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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1018-1025, Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124891

RESUMO

The equine placenta is a simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues, becoming more complex with the formation of microcotyledons around days 75 and 100 of gestation. The present study aimed to describe the gross and microscopic morphology of early equine placenta. Embryonic/fetal membranes from thirty-seven mares were submitted to macroscopic description, light, scanning and transmission microscopy. Overall the gross characteristics of membranes were similar with already described for older stages. However, transmission electron microscopy evidenced high metabolic rate in chorion and allantois, and high secretion profile in amnion and even higher in yolk sac. Gene ontologies enrichment, using published data, pointed several common ontologies in allantoic and amniotic fluids, related to oxygen and iron transport, extracellular space and high-density lipoprotein receptor binding. Overall, the morphological and ontology enrichment could indicate allantois and amnion crosstalk.


La placenta equina es una simple aposición de tejidos fetales y maternos, que se vuelve más compleja con la formación de microcotiledones alrededor de los días 75 y 100 de gestación. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la morfología macroscópica y microscópica de la placenta equina temprana. Las membranas embrionarias / fetales de treinta y siete yeguas fueron sometidas a descripción macroscópica, luz, escaneo y microscopía de transmisión. En general, las características generales de las membranas fueron similares a las ya descritas para las etapas más antiguas. Sin embargo, la microscopía electrónica de transmisión mostró una alta tasa metabólica en corion y alantoides, y un alto perfil de secreción en amnios e incluso mayor en el saco vitelino. El enriquecimiento de ontologías génicas, utilizando datos publicados, señaló varias ontologías comunes en fluidos alantoideos y amnióticos, relacionados con el transporte de oxígeno y hierro, espacio extracelular y unión a receptores de lipoproteínas de alta densidad. En general, el enriquecimiento morfológico y ontológico podría indicar alantoides y diafonía de amnios.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos , Placenta/ultraestrutura , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Córion , Alantoide , Âmnio , Microscopia/métodos
2.
Endocrinology ; 161(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270179

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is widespread. The effects of active vitamin D on the human placenta in vivo are unknown. We test the hypotheses that 25(OH)D sufficiency (arbitrarily defined as 25(OH)D ≥32 ng/mL) modulates placental structure and function in vivo in a population of women whose offspring are at risk for childhood asthma, and that placental pathology is more common in offspring that evolve asthma at age 3. Pregnant volunteers in the St. Louis, MO, cohort of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART, NIH grant #HL091528) participated in a nested case-control study and consented for the study of placentas after delivery. Maternal concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured at trial entry and in the third trimester. The histopathology of the placentas from women with sufficient 25(OH)D, versus insufficient, showed no clinically significant differences, but morphometry revealed villi of women with sufficient third-trimester 25(OH)D had a higher villous surface density. Notably, analyses of transcripts, extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, revealed higher expression of INTS9, vWF, MACC1, and ARMS2, and diminished expression of the CNTN5 genes in the insufficient group. A larger proportion of placentas showed chronic chorioamnionitis in offspring with versus without asthma at age 3. These findings suggest that maternal 25(OH)D insufficiency has a limited effect on human placental villous histopathology and morphometry, but attenuates a small number of placental gene expression profiles in this selected population. The association of placental chronic chorioamnionitis and offspring asthma is worthy of further study.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/tratamento farmacológico , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Corioamnionite/genética , Corioamnionite/metabolismo , Corioamnionite/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/embriologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 528(2): 336-342, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248977

RESUMO

In the pregnant mouse, the hormone leptin is primarily produced by adipose tissue and does not significantly cross the placenta into fetal circulation. Nonetheless, leptin treatment during gestation affects offspring phenotypes. Leptin treatment also affects placental trophoblast cells in vitro, by altering proliferation, invasion and nutrient transport. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the absence of placental leptin receptors alters placental development and gene expression. Leprdb-3j+ mice possessing only one functional copy of the leptin receptor were mated to obtain wildtype, Leprdb-3j+ and Leprdb-3j/db-3j conceptuses, which were then transferred to wildtype recipient dams. Placentas were collected at gestational d18.5 to examine placental morphology and gene expression. Placentas lacking functional leptin receptor had reduced weights, but were otherwise morphologically indistinguishable from control placentas. Relative mRNA levels, however, were altered in Leprdb-3j/db-3j placentas, particularly transcripts related to amino acid and lipid metabolism and transport. Consistent with a previous in vitro study, leptin was found to promote expression of stathmin, a positive regulator of trophoblast invasion, and of serotonin receptors, potential mediators of offspring neurological development. Overall placental leptin receptor was found not to play a significant role in morphological development of the placenta, but to regulate placental gene expression, including in metabolic pathways that affect fetal growth.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Animais , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between placental measurements and perinatal and later life outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To report placental measurements and evaluate their association with birth weight in a Brazilian birth cohort. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 958 mothers, placentas, and newborns delivered at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School Hospital, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, in 2010 and 2011. The information was collected from interviews, medical records, and pathology reports. The placental measurements were: weight, largest and smallest diameters, eccentricity, thickness, shape, area, and birth weight/placental weight and placental weight/birth weight ratios. We analyzed the associations between birth weight and placental measurements using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Placental weight alone accounted for 48% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001), whereas placental measurements combined (placental weight, largest and smallest diameters, and thickness) were responsible for 50% (p < 0.001). When adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics, placental measurements explained 74% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Placental measurements are powerful independent predictors of birth weight. Placental weight is the most predictive of them, followed by the smallest diameter.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Morphol ; 281(4-5): 428-437, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031746

RESUMO

Embryos of the viviparous dwarf ornate wobbegong shark (Orectolobus ornatus) develop without a placenta, unattached to the uterine wall of their mother. Here, we present the first light microscopy study of the uterus of O. ornatus throughout pregnancy. At the beginning of pregnancy, the uterine luminal epithelium and underlying connective tissue become folded to form uterine ridges. By mid to late pregnancy, the luminal surface is extensively folded and long luminal uterine villi are abundant. Compared to the nonpregnant uterus, uterine vasculature is increased during pregnancy. Additionally, as pregnancy progresses the uterine epithelium is attenuated so that there is minimal uterine tissue separating large maternal blood vessels from the fluid that surrounds developing embryos. We conclude that the uterus of O. ornatus undergoes an extensive morphological transformation during pregnancy. These uterine modifications likely support developing embryos via embryonic respiratory gas exchange, waste removal, water balance, and mineral transfer.


Assuntos
Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Epitélio/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Útero/citologia
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(1): 162-166, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888988

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to review a single-center experience in follow-up and management of fetuses with umbilical vein varix (UVV) and to assess the effect of UVV on fetal Doppler parameters.Methods: We reviewed retrospectively maternal antenatal records, delivery records, and newborn records to identify cases of UVV. Further, we retrospectively compared 25 fetuses with isolated UVV and available cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) analysis with 75 matched controls.Results: We identified 67 cases of UVV. The median gestational age (GA) at diagnosis was 34 weeks (range: 26-41 weeks). The average diameter of UVV at diagnosis was 10.1 mm (range: 9-14 mm). The median GA at delivery was 36 + 6 (range: 33-41 weeks), with an average birth weight of 2918 g (range: 1278-4140 g). There was a single case of intrauterine death at 35 weeks. CPR was 2.13 ± 0.62 in isolated UVV group compared with 1.84 ± 0.61 in the control group (p < .05). Other Doppler parameters did not differ between fetuses with UVV compared with controls.Conclusions: CPR was significantly increased in the UVV group compared with control fetuses. This finding suggests that UVV is not associated with chronic fetal oxygen deprivation; it, therefore, may contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology explaining abnormal pregnancy outcome in cases with UVV.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fluxo Pulsátil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/patologia , Veias Umbilicais/irrigação sanguínea , Veias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Umbilicais/patologia , Varizes/complicações , Varizes/epidemiologia
8.
Theriogenology ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479776

RESUMO

Puppy neonatal mortality may be related to low birth weight, which has been shown in humans to be linked to placental factors. The relation between the newborn puppy and the placental characteristics has been poorly investigated in dogs. Twenty bitches, 9 toy-sized (i.e. < 5 Kg) and 11 small-sized (i.e. 5 to 10 Kg), were included in this study. During natural delivery or c-section, puppies were identified and their order of birth, sex and weight were recorded. Puppy weights were registered at birth and daily until Day 6. Placentas were weighed after removal of extraplacental adnexa, after which a photo was taken and morphometrically assessed. The Total Placental Area (TPA) and the Transfer Zone Area (TZA) were calculated and their surface expressed in mm2. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal mouse anti CD31 antibody was used to identify fetal and maternal vessels in the placental labyrinth zone. A vascularization index (VI) was determined for each placenta and the Total Vascular Area (TVA) was estimated. Puppies' birth weight correlated positively with placental weight (P < 0.001, r = 0.689). A positive correlation was found between the puppies' birth weight and TPA (P < 0.001, r = 0.786), TZA (P < 0.001, r = 0.772), and TVA (P < 0.001, r = 0.482). A positive correlation was also found between placental weight and TPA (P < 0.001, r = 0.661), TZA (P < 0.001, r = 0.583), and TVA (P < 0.001, r = 0.333). In the small-sized breeds, the placentas of low-weight puppies were lighter and had a smaller TZA and TVA (P < 0.05). The VI was higher in the placentas of the toy-sized compared to small-sized bitches (P < 0.01). No effect of parity, litter size, or sex of the puppy was observed on birth weight or growth rates on Day 6. The growth pattern of low-weight puppies did not differ from that of the other puppies during the first 6 days of life. As in humans, placental weight, the extension of the transfer zone and placental total vascular area correlates closely with the puppies' birth weight in normal pregnancies. Our data could represent reference values for placental weight, TZA, TVA and VI in toy and small-sized dog breeds.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Tamanho Corporal , Cães/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Gravidez
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200004, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between placental measurements and perinatal and later life outcomes. Objectives: To report placental measurements and evaluate their association with birth weight in a Brazilian birth cohort. Methods: Retrospective cohort study with 958 mothers, placentas, and newborns delivered at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School Hospital, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, in 2010 and 2011. The information was collected from interviews, medical records, and pathology reports. The placental measurements were: weight, largest and smallest diameters, eccentricity, thickness, shape, area, and birth weight/placental weight and placental weight/birth weight ratios. We analyzed the associations between birth weight and placental measurements using multiple linear regression. Results: Placental weight alone accounted for 48% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001), whereas placental measurements combined (placental weight, largest and smallest diameters, and thickness) were responsible for 50% (p < 0.001). When adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics, placental measurements explained 74% of birth weight variability (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Placental measurements are powerful independent predictors of birth weight. Placental weight is the most predictive of them, followed by the smallest diameter.


RESUMO: Introdução: Estudos epidemiológicos demonstraram associações entre medidas placentárias, resultados perinatais e futuros. Objetivos: Descrever medidas placentárias e avaliar suas associações com peso ao nascer numa coorte de nascimentos brasileira. Metodologia: Estudo de coorte retrospectiva de 958 mães, placentas e recém-nascidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2010 e 2011. As informações foram coletadas por entrevistas, prontuários médicos e laudos de patologia. As medidas placentárias foram: peso, diâmetros maior e menor, excentricidade, espessura, forma, área, relações peso ao nascer/ peso da placenta e peso da placenta/ peso ao nascer. As associações entre peso ao nascer e medidas placentárias foram examinadas por meio de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: O peso da placenta foi responsável por 48% da variabilidade do peso ao nascer (p < 0,001), enquanto o conjunto de medidas placentárias (peso, diâmetros maior e menor e espessura) foi responsável por 50% (p < 0,001). Quando ajustadas pelas características maternas e neonatais, as medidas placentárias explicaram 74% da variabilidade do peso ao nascer (p < 0,001). Conclusão: medidas placentárias são preditores independentes do peso ao nascer. O peso placentário é o mais forte preditor dentre elas, seguido pelo diâmetro menor.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Brasil , Resultado da Gravidez , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Idade Gestacional
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 496, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triplet pregnancies are associated with higher fetal morbidity and mortality rates as well as life-threatening maternal complications. Monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) triplet pregnancies are very rare compared to other types of triplet pregnancies. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three cases of MCDA triplet pregnancies between January 2012 and December 2017. Two of these MCDA triplet pregnancies received regular and intensive prenatal care, were diagnosed by ultrasonography during the first trimester or early second trimester, and had good perinatal outcomes. The case with irregular perinatal care had poor outcomes, and the MCDA triplet pregnancy was diagnosed intrapartum. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of continuing an MCDA triplet pregnancy should be recognized. Early diagnosis, regular antenatal care, close prenatal monitoring, and sufficient communication are recommended to obtain better perinatal outcomes in MCDA triplet pregnancies.


Assuntos
Membranas Extraembrionárias/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez de Trigêmeos , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Trigêmeos
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1294-1298, Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040127

RESUMO

La placenta es un anexo embrionario de los mamíferos que tiene por función principal el intercambio de nutrientes y gases y proteger al concepto de un potencial daño inmune provocado por diferencias alogénicas en los Complejos Principales de Histocompatibilidad paternos. Se han descrito diversas proteínas asociadas a su función, siendo Calreticulina una de ellas. Si bien existen estudios de la presencia de Calreticulina en placenta humana, no existen reportes de esta proteína en la placenta canina. Se obtuvieron muestras de placenta canina de las que se extrajo el contenido proteico total y se determinó la presencia de Calreticulina por western blot e inmunohistoquímica. Los resultados mostraron presencia de Calreticulina en placenta canina con un peso molecular aparente de 60 kDa, concordante con lo descrito para la molécula por otros autores. El análisis inmunohistoquímico mostró que Calreticulina canina está presente principalmente en el trofoblasto de las vellosidades, no existiendo diferencias en cuanto a su localización al compararla con placenta humana, pese a sus diferencias morfológicas e histológicas. Esta información permitirá establecer un protocolo estandarizado de extracción de Calreticulina desde placenta, así como orientar acerca de los posibles roles de esta molécula en la placenta.


The placenta is an embryonic organ present in mammals, whose main functions are the exchange of nutrients and gases and to protect the fetus from potential immune damage mediated by paternal and maternal allogeneic differences in the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Several proteins associated with its function have been described, being Calreticulin one of them. Although there are studies on the presence of Calreticulin in human placenta, there are no reports of this protein in canine placenta. Samples from canine placenta were obtained, proteins extracted and Calreticulin was subsequently detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed the presence of Calreticulin in canine placenta with an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa, in agreement with the results from other authors. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that canine Calreticulin is present mainly in the trophoblast of the villi, and there is no difference in its localization when compared with a blood-filled placenta such as human one, despite its morphological and histological differences. We also propose a standardized protocol for the extraction of Calreticulin from placenta, given its abundant expression in this organ. Future studies are aimed at elucidating possible roles of this protein in placenta.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Western Blotting
12.
Med Arch ; 73(4): 234-239, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762556

RESUMO

Introduction: Knowledge of the size of surfaces available for transport is important for assessing the amount of nutrients that can be transmitted to the fetus for its normal growth and development. Aim: The aim of our study, was to determine the stereological structural parameters of the parenchymal part of placenta, ratio of birth weight and placental weight, and to determine their correlation with the body length and head circumference of the newborns of adolescent pregnant women. Methods: The study was conducted on a total of 60 human placentas of term pregnancy, divided into two groups according to the age of pregnant women. The experimental group consisted of 30 placenta of pregnant women aged 13-19. The control group consisted of 30 placenta of pregnant women aged 20-35. Computer assisted morphological analysis of images of histological preparations using stereological methods was performed. Results: Surface density of terminal villi of adolescent placentas is significant higher than the control group (t = 14,179, df = 29, p <0,0001). The T-test (t = -5,868, df = 29, p <0,0001) showed statistically significant difference in the surface density of fibrinoid in two compared groups. T-test (t = 6.438, df = 29, p <0.0001) found that total surface of terminal villi was significantly higher in adolescent placentas. The T-test (t = -6,747, df = 29, p <0,0001) found that total surface of fibrinoid was significantly lower in adolescent group. The T-test (t = 4.203, df = 29, p <0.0001) found that the ratio of birth weight of newborn and adolescent placental weight was significantly higher in relation to the control group. Conclusion: Adolescent placentas was more efficient in increasing the weight of newborns, compared to the control group placentas.


Assuntos
Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Peso ao Nascer , Vilosidades Coriônicas/anatomia & histologia , Vilosidades Coriônicas/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Recém-Nascido , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 275: 108934, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600613

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is known to cause reproductive disturbances in several animal species, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. However, research on the effects of N. caninum on reproduction in pigs is limited. The objective of this study was to verify the transplacental transmission of N. caninum in pigs during several gestational stages. Twelve healthy Toxoplasma gondii and N. caninum seronegative female pigs were selected and separated into four groups of three animals each. Group A was maintained as a control group. Groups B, C, and D were inoculated intravenously with 2.9 × 107 tachyzoites of the N. caninum strain Nc1, 30 days before conception and at 45 and 90 days of gestation, respectively. Blood samples were collected from females periodically through IFAT for IgG and IgM screening to confirm the infection. At birth, after blood samples were collected from the piglets, they were then euthanized for the collection of the brain, heart, lung, liver, and diaphragm, which were then subjected to PCR. All inoculated gilts seroconverted (IgG) from the seventh day after inoculation. Nine of the 12 females expelled 24 mummified fetuses at the time of delivery, two in group A (eight), two in group B (four), three in group C (nine), and two in group D (three). Of the 24 mummified fetuses, nine were positive for N. caninum (one (25%) fetus of group B, seven (77.8%) of group C, and one (33.3%) of group D). A total of 126 live piglets were born. When the organs of the piglets from the inoculated females were analyzed by PCR for N. caninum, 88 (93.61%) were positive. All gilts inoculated produced at least one positive piglet. This demonstrates that there is transplacental transmission of N. caninum in all phases of gestation, regardless of the time of infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/patogenicidade , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Líquido Amniótico/imunologia , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Colostro/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Leite/imunologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Plasma/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Saliva/imunologia , Soro/imunologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Suínos
14.
In Vivo ; 33(5): 1703-1706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: For many years clinical research has been concerned with doppler sonography as a non-invasive tool for intrauterine fetal status assessment. A new focus is now placed on the measurement of cerebroplacental index (CPR) as a predictor of fetal outcome. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR), the delivery mode and the fetal outcome in singleton pregnancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pregnancies in which doppler sonography of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) was conducted up to 9 weeks before delivery took place. Patients with pathological (CPR≤1.0) and normal CPR (>1.0) were compared by umbilical cord pH, APGAR scores, birth weight, delivery week and delivery mode. RESULTS: A total of 2,270 singleton pregnancies were included. The APGAR score for 1, 5 and 10 minutes and the gestational age at delivery were significantly lower in the group of patients with pathological CPR (p<0.001). Overall, 50% of the cohort had a cesarean section, the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.001), with a higher amount of cesareans in the group of patients with pathological CPR. The multiple regression analysis showed a significantly improved pH of delivery when cesarean section (p<0.001), female sex of fetus (p=0.013) and higher CPR (p=0.035) were present. CONCLUSION: The measurement of CPR is an important, non-invasive predictive parameter and leads to the identification of a risk collective even in the non-selected patient population and thus probably to a reduction of perinatal morbidity.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Índice de Apgar , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
15.
Ginekol Pol ; 90(8): 452-457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder during pregnancy. Cholestasisis associated with increased risk of fetal complications: prematurity, perinatal hypoxia and meconium stained amnioticfluid, and sudden intrauterine fetal death. The exact mechanisms associated with cholestasis fetal sequelae are not fullyunderstood. The aim of the study was the histopathological evaluation of placentas from patients with cholestasis andhealthy pregnant women to establish whether cholestasis is accompanied by changes in placental microstructure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of cholestasis on placental microstructure was investigated using placental tissue frompatients with cholestatsis treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and from uncomplicated pregnancies. Five placentalhistopathological features were analyzed: number of syncytial knots, number of capillaries per villous, structure of stroma,presence of Hofbauer cells, and villitis of unknown etiology. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied parameters between cholestasis-affectedand healthy control groups. CONCLUSIONS: There are no diffrences in placental microstructure in cholestasis patients treated with UDCA and in patientswith uncomplicated pregnancy.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática/fisiopatologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109148, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347503

RESUMO

Development and implementation of products incorporating nanoparticles are occurring at a rapid pace. These particles are widely utilized in domestic, occupational, and biomedical applications. Currently, it is unclear if pregnant women will be able to take advantage of the potential biomedical nanoproducts out of concerns associated with placental transfer and fetal interactions. We recently developed an ex vivo rat placental perfusion technique to allow for the evaluation of xenobiotic transfer and placental physiological perturbations. In this study, a segment of the uterine horn and associated placenta was isolated from pregnant (gestational day 20) Sprague-Dawley rats and placed into a modified pressure myography vessel chamber. The proximal and distal ends of the maternal uterine artery and the vessels of the umbilical cord were cannulated, secured, and perfused with physiological salt solution (PSS). The proximal uterine artery and umbilical artery were pressurized at 80 mmHg and 50 mmHg, respectively, to allow countercurrent flow through the placenta. After equilibration, a single 900 µL bolus dose of 20 nm gold engineered nanoparticles (Au-ENM) was introduced into the proximal maternal artery. Distal uterine and umbilical vein effluents were collected every 10 min for 180 min to measure placental fluid dynamics. The quantification of Au-ENM transfer was conducted via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, we were able to measure Au-ENM within uterine and umbilical effluent with 20 min of material infusion. This novel methodology may be widely incorporated into studies of pharmacology, toxicology, and placental physiology.


Assuntos
Ouro/farmacologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Perfusão , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349643

RESUMO

Minimizing exposure of the fetus to medication and reducing adverse off-target effects in the mother are the primary challenges in developing novel drugs to treat pregnancy complications. Nanomedicine has introduced opportunities for the development of novel platforms enabling targeted delivery of drugs in pregnancy. This review sets out to discuss the advances and potential of surface-functionalized nanoparticles in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications. We first describe the human placental anatomy, which is fundamental for developing placenta-targeted therapy, and then we review current knowledge of nanoparticle transplacental transport mechanisms. Meanwhile, recent surface-functionalized nanoparticles for targeting the uterus and placenta are examined. Indeed, surface-functionalized nanoparticles could help prevent transplacental passage and promote placental-specific drug delivery, thereby enhancing efficacy and improving safety. We have achieved promising results in targeting the placenta via placental chondroitin sulfate A (plCSA), which is exclusively expressed in the placenta, using plCSA binding peptide (plCSA-BP)-decorated nanoparticles. Others have also focused on using placenta- and uterus-enriched molecules as targets to deliver therapeutics via surface-functionalized nanoparticles. Additionally, we propose that placenta-specific exosomes and surface-modified exosomes might be potential tools in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications. Altogether, surface-functionalized nanoparticles have great potential value as clinical tools in the targeted therapy of pregnancy complications.


Assuntos
Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Nanopartículas , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Transporte Biológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Nanopartículas/química , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
18.
Vet J ; 249: 80-81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239170

RESUMO

Combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) has been used for many years to assess fetal well-being and placental health in the mare and most recently the combined thickness of the uterus and interplacentome region (CTUIR) in water buffalo. The aim of this study was to develop normal reference ranges in regards to the CTUIR in 25 Holstein cows throughout pregnancy. The CTUIR was measured every 30 days from 60 days of gestation until 270 days of gestation. Measurements were obtained by transrectal ultrasonography with the position of the ultrasound probe being placed cranial and lateral to the cervix. CTUIR measurements increased every month beginning with an average of 4.6mm at 60 days and culminating with an average thickness of 11.7mm at 270 days of gestation. The greatest increases in CTUIR thickness occurred during the first and second trimesters.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Placenta ; 82: 46-56, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The wildebeest is a populous African ungulate, but despite its wide distribution within that continent few reports exist on the structure and endocrine functions of its placenta. METHODS: The pregnant uteri of 43 Blue Wildebeest estimated to be at less than 70 days of the 8 month gestation period were examined grossly and histologically. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The cervix divided into left and right components which eliminated any connection between the uterine horns and limited conceptus development and placentation to the single ipsilateral horn. The placenta was typically ruminant synepitheliochorial macrocotyledonary with numerous flat placentomes developing in the gravid horn. Appreciable quantities of exocrine secretion were accumulated in the lumen of both gravid and non-gravid uterine horns and proliferation of the trophoblast into presumptive villi was evident between the placentomes. The single corpus luteum of pregnancy persisted unchanged during the period of gestation monitored and the mononuclear trophoblast cells of the intercotyledonary, but not the cotyledonary, allantochorion stained strongly for 3-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase indicating their likely secretion of progesterone. The binucleate trophoblast cells stained positively with antisera raised against placenta-associated glycoprotein and bovine placental lactogen. Neither the maternal corpus luteum or the allantochorion showed immunohistochemical staining for cytochrome P450 aromatase.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Útero/fisiologia
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3479-3496, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049600

RESUMO

Abnormal placentation is considered as an underlying cause of various pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, the latter increasing the risk for the development of severe disorders in later life such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms governing human placental formation and trophoblast cell lineage specification and differentiation have been poorly unravelled, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cellular model systems. However, over the past few years major progress has been made by establishing self-renewing human trophoblast stem cells and 3-dimensional organoids from human blastocysts and early placental tissues opening the path for detailed molecular investigations. Herein, we summarize the present knowledge about human placental development, its stem cells, progenitors and differentiated cell types in the trophoblast epithelium and the villous core. Anatomy of the early placenta, current model systems, and critical key regulatory factors and signalling cascades governing placentation will be elucidated. In this context, we will discuss the role of the developmental pathways Wingless and Notch, controlling trophoblast stemness/differentiation and formation of invasive trophoblast progenitors, respectively.


Assuntos
Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Placentação , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Trofoblastos/citologia
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