorion was 0.2 ± 0.07 kg and 0.5 ± 0.13 kg, respectively. The umbilical cord length was 8.8 ± 2.84 cm, and the length of the pregnant and non-pregnant uterine horns was 69.4 ± 12.77 cm and 54.5 ± 6.81 cm, respectively. The length of the corpus was 14.6 ± 4.68 cm, and the distance from the umbilicus to the corpus was 18.5 ± 6.13 cm. The tissue volume of the allantoamnion was 0.14 ± 0.079 L, and the chorionic volume was 0.37 ± 0.078 L. The surface area of the allantoamnion and the chorion was 87.6 ± 15.56 dm2 and 72.3 ± 9.28 dm2 , respectively. All placentas had small calcifications either around the umbilical cord alone or around the umbilicus and blood vessels of the pregnant uterine horn. These measurements could be used to macroscopically evaluate alpaca placentas, although more research is needed to extend our knowledge of macroscopic evaluation of normal and abnormal placentas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cordão Umbilical/anatomia & histologia
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3479-3496, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049600

RESUMO

Abnormal placentation is considered as an underlying cause of various pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, the latter increasing the risk for the development of severe disorders in later life such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms governing human placental formation and trophoblast cell lineage specification and differentiation have been poorly unravelled, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cellular model systems. However, over the past few years major progress has been made by establishing self-renewing human trophoblast stem cells and 3-dimensional organoids from human blastocysts and early placental tissues opening the path for detailed molecular investigations. Herein, we summarize the present knowledge about human placental development, its stem cells, progenitors and differentiated cell types in the trophoblast epithelium and the villous core. Anatomy of the early placenta, current model systems, and critical key regulatory factors and signalling cascades governing placentation will be elucidated. In this context, we will discuss the role of the developmental pathways Wingless and Notch, controlling trophoblast stemness/differentiation and formation of invasive trophoblast progenitors, respectively.


Assuntos
Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placentação , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Trofoblastos/citologia
10.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 12(1): 20-24, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684675

RESUMO

The primo vascular system (PVS) is a very important topic of study nowadays because of their role in transport and regeneration of tissue and in cell migration and cancer metastasis. The PVS was detected in different organs of the rabbit but not in the placenta. In this work, we observe the PVS inside the blood vessels of the placenta for the first time. The main characteristic features of the primo vessels (PVs) from the rabbit placenta were in agreement with the PVS in different organs of animals, including the rod-shaped nuclei and their arrangement.


Assuntos
Sistema Linfático/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Coelhos
11.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 45(5): 1081-1093, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685076

RESUMO

Attenuation coefficient estimation has the potential to be a useful tool for placental tissue characterization. A current challenge is the presence of inhomogeneities in biological tissue that result in a large variance in the attenuation coefficient estimate (ACE), restricting its clinical utility. In this work, we propose a new Attenuation Estimation Region Of Interest (AEROI) selection method for computing the ACE based on the (i) envelope signal-to-noise ratio deviation and (ii) coefficient of variation of the transmit pulse bandwidth. The method was first validated on a tissue-mimicking phantom, for which an 18%-21% reduction in the standard deviation of ACE and a 14%-24% reduction in the ACE error, expressed as a percentage of reported ACE, were obtained. A study on 59 post-delivery clinically normal placentas was then performed. The proposed AEROI selection method reduced the intra-subject standard deviation of ACE from 0.72 to 0.39 dB/cm/MHz. The measured ACE of 59 placentas was 0.77 ± 0.37 dB/cm/MHz, which establishes a baseline for future studies on placental tissue characterization.


Assuntos
Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 22(3): 194-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012074

RESUMO

The placenta plays a critical role in regulating fetal growth. Recent studies suggest that there may be sex-specific differences in placental development. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and placental morphology in models adjusted for covariates and to assess sex-specific differences in these associations. We analyzed data from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network's population-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008, which recruited cases of stillbirth and population-based controls in 5 states. Our analysis was restricted to singleton live births with a placental examination (n = 1229). Characteristics of placental morphology evaluated include thickness, surface area, difference in diameters, shape, and umbilical cord insertion site. We used linear regression to model birthweight as a function of placental morphology and covariates. Surface area had the greatest association with birthweight; a reduction in surface area of 83 cm2, which reflects the interquartile range, is associated with a 260.2-g reduction in birthweight (95% confidence interval, -299.9 to -220.6), after adjustment for other features of placental morphology and covariates. Reduced placental thickness was also associated with lower birthweight. These associations did not differ between males and females. Our results suggest that reduced placental thickness and surface area are independently associated with lower birthweight and that these relationships are not related to sex.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Natimorto , Adulto Jovem
13.
MAGMA ; 32(2): 197-204, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate MRI as a tool to examine placental morphology in a murine model in comparison to classical histology techniques. METHODS: Assessment of placental samples (n = 24) from C57Bl/6 J mice was performed using MR imaging and histomorphological analyses. To optimize image contrast for MRI, a protocol for gadolinium-mediated enhancement of placental tissue was established. To test method sensitivity, placental zone assessment with MRI and histology was applied to a model of prenatal stress exposure known to affect placental morphology (n = 10). Mean data acquisition time for both methods was estimated. Difference between groups was calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Tissue fixation with formaldehyde and staining with gadolinium resulted in the best image quality. Placental functional zones were identified and measured with both MRI and histology. MRI and histology were able to detect changes in the L/Jz ratio upon a prenatal stress challenge (p = 0.001; p = 0.003). Data acquisition time was shorter using MRI assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Ex vivo MRI analyses of murine placental functional morphology with MRI are feasible and results are comparable to time-consuming histology. Both MRI and histology allow the detection of experimentally induced morphological tissue alterations.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Gadolínio , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Técnicas In Vitro , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Inclusão do Tecido , Fixação de Tecidos
14.
Biotechniques ; 66(2): 79-84, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370778

RESUMO

Geometry of the placental villous vasculature is a key determinant of maternal-fetal nutrient exchange for optimal fetal growth. Recent advances in tissue clarification techniques allow for deep high-resolution imaging with confocal microscopy; however, the methodology lacks a signal:noise ratio of sufficient magnitude to allow for quantitative analysis. Thus, we sought to develop a reproducible method to investigate the 3D vasculature of the nonhuman primate placenta for subsequent data analysis. Fresh placental tissue was dissected, formalin fixed, clarified using a modified Visikol® protocol and immunolabeled for CD31 (fetal endothelium) and cytokeratin-7 (villous trophoblast) for confocal imaging of the microanatomy. We present a detailed clarification and staining protocol augmented for imaging of nonhuman primate placental tissue. The image stacks generated by this refined staining method and our data acquisition parameters can be analyzed quantitatively to provide insights regarding the villous and vascular micro-anatomy of the placenta.


Assuntos
Vilosidades Coriônicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Vilosidades Coriônicas/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Primatas/anatomia & histologia
15.
Vet Pathol ; 56(2): 248-258, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355149

RESUMO

Bovine abortion is a worldwide problem, but despite extensive histopathologic and molecular investigations, the cause of abortion remains unclear in about 70% of cases. Cellular debris is a commonly observed histopathologic finding in the fetal placenta and is often interpreted as necrosis. In this study, the nature of this cellular debris was characterized, and histologic changes in the normal fetal placenta during pregnancy and after delivery were assessed. In addition, the presence of the most common abortifacient pathogens in Switzerland ( Chlamydiaceae, Coxiella burnetii, Neospora caninum) was tested by polymerase chain reaction. We collected 51 placentomes and 235 cotyledons from 41 and from 50 cows, respectively. In total, cellular debris was present in 48 of 51 (94%) placentomes and in 225 of 235 (96%) cotyledons, inflammation occurred in 1 of 51 (2%) placentomes and in 46 of 235 (20%) cotyledons, vasculitis was seen in 1 of 51 (2%) placentomes and 46 of 235 (20%) cotyledons, and 18 of 51 (35%) placentomes and 181 of 235 (77%) cotyledons had mineralization. The amount of cellular debris correlated with areas of positive signals for cleaved caspase 3 and lamin A. Therefore, this finding was interpreted as an apoptotic process. In total, 10 of 50 cotyledons (20%) were positive for C. burnetii DNA, most likely representing subclinical infections. The results of our study indicate that histologic features in the fetal placenta such as cellular debris, inflammation, vasculitis, and mineralization must be considered physiological processes during pregnancy and after delivery. Therefore, their presence in placentae of aborted fetuses must be interpreted with caution and might not be necessarily linked to an infectious cause of abortion.


Assuntos
Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Bovinos , Chlamydiaceae , Coxiella burnetii , Feminino , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Neospora , Placenta/microbiologia , Placenta/ultraestrutura , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 25(4): 234-238, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588944

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate foeto-placental (F/P) parameters, namely foetal birth weight, placental weight (PW) and F/P weight ratio, in normal pregnancy and factors affecting them. Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted on labour ward data obtained over a period of 3 years (2015-2017). Only deliveries above 28-week gestational age which met other selection criteria were included in the study. Their sociodemographic parameters, PW, foetal birth weight, foetal outcome and Apgar scores were extracted from the delivery registers. The F/P weight ratio was calculated from the values obtained. All data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age ± standard error of mean of parturient was 31.84 ± 0.18 years. A larger proportion, 1455 (80.7%) of the women were booked. The mean gestational age ± standard deviation at delivery was 37.81 ± 2.72 weeks. Foetal weight (FW), PW and F/P weight ratio rise progressively with advancing gestational age in normal pregnancy, the FW rising faster than the placenta which gains weight slowly. The F/P ratio rises steadily initially and then abruptly from 42-week gestational age as the foetus outgrows the placenta, after which there is a sharp decline from 43-week gestational age. FW, PW and F/P ratio are significantly affected by gestational age and booking status (P = 0.000). Parity and foetal sex were found to have significant influence on FW alone (P = 0.026 and P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: This study clarifies the need to avoid undue prolongation of pregnancy beyond 42 weeks to avert adverse consequences which may be related to the differential growth in the foetus and placenta.


Assuntos
Peso Fetal , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placentação , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207184, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress affects the health of the pregnant woman and the fetus. Cortisol blood levels are elevated in pregnancy, and fetal exposure to cortisol is regulated by the placenta enzyme 11ß-HSD2. A decrease in enzyme activity allows more maternal cortisol to pass through the placental barrier. Combining the fetal and maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio into the adjusted fetal cortisol exposure (AFCE) represents the activity of the enzyme 11ß-HSD2 in the placenta. AIM: To investigate the effect of prenatal maternal stress on the ratio of cortisol and cortisone in maternal and fetal blood at birth in a normal population. METHOD: Maternal self-reported stress was assessed at one time-point, as late in the pregnancy as convenient for the participant, using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42), Pregnancy Related Anxiety (PRA), and Major Life Events during pregnancy. The study included 273 participants from Copenhagen University Hospital. Maternal and umbilical cord blood was sampled directly after birth and cortisol and cortisone concentrations were quantified using UPLC chromatography. Data were analyzed in a five-step regression model with addition of possible confounders. The primary outcome was AFCE, and plasma concentrations of maternal and fetal cortisol and cortisone were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Significant associations were seen for the primary outcome AFCE and the plasma concentrations of maternal cortisol and fetal cortisone with exposure to Pregnancy Related Anxiety (PRA), though the associations were reduced when adjusting for birth related variables, especially delivery mode. The weight of the placenta affected the associations of exposures on AFCE, but not plasma concentrations of cortisol and cortisone in mother and fetus. Moreover, the study demonstrated the importance of delivery mode and birth strain on cortisol levels right after delivery. CONCLUSION: Our main finding was associations between PRA and AFCE, which shows the effect of maternal stress on placental cortisol metabolism.


Assuntos
Placenta/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cortisona/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2166-2174, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976402

RESUMO

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is one of the most threatened aquatic mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as "endangered" (MMA). The objective of this study was to characterize histologically the reproductive tract and fetal annexes of stranded manatees in northeastern Brazil. Tissue samples were collected from the reproductive tract of 23 manatees, which were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed using standard histological protocols and stained with hematoxylin eosin. We qualitatively described the histological and histomorphometric characteristics of each structure. Six ovaries were analyzed. In four ovaries, we found a large number of primordial and primary follicles. Two ovaries were different from the others: one had inflammatory infiltration and the other had a thickening in the cortex and absence of follicles. We also analyzed seven uteri (of which four were in the proliferative phase, two in the secretory phase, and one in the recovery phase), four placentas, one vagina, six testes (four were in the immature phase, one in the pubertal phase, and one in the mature phase), two epididymides, two penises, and one umbilical cord. The histological and morphometric findings in our work will support future analyses of the reproductive tract of T. manatus from Brazil.(AU)


O peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) é um dos mamíferos aquáticos mais ameaçados do Brasil e, atualmente é classificado como "em perigo" (MMA). O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente o trato reprodutor e os anexos fetais de peixes-bois marinhos encalhados no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de tecidos do trato reprodutor de 23 peixes-bois marinhos (T. manatus), que foram fixadas em formol tamponado a 10%, processados usando protocolos histológicos padrão e corados com hematoxilina eosina. Foi realizada a descrição qualitativa das características histológicas e histomorfométricas de cada estrutura. Foram analisados seis ovários. Em quatro ovários, foi encontrado um grande número de folículos primordiais e primários. Dois ovários eram diferentes dos outros: um tinha infiltração inflamatória e o outro tinha um espessamento no córtex e ausência de folículos. Também foram analisadas sete amostras uterinas (das quais quatro estavam na fase proliferativa, duas na fase secretória e uma na fase de recuperação), quatro placentas, uma vagina, seis testículos (quatro na fase imatura, um na fase puberal e um na fase madura), dois epidídimos, dois pênis e um cordão umbilical. Os achados histológicos e morfométricos em nosso trabalho apoiarão futuras análises do trato reprodutivo de T. manatus do Brasil.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Cordão Umbilical/anatomia & histologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Vagina/anatomia & histologia , Trichechus manatus/anatomia & histologia , Epididimo/anatomia & histologia , Brasil
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2175-2182, Nov. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976411

RESUMO

Animal models are essential to understand healthy human placentation. Guinea pig related rodents became on focus for such purposes. In particular, processes of trophoblast invasion are similar. The latter is associated with a specialized area, the subplacenta. Since previous results showed differences between the guinea pig and its close relative Galea spixii, we aimed to study subplacental development with more detail. We investigated 16 pregnant females of 14 to 55 days of gestation by means of histology, morphometrics, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The overlap between the fetomaternal blood systems resulted as intimate, suggesting some exchange processes. Proliferation was revealed by three independent methods, being most active in early and mid-gestation, which was in accordance to former results. Though degeneration of tissues took place, the subplacenta was maintained towards term with access to the fetal vascularization, supporting a hypothesis about the release of substances to the fetal unit in advanced gestation. In contrast to other species, the extraplacental trophoblast showed a shift from syncytial streamers to giant cells during mid-gestation. Views on placentation in caviomorphs were influenced by the guinea pig, but our data supported recent studies that the subplacenta had a much greater placidity. In regard to subplacental grow, degeneration and likely also exchange processes, Galea and other species showed a more basal pattern of caviomorphs than the guinea pig. Such differences should be considered, when choosing most adequate animal models for special purposes in comparison to human placentation.(AU)


Modelos animais são essenciais para entender a placenta humana sadia. Neste sentido os roedores relacionados ao porquinho da índia tornaram-se foco para tal entendimento. Em particular, os processos de invasão trofoblástica são semelhantes. O último está associado a uma área especializada, a subplacenta. Uma vez que os resultados anteriores mostraram diferenças entre o porquinho da índia e seu relativo o preá, buscamos estudar o desenvolvimento subplacentário com mais detalhes. Pesquisamos 16 fêmeas gestantes de 14 a 55 dias de gestação por meio de histologia, morfometria, imuno-histoquímica e microscopia eletrônica. A sobreposição entre os sistemas sanguíneos materno e fetal apresentou-se com íntima relação, sugerindo alguns processos de troca. A proliferação foi revelada por três métodos independentes, sendo mais ativos no início e metade da gestação, o que corroborou com os resultados anteriores. Embora a degeneração dos tecidos tenha ocorrido, a subplacenta foi mantida até o termo gestacional com acesso à vascularização fetal, apoiando uma hipótese sobre a liberação de substâncias para a unidade fetal em gestação avançada. Em contraste com outras espécies, o trofoblasto extraplacentário mostrou uma mudança de flâmulas sinciciais para células gigantes durante a metade da gestação. As visualizações sobre a placentação em caviomorfos foram influenciadas pelo porquinho da índia, mas nossos dados apoiaram estudos recentes de que a subplacenta apresentava uma plasticidade muito maior. Em relação ao crescimento subplacentário, a degeneração e provavelmente também os processos de troca, o preá e outras espécies apresentaram um padrão mais basal de caviomorfos do que o porquinho da índia. Tais diferenças devem ser consideradas, ao escolher os modelos animais mais adequados para fins especiais em comparação com a placentação humana.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Cobaias , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Cobaias/anatomia & histologia
20.
Eur. j. anat ; 22(6): 483-488, nov. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182115

RESUMO

Studies have described the placental morphology and its changes in a pathological scenario. But the role of a twisting pattern of umbilical vessels in determining the placental morphology of uncomplicated pregnancy has not been discussed. The objective of the study was to determine the clinical significance of umbilical cord twist in determining the umbilical cord coiling index, the diameter of hyrtl's anastomosis, branching pattern of the placental vasculature, placental weight, Eccentricity index and Cord centrality index. The proportion of umbilical cords with left and right twist were 246 (78.6%) and 67 (21.4%) respectively. The right twisted cords had significant higher umbilical artery diameter, higher umbilical cord coiling index and preferential magistral pattern of blood vessels. This proves that twisting of the cord might play a minor role in altering the blood flow and determining the vasculature pattern but not sufficient enough to influence the placental weight, the shape of the placenta and umbilical cord insertion


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiopatologia , Cordão Umbilical/anatomia & histologia , Anormalidade Torcional , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Cordão Nucal/complicações , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia , Veias Umbilicais/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos
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