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2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 8, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436098

RESUMO

For more than a century, the prenatal environment was considered sterile. Over the last few years, findings obtained with next-generation sequencing approaches from samples of the placenta, the amniotic fluid, meconium, and even fetal tissues have challenged the dogma of a sterile womb, and additional reports have emerged that used culture, microscopy, and quantitative PCR to support the presence of a low-biomass microbial community at prenatal sites. Given the substantial implications of prenatal exposure to microbes for the development and health of the host, the findings have gathered substantial interest from academics, high impact journals, the public press, and funding agencies. However, an increasing number of studies have challenged the prenatal microbiome identifying contamination as a major issue, and scientists that remained skeptical have pointed to inconsistencies with in utero colonization, the impact of c-sections on early microbiome assembly, and the ability to generate germ-free mammals. A lively academic controversy has emerged on the existence of the wider importance of prenatal microbial communities. Microbiome has asked experts to discuss these issues and provide their thoughts on the implications. To allow for a broader perspective of this discussion, we have specifically selected scientists, who have a long-standing expertise in microbiome sciences but who have not directly been involved in the debate so far.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mecônio/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Útero/microbiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008982, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370309

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging and globally spread zoonosis caused by pathogenic genomospecies of Leptospira. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are an important Leptospira host and are increasing in population all over Europe. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate Leptospira spp. infection in the reproductive systems of wild boar hunted in two Italian regions: Tuscany and Sardinia. From 231 animals, reproductive system tissue samples (testicles, epididymides, uteri) as well as placentas and fetuses were collected. Bacteriological examination and Real-Time PCR were performed to detect pathogenic Leptospira (lipL32 gene). Leptospires were isolated from the testicles and epididymides of one adult and two subadult wild boar. Four isolates from the two subadult males were identified as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis by MLST, whereas Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Grippotyphosa was identified from the adult testicles and epididymis. Using Real-Time PCR, 70 samples were positive: 22 testicles (23.16%) and 22 epididymides (23.16%), 10 uteri (7.35%), 3 placentas (6.66%), and 13 fetuses (28.88%). Amplification of the rrs2 gene identified L. interrogans and L. kirschneri species. The results from this investigation confirmed that wild boar represent a potential source of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Isolation of Leptospira serogroups Australis and Grippotyphosa from the male reproductive system and the positive Real-Time PCR results from both male and female samples could suggest venereal transmission, as already demonstrated in pigs. Furthermore, placentas and fetuses were positive for the lipL32 target, and this finding may be related to a possible vertical transmission of pathogenic Leptospira.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Epididimo/microbiologia , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/microbiologia , Testículo/microbiologia , Útero/microbiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22152, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) produces numerous problems for maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of GDM are not clear. METHODS: In our study, we randomly assigned 22 pregnant women with fasting glucose concentrations, 1 hour oral glucose tolerance test (1H-OGTT) and 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (2H-OGTT), different than 28 normal pregnant women from a sample of 107 pregnant women at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University in China. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured from blood plasma of pregnant women and umbilical arteries using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E), Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson staining were performed to examine whether diabetes mellitus altered the morphology of placenta. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were performed to examine whether diabetes mellitus and autophagy altered the gene expressions of the placental tissue. RESULTS: We found that women with GDM exhibited increased placental weight and risk of neonatal infection. The concentrations of IL-6 protein and IL-8 protein in GDM were increased in both maternal and umbilical arterial blood. H&E, Masson and PAS staining results showed an increased number of placental villi and glycogen deposition in patients with GDM, but no placental sclerosis was found. Q-PCR results suggested that the expression levels of HIF-1α and the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/ myeloid differential protein-88 (MyD88)/ nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway were increased in the GDM placenta. Through Western Blotting, we found that the expression of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IKBα) and Nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in GDM placenta was significantly enhanced. We also showed that the key autophagy-related genes, autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), were increased in GDM compared with normal pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that women with GDM exhibit an increased risk of neonatal infection via inflammation and autophagy in the placenta.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Placenta/patologia , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/sangue
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925983

RESUMO

The placental membranes that surround the fetus during pregnancy were suggested to contain a low abundance microbiota. Specifically, abundance of Lactobacillus, a probiotic and dominant member of the microbiome of the lower reproductive tract, has been shown to correlate with healthy, term pregnancies. We therefore sought to assess the interactions between four different Lactobacillus strains with immortalized decidualized endometrial cells (dT-HESCs), which were used as a model to represent the outermost layer of the placental membranes. Notably, we demonstrated that all four Lactobacillus strains could associate with dT-HESCs in vitro. L. crispatus was significantly more successful (p < 0.00005), with 10.6% of bacteria attaching to the host cells compared to an average of 0.8% for the remaining three strains. The four strains also varied in their ability to form biofilms. Dependent on media type, L. reuteri 6475 formed the strongest biofilms in vitro. To examine the impact on immune responses, levels of total and phosphorylated protein p38, a member of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway, were examined following Lactobacillus association with dT-HESCs. Total levels of p38 were reduced to an average of 44% that of the cells without Lactobacillus (p < 0.05). While a trend towards a reduction in phosphorylated p38 was observed, this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, association with Lactobacillus did not result in increased host cell death. Collectively, these data suggest that varying types of Lactobacillus can attach to the outermost cells of the placental membranes and that these interactions do not contribute to inflammatory responses or host cell death. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro study to support the ability of Lactobacillus to interact with placental cells, which is important when considering its use as a potential probiotic within the reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Placenta/microbiologia , Biofilmes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/patogenicidade , Microbiota , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776951

RESUMO

Until recently the in utero environment of pregnant women was considered sterile. Recent high-sensitivity molecular techniques and high-throughput sequencing lead to some evidence for a low-biomass microbiome associated with the healthy placenta. Other studies failed to reveal evidence for a consistent presence of bacteria using either culture or molecular based techniques. Comparing conflicting "placental microbiome" studies is complicated by the use of varied and inconsistent protocols. Given this situation, we undertook an evaluation of the in utero environment sterility using several controlled methods, in the same study, to evaluate the presence or absence of bacteria and to explain contradictions present in the literature. Healthy pregnant women (n = 38) were recruited in three maternity wards. Placenta were collected after cesarean section with or without Alexis® and vaginal delivery births. For this study we sampled fetal membranes, umbilical cord and chorionic villi. Bacterial presence was analyzed using bacterial culture and qPCR on 34 fetal membranes, umbilical cord and chorionic villi samples. Shotgun metagenomics was performed on seven chorionic villi samples. We showed that the isolation of meaningful quantities of viable bacteria or bacterial DNA was possible only outside the placenta (fetal membranes and umbilical cords) highlighting the importance of sampling methods in studying the in utero environment. Bacterial communities described by metagenomics analysis were similar in chorionic villi samples and in negative controls and were dependent on the database chosen for the analysis. We conclude that the placenta does not harbor a specific, consistent and functional microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Vilosidades Coriônicas/microbiologia , Membranas Extraembrionárias/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Cordão Umbilical/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Cesárea , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota , Gravidez , Manejo de Espécimes
8.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 85(3): 277-283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The existence of a placental microbiome would require a non-antagonistic relationship between potentially colonizing bacteria and trophoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The immunologic response of trophoblasts to specific potentially invading bacteria needs further analysis. METHODOLOGY: Immortalized first trimester human trophoblasts Swan 71 (Sw.71) were coincubated with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus crispatus, and incubated alone (i.e., control group; 4 conditions with n = 6 for each condition). Chemokines and cytokines were measured. ANOVA with post hoc pairwise analysis was used to compare cytokines/chemokines concentrations in the 4 culture media. RESULTS: Sw.71 co-incubated with E. coli, L. jensenii or L. crispatus resulted in differential secretion of 11 of the 26 assayed cytokines/chemokines. Sw.71 co-incubated with any of the 3 bacteria responded with significant increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. All bacteria elicited the secretion of IL-6 and interferon (IFN) α2, 2 proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, Lactobacillus species resulted in increased secretion of IL-12p40 and IFNγ. While E. coli did not modify secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, Sw.71 cells responded to co-incubation with Lactobacillus species by secreting increased levels of IL-10 and IL-1ra. Both Lactobacillus species led to a decreased secretion of IL-4. CONCLUSION: All 3 bacterial species triggered significant release of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that a commensal relationship with trophoblasts may not be feasible.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Secreções Corporais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/citologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/imunologia
9.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069822

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory function is not only the foremost determinant of life after premature birth, but also a major factor of long-term outcomes. However, the path from placental disconnection to nutritional autonomy is enduring and challenging for the preterm infant and, at each step, will have profound influences on respiratory physiology and disease. Fluid and energy intake, specific nutrients such as amino-acids, lipids and vitamins, and their ways of administration -parenteral or enteral-have direct implications on lung tissue composition and cellular functions, thus affect lung development and homeostasis and contributing to acute and chronic respiratory disorders. In addition, metabolomic signatures have recently emerged as biomarkers of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other neonatal diseases, suggesting a profound implication of specific metabolites such as amino-acids, acylcarnitine and fatty acids in lung injury and repair, inflammation and immune modulation. Recent advances have highlighted the profound influence of the microbiome on many short- and long-term outcomes in the preterm infant. Lung and intestinal microbiomes are deeply intricated, and nutrition plays a prominent role in their establishment and regulation. There is an emerging evidence that human milk prevents bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants, potentially through microbiome composition and/or inflammation modulation. Restoring antibiotic therapy-mediated microbiome disruption is another potentially beneficial action of human milk, which can be in part emulated by pre- and probiotics and supplements. This review will explore the many facets of the gut-lung axis and its pathophysiology in acute and chronic respiratory disorders of the prematurely born infant, and explore established and innovative nutritional approaches for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/microbiologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia
10.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 47(1): 133-146, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008664

RESUMO

Congenital infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low-income settings. This review discusses the main pathways of infections and associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, considering the TORCH pathogens, including Zika virus; the acronym stands for Toxoplasma gondii infection, other (Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19, among others, including Zika virus), rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102944

RESUMO

The existence of a placental microbiota and in utero colonization of the fetus have been the subjects of recent debate. The objective of this study was to determine whether the placental and fetal tissues of mice harbor bacterial communities. Bacterial profiles of the placenta and fetal brain, lung, liver, and intestine samples were characterized through culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These profiles were compared to those of the maternal mouth, lung, liver, uterus, cervix, vagina, and intestine, as well as to background technical controls. Positive bacterial cultures from placental and fetal tissue samples were rare; of the 165 total bacterial cultures of placental tissue samples from the 11 mice included in this study, only nine yielded at least a single colony, and five of those nine positive cultures came from a single mouse. Cultures of fetal intestinal tissue samples yielded just a single bacterial isolate, Staphylococcus hominis, a common skin bacterium. Bacterial loads of placental and fetal brain, lung, liver, and intestinal tissues were not higher than those of DNA contamination controls and did not yield substantive 16S rRNA gene sequencing libraries. From all placental or fetal tissue samples (n = 51), there was only a single bacterial isolate that came from a fetal brain sample having a bacterial load higher than that of contamination controls and that was identified in sequence-based surveys of at least one of its corresponding maternal samples. Therefore, using multiple modes of microbiological inquiry, there was not consistent evidence of bacterial communities in the placental and fetal tissues of mice.IMPORTANCE The prevailing paradigm in obstetrics has been the sterile womb hypothesis, which posits that fetuses are first colonized by microorganisms during the delivery process. However, some are now suggesting that fetuses are consistently colonized in utero by microorganisms from microbial communities that inhabit the placenta and intra-amniotic environment. Given the established causal role of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (i.e., intra-amniotic infection) in pregnancy complications, especially preterm birth, if the in utero colonization hypothesis were true, there are several aspects of current understanding that will need to be reconsidered; these aspects include the magnitude of intra-amniotic microbial load required to cause disease and its potential influence on the ontogeny of the immune system. However, acceptance of the in utero colonization hypothesis is premature. Herein, we do not find consistent evidence for placental and fetal microbiota in mice using culture, qPCR, and DNA sequencing.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Placenta/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Boca/microbiologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vagina/microbiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906588

RESUMO

Pregnancy induces a number of immunological, hormonal, and metabolic changes that are necessary for the mother to adapt her body to this new physiological situation. The microbiome of the mother, the placenta and the fetus influence the fetus growth and undoubtedly plays a major role in the adequate development of the newborn infant. Hence, the microbiome modulates the inflammatory mechanisms related to physiological and pathological processes that are involved in the perinatal progress through different mechanisms. The present review summarizes the actual knowledge related to physiological changes in the microbiota occurring in the mother, the fetus, and the child, both during neonatal period and beyond. In addition, we approach some specific pathological situations during the perinatal periods, as well as the influence of the type of delivery and feeding.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota , Placenta/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion is a major source of economic losses in cattle breeding. Abortion occurs due to a wide range of causes, but infections are the most frequently diagnosed. However, establishing an aetiological diagnosis remains challenging due to the large variety of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi that have been associated with abortion in cattle. Economic restraints limit the range of diagnostic methods available for routine diagnostics, and decomposition of the conceptus or lack of proper fetal and/or maternal samples further restrict the diagnostic success. In this study, we report recent diagnostic findings from bovine abortions in Denmark, a country that has a large dairy sector and is free from most infectious agents causing epizootic abortion in cattle. The aims of the study were: (i) to identify infectious causes of bovine abortion in Denmark, (ii) to categorise the diagnostic findings based on the level of diagnostic certainty, and (iii) to assess the diagnostic rate. Due to economic restraints, only a limited panel of routine diagnostic methods were available. Placentas and/or fetuses from mid- to late-term abortions and stillbirths (n = 162) were submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute between January 2015 and June 2017. The aborted materials were examined macroscopically, histologically, and by bacterial culture. Maternal blood samples were tested for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibodies. RESULTS: The likely aetiology of the abortion was diagnosed in 52 cases, resulting in a diagnostic rate of 33%. The most common cause was protozoal infection (19%) followed by infection with Trueperella pyogenes (3%), Staphylococcus aureus (2%), and non-haemolytic Escherichia coli (2%). Lesions in fetuses with a protozoal infection were consistent with neosporosis. In many cases (38%), inflammatory changes were found in the placenta and/or fetal organs but no specific aetiology was identified. Neither infection with Brucella spp. nor maternal BVDV antibodies were detected. The majority of submitting herds (92%) were each represented by fewer than three abortion cases over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Protozoal infection, most likely neosporosis, was the most commonly diagnosed cause of abortion and the only one associated with potential epizootic abortion events. Despite using a reduced number of diagnostic methods in comparison to other abortion studies, the diagnostic rate of this study was within the range reported in an earlier Danish study, as well as in recent international studies. The low number of submitted cases per herd and the sparse anamnestic information provided at submission hampered conclusions on the potential epizootic character of the abortion events in question.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Placenta , Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bovinos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Feto/microbiologia , Feto/parasitologia , Feto/virologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Placenta/virologia , Gravidez , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/complicações , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
15.
Gut ; 69(3): 513-522, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the malignant metabolic diseases that complicate pregnancy. Gut dysbiosis has been identified for causing metabolic diseases, but the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of PE remains unknown. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study to compare the faecal microbiome of PE and normotensive pregnant women by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. To address the causative relationship between gut dysbiosis and PE, we used faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in an antibiotic-treated mouse model. Finally, we determined the microbiome translocation and immune responses in human and mouse placental samples by 16S rRNA sequencing, quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: Patients with PE showed reduced bacterial diversity with obvious dysbiosis. Opportunistic pathogens, particularly Fusobacterium and Veillonella, were enriched, whereas beneficial bacteria, including Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia, were markedly depleted in the PE group. The abundances of these discriminative bacteria were correlated with blood pressure (BP), proteinuria, aminotransferase and creatinine levels. On successful colonisation, the gut microbiome from patients with PE triggered a dramatic, increased pregestational BP of recipient mice, which further increased after gestation. In addition, the PE-transplanted group showed increased proteinuria, embryonic resorption and lower fetal and placental weights. Their T regulatory/helper-17 balance in the small intestine and spleen was disturbed with more severe intestinal leakage. In the placenta of both patients with PE and PE-FMT mice, the total bacteria, Fusobacterium, and inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the gut microbiome of patients with PE is dysbiotic and contributes to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocinas/genética , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Faecalibacterium , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Reabsorção do Feto/microbiologia , Fusobactérias , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Proteinúria/urina , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th17 , Veillonella
16.
J Perinatol ; 40(2): 306-315, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infection of the placenta has been associated with preterm birth as well as neurocognitive impairment. This study aimed to determine whether specific bacterial species in the placenta of extremely preterm pregnancies are associated with neurological deficits later in life. STUDY DESIGN: Using data from 807 children in the ELGAN study the risks of a low score on six neurological assessments in relation to 15 different microbes were quantified with odds ratios. RESULTS: The presence of certain microbial species in the placenta was associated with lower scores on numerical and oral language assessments. Lactobacillus sp. was associated with decreased risk of a low oral language score and a composite measure of IQ and executive function. CONCLUSION: Placental microorganisms were associated with neurocognitive, but not social-communicative, outcomes at age 10. In contrast, the presence of the anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus sp. in the placenta was associated with a lower risk of impaired neurocognitive functions.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Inteligência , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(1): H1-H10, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626558

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder that can be life threatening for both mother and baby. It is characterized by a new onset hypertension during the second half of pregnancy and affects ~300,000 women in the United States every year. There is no cure for PE, and the only effective treatment is delivery of the placenta and the fetus, which is often preterm. PE is believed to be a severe manifestation of placental dysfunction due to early angiogenic imbalances and inflammatory disturbances; however, the cause of this is unknown. The once thought "sterile" placenta now has been proposed to have a unique microbiome of its own. Under ideal conditions, the microbiome represents a balanced bacterial community that is important to the maintenance of a healthy environment. Dysbiosis of these communities may lead to inflammation that potentially contributes to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and PE. Thus far, the female reproductive tract microbiome has been found to be influenced by periodontal disease, cardiometabolic complications, and maternal obesity, all of which have been identified as contributors to PE. This review will look at the maternal reproductive tract microbiome, evidence for and against, and its role in pregnancy and PE-related events as well as data from relevant mouse models that could be useful for further investigating the influence of the reproductive tract microbiome on the pathogenesis of PE.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Microbiota , Placenta/microbiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Útero/microbiologia , Animais , Comorbidade , Disbiose , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Materna , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
BJOG ; 127(2): 147-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587490

RESUMO

The female reproductive tract represents a continuum between the vagina and the upper genital tract. New evidence from cultivation-independent studies suggests that the female upper genital tract is not sterile; however, the significance of this for reproductive health and disease remains to be elucidated fully. Further, diagnosis and treatment of infectious reproductive tract pathologies using cultivation-independent technologies represents a largely unchartered area of modern medical science. The challenge now is to design well-controlled experiments to account for the ease of contamination known to confound molecular-based studies of low-biomass niches, including the uterus and placenta. This will support robust assessment of the potential function of microorganisms, microbial metabolites, and cell-free bacterial DNA on reproductive function in health and disease. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Molecular microbial studies of low-biomass niches require stringent experimental controls to reveal causal relations in reproductive health and disease.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Metagenômica , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vagina/imunologia
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(3): 338-343, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) eradicates peripheral and placental malaria and improves birth weight. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 426 pregnant mothers on IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against malaria who presented in labor, at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria between January and June 2017. The hospital is within the malaria-endemic zone of West Africa. Consenting pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy who had antenatal care in the hospital and lived in the study area for at least 6 months were consecutively recruited. Peripheral and placental blood were collected and examined for malaria parasite by microscopy. Babies were weighed at birth. RESULTS: The prevalence of peripheral malaria parasitemia and placental parasitization were 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.0-16.6) and 9.4% (95% CI 7.0-12.7), respectively. Parasite density in both peripheral parasitemia and placental parasitization was low among the women that took IPTp, decreasing with increasing doses, with no parasitemia or parasitization in women that took up to three doses. Birth weight was lower in babies of mothers with plasmodium infestation than in those without infestation (P<0.001, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: IPTp reduces both peripheral parasitemia and placental parasitization, with the capacity to eliminate or prevent them. IPTp also reduces low birth weight.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Placenta/microbiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Transversais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
20.
BJOG ; 127(2): 159-169, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To resolve the controversy regarding the presence of a microbiota in the placenta. DESIGN: Classical and molecular microbiological study. SETTING: All samples were collected during caesarean section. POPULATION: A total of 28 human placentas and six murine placentas. METHODS: All 28 human placentas were checked for 16S rRNA gene amplification products. Three locations from four selected human placentas and three 'environmental controls' for each placenta were placed in seven culture media. The four selected human placentas were further analysed using Gram stain, immunohistochemistry for bacteria, electron microscopy, and TaqMan RT-qPCR. Six placentas from three SPF mice were cut into four pieces each, and further analysed for 16S rRNA gene amplification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Microbiological and molecular evidence of bacteria. RESULTS: None of the placental cultures used for the full analysis, or their environmental cultures, was positive for bacterial growth. None of the other methods showed any evidence of bacteria. Immunohistochemistry showed negligible bacterial counts. None of the murine placentas showed evidence of 16S rRNA gene amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that the fetal environment in the womb is sterile. Based on the immunohistochemistry and the limit of detection of the other methods used, if a placental microbiome exists, it is of extreme low biomass, and thus its effect on clinical phenotypes is probably minor, if it exists at all. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Using several microbiological and molecular methods in parallel, we found no compelling evidence of bacteria in human and mouse placentas.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , Placenta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/fisiologia , Líquido Amniótico/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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