Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.465
Filtrar
1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 50, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walkability indices have been developed and linked to behavioural and health outcomes elsewhere in the world, but not comprehensively for Europe. We aimed to 1) develop a theory-based and evidence-informed Dutch walkability index, 2) examine its cross-sectional associations with total and purpose-specific walking behaviours of adults across socioeconomic (SES) and urbanisation strata, 3) explore which walkability components drive these associations. METHODS: Components of the index included: population density, retail and service density, land use mix, street connectivity, green space, sidewalk density and public transport density. Each of the seven components was calculated for three Euclidean buffers: 150 m, 500 m and 1000 m around every 6-digit postal code location and for every administrative neighbourhood in GIS. Componential z-scores were averaged, and final indices normalized between 0 and 100. Data on self-reported demographic characteristics and walking behaviours of 16,055 adult respondents (aged 18-65) were extracted from the Dutch National Travel Survey 2017. Using Tobit regression modelling adjusted for individual- and household-level confounders, we assessed the associations between walkability and minutes walking in total, for non-discretionary and discretionary purposes. By assessing the attenuation in associations between partial indices and walking outcomes, we identified which of the seven components drive these associations. We also tested for effect modification by urbanization degree, SES, age and sex. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, a 10% increase in walkability was associated with a maximum increase of 8.5 min of total walking per day (95%CI: 7.1-9.9). This association was consistent across buffer sizes and purposes of walking. Public transport density was driving the index's association with walking outcomes. Stratified results showed that associations with minutes of non-discretionary walking were stronger in rural compared to very urban areas, in neighbourhoods with low SES compared to high SES, and in middle-aged (36-49 years) compared to young (18-35 years old) and older adults (50-65 years old). CONCLUSIONS: The walkability index was cross-sectionally associated with Dutch adult's walking behaviours, indicating its validity for further use in research.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503760

RESUMO

The built environment plays a key role in promoting active mobility for healthy aging. Encouraging active mobility among older adults, however, can be especially challenging in more rural areas where distances tend to be longer and infrastructure is favoring car traffic. The association of older adults' perception of attributes of the built environment with cycling and e-biking for transport was investigated. The potential moderating effects of age, sex, and mobility impairments were explored. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in towns and communities of <100,000 inhabitants, including 2,144 participants (mean age: 74; 53% men). Three different cycling outcomes (any cycling/e-biking, frequency (≥3 days/week) and amount (minutes/week)) were analyzed among all cyclists and e-bike users separately, resulting in six dependent variables. The impact of ten environmental attributes on these outcomes was analyzed in separate models. Overall, street connectivity, and the proximity and number of destinations were most important. Only street connectivity and traffic safety were related to minutes cycling or e-biking per week. Cycling amount was higher overall for e-biking but fewer environmental attributes showed an association compared to any cycling, regardless of bicycle type. Traffic safety was not associated with four out of the six cycling outcomes and was inversely associated with minutes cycling or e-biking. Density was not related to any of the variables investigated. Several interaction effects of sex, age, and mobility impairments were found. Further research is needed on environmental attributes influencing e-bike use, the most important types of destinations, and a more differentiated assessment of perceived traffic safety in older adults.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Idoso , Ambiente Construído , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Transportes , Caminhada
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 170: 106644, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367897

RESUMO

Traffic conflict techniques represent the state-of-the-art for road safety assessments. However, the lack of research on transferability of conflict-based crash risk models, which refers to applying the developed crash risk estimation models to a set of external sites, can reduce their appeal for large-scale traffic safety evaluations. Therefore, this study investigates the transferability of multivariate peak-over threshold models for estimating crash frequency-by-severity. In particular, the study proposes two transferability approaches: (i) an uncalibrated approach involving a direct application of the uncalibrated base model to the target sites and (ii) a threshold calibration approach involving calibration of conflict thresholds of the conflict indicators. In the latter approach, the conflict thresholds of the Modified Time-To-Collision (MTTC) and Delta-V indicators were calibrated using local data from the target sites. Finally, the two transferability approaches were compared with a complete re-estimation approach where all the model parameters were estimated using local data. All three approaches were tested for a target set of signalized intersections in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Traffic movements at the target intersections were observed using video cameras for two days (12 h each day). The road user trajectories and rear-end conflicts were extracted using an automated artificial intelligence-based algorithm utilizing state-of-the-art Computer Vision methods. The base models developed in an earlier study were then transferred to the target sites using the two transferability approaches and the local data from the target sites. Results show that the threshold calibration approach provides the most accurate and precise predictions of crash frequency-by-severity for target sites. Thus, for peak-over threshold models, the threshold parameter is the most important, and its calibration improves the performance of the base models. The complete re-estimation of models for individual target sites yields inferior fits and less precise crash estimates than the two transferability approaches since they utilize fewer traffic conflict extremes in their development than the larger dataset utilized in base model development. Therefore, the study results can significantly advance the applicability of traffic conflict models for crash risk estimation at transport facilities.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Inteligência Artificial , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Calibragem , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança
4.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 34(2): 237-253, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400308

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Age-friendly planning should not fall to local departments of senior services only.Planning coordination of age-friendly policy results in more diverse outcomes.Mapping is a tool helping policy makers visualize alternative opportunities.Maps give stakeholders the ability to track and monitor progress.This approach is easily replicable for cities implementing age-friendly programs.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Planejamento Ambiental , Cidades , Humanos , Política Pública , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 171: 106668, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413613

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that in countries with low cycling rates, a barrier to cycling is the perception that cycling is unsafe. Unfortunately, this perception is accurate in many places, and protected cycle lanes have been advocated as a possible solution. Although some research shows that people tend to feel safer in them, there have been conflicting results regarding protected cycle lanes' safety benefits. Understanding the reasons protected cycle lanes may actually reduce safety is key to promoting active transport modes. One possible reason crash rates may increase is that cyclists may cycle faster in them due to either a decreased mental workload or from reduced perceptions of risk. In the present research, two studies were conducted to examine cyclists' speeds and perceptions of difficulty and safety in both protected and unprotected cycle lanes, as well as streets with no cycle lanes. The first study was an online questionnaire using short video clips from a cyclist's perspective, and the second study was an on-road experiment with a post-ride questionnaire. The studies found that cyclists felt safer with protected cycle lanes, were more willing to allow their children to bike on them and showed less concern towards hazards. There was no evidence of decreased attentional demand while using the protected cycle lanes, but there was some evidence of higher maximum cycling speeds.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ciclismo , Criança , Emoções , Humanos
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 171: 106663, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439685

RESUMO

Right-turn movements (equivalent to left turn movements for countries that drive on the right) at intersections are among the most complex driving maneuvers and require a high level of attention for turning across (potentially) oncoming traffic by accepting a safe gap. Not surprisingly, right-turn-involved crashes are one of the most frequent collision types at intersections (e.g., 42% of all signalised intersection crashes in Queensland, Australia). Unfortunately, the causes and contributing factors to right-turn crashes are not well understood, particularly the effect of right-turn signal strategies on the crash risk. In the safety literature, signal strategies are coarsely considered in two generic categories-protected right-turns and permitted right-turns. In reality, right-turn signal strategies could be of various types (usually 5) based on the level of intersection complexity and potential traffic conflicts. The effects of these signal strategies, along with the geometric and traffic factors, have not been well studied. To fill this gap, this study investigates the effects of right-turn signal strategies, intersection geometry and traffic operations factors on right-turn crashes at signalised intersections. To achieve this aim, crash frequency models were estimated using crash data from 221 signalised intersections in Queensland from the years spanning 2012 to 2018. Hierarchical Poisson Regression Models (random intercept models) were employed to capture the hierarchical structure of influences on crashes, with upper-level capturing intersection characteristics and lower-level capturing approach characteristics. The hierarchical model structure, disaggregate exposure variables, and signal strategies examined in this study give rise to an entirely unique study in the literature.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção , Austrália , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Queensland
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409927

RESUMO

Urban greenspace provides opportunities for outdoor exercise and may increase physical activity, with accompanying health benefits. Areas suitable for walking (walkability) are also associated with increased physical activity, but interactions with greenspace are poorly understood. We investigated associations of walkability and green walkability with physical activity in an urban adult cohort. We used cross-sectional data from Greater London UK Biobank participants (n = 57,726) and assessed walkability along roads and footpaths within 1000 m of their residential addresses. Additionally, we assessed green walkability by integrating trees and low-lying vegetation into the walkability index. Physical activity outcomes included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity and active transport. We assessed associations using log-linear, logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for individual- and area-level confounders. Higher green walkability was associated with favourable International Physical Activity Questionnaire responses and achievement of weekly UK government physical activity guideline recommendations. Participants living in the highest versus lowest quintile of green walkability participated in 2.41 min (95% confidence intervals: 0.22, 4.60) additional minutes of moderate-and-vigorous physical activity per day. Higher walkability and green walkability scores were also associated with choosing active transport modes such as walking and cycling. Our green walkability approach demonstrates the utility in accounting for walkability and greenspace simultaneously to understand the role of the built environment on physical activity.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Planejamento Ambiental , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Londres , Características de Residência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457402

RESUMO

This article aims to analyze the factors affecting the LOS (level of service) of non-motorized vehicles crossing the signalized intersection and to construct an appropriate method to evaluate the LOS. Aiming at the mixed non-motorized traffic flow of electric vehicles and bicycles in the Chinese metropolis, the delay model in the highway capacity manual (HCM) was modified by taking two new factors into account: the pedestrian traffic rule compliance rate and the fuzzy perception of arrival rate in reality. The results show that the data obtained by the modified model are more consistent with the actual one. Next, a comparison was established between the linear regression method and cumulative logistic regression to determine the variables that affect the LOS, and finally, a LOS evaluation index system based on threshold schemes was defined. The recommended LOS model can provide corresponding references for traffic engineers who seek to improve the level of service in urban intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Pedestres , Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Percepção
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457416

RESUMO

The study purpose was to train and validate a deep learning approach to detect microscale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity. This work innovates by combining computer vision techniques with Google Street View (GSV) images to overcome impediments to conducting audits (e.g., time, safety, and expert labor cost). The EfficientNETB5 architecture was used to build deep learning models for eight microscale features guided by the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes Mini tool: sidewalks, sidewalk buffers, curb cuts, zebra and line crosswalks, walk signals, bike symbols, and streetlights. We used a train-correct loop, whereby images were trained on a training dataset, evaluated using a separate validation dataset, and trained further until acceptable performance metrics were achieved. Further, we used trained models to audit participant (N = 512) neighborhoods in the WalkIT Arizona trial. Correlations were explored between microscale features and GIS-measured and participant-reported neighborhood macroscale walkability. Classifier precision, recall, and overall accuracy were all over >84%. Total microscale was associated with overall macroscale walkability (r = 0.30, p < 0.001). Positive associations were found between model-detected and self-reported sidewalks (r = 0.41, p < 0.001) and sidewalk buffers (r = 0.26, p < 0.001). The computer vision model results suggest an alternative to trained human raters, allowing for audits of hundreds or thousands of neighborhoods for population surveillance or hypothesis testing.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Computadores , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Características de Residência , Caminhada
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457506

RESUMO

Urban parks play an important role in tackling several urban challenges such as air pollution, urban heat, physical inactivity, social isolation, and stress. In order to fully seize the benefits of urban parks, it is important that they are attractive for various groups of residents. While several studies have investigated residents' preferences for urban park attributes, most of them have focused on a single geographical context. This study aimed to investigate differences in park preferences, specifically between Dutch and Chinese park users. We collected data in the Netherlands and China using an online stated choice experiment with videos of virtual parks. The data were analyzed with a random parameter mixed logit model to identify differences in preferences for park attributes between Chinese and Dutch citizens, controlling for personal characteristics. Although the results showed a general preference for parks with many trees, several differences were found between the Dutch and Chinese respondents. These differences concerned vegetation (composition of trees and flowers), the presence of benches and play facilities, and could probably be explained by differences in park use, values of nature, and landscape preferences. The findings of this study can be used as design guidelines by urban planners and landscape designers to design attractive and inclusive parks for different target groups.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Árvores , China , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Países Baixos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409499

RESUMO

Cycling is a sustainable transportation mode that provides many health, economic and environmental benefits to society. Cities with high rates of cycling are better placed to address modern challenges of densification, carbon-neutral and connected 20-min neighbourhood goals. Despite the known benefits of cycling, participation rates in Australian cities are critically low and declining. Frequently, this low participation rate is attributed to the dangers of Australian cycle infrastructure that often necessitates the mixing of cyclists with car traffic. In addition, residents of car-dependent Australian suburbs can be resistant to the installation of cycle infrastructure where threats to traffic flow, or decreased on-street parking availability are perceived and the prohibitive cost of reconfiguration of other infrastructure maintained by the local councils to retrofit safe bike paths. This study investigates the effects on traffic behaviour of retrofitting safe, separate cycling lanes into existing residential streets in a Melbourne suburb suitable for accessing the primary neighbourhood destinations. We utilise only the widths available on the existing roadway of these streets, with minimal incursion on other facilities, such as the vehicle network and parking. Using only the existing roadway reflects the common need for municipal asset managers to minimise disruption and costs associated with street redesign. Using a traffic simulation approach, we modelled travel demand that suits suburban trips to services and shops, and we selectively applied separate cycling lanes to suitable residential streets and varied the effect of lowering speed limits. Simulations show that the selective inclusion of safe cycling lanes in some streets leads to a mere 7% increase in the average car travel times in the worst case, while requiring cyclists to increase their travel distance only marginally to avoid streets without dedicated cycling lanes. These results demonstrate that reasonable compromises are possible to make suburbs safer for cyclists and bring them closer to the 20-min neighbourhood goal. There is significant potential to enhance the result by including more street types and alternative designs. The results can inform councils in their cycle path infrastructure decisions and disprove assumptions about the influence of cyclists on car infrastructure.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito , Austrália , Automóveis , Humanos , Características de Residência
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 753, 2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parks provide opportunities for physical activity and social interaction and are critical for enhancing public health. It is therefore important to better understand the needs and preferences of park features among adults to help park designers to create parks that optimise use. This qualitative study provided an in-depth examination of factors and characteristics that influence visitation, park-based physical activity, and social interaction among adults (19-64 years). We also explored perceptions of parks and park use and impacts of COVID on park usage and needs. METHODS: Participants (n = 27, 40.4 years [+ 11.9], 70% female) were interviewed from 2017 to 2020 while walking through one of eight diverse parks located in varying socioeconomic areas of metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Participants were prompted to discuss their experiences, opinions and preferences regarding park features. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo 12 software. RESULTS: Park features and characteristics highly valued for visitation related to aesthetics and atmosphere, including trees, gardens, spaciousness, and water features. Features most valued for physical activity included walking and bike tracks, basketball rings, nice aesthetics, and sports walls. Features most valued for social interaction included seating and tables, and picnic/barbecue areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights features and characteristics that may be important to prioritise, to encourage active and social park visits among adults. This evidence will help policy and decision makers, urban planners, landscape architects, and local, state, and national government organisations to create parks that support adults to lead healthy and active lives. Future research should examine the relative importance of the features identified in this study to inform future park design/redesign.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Caminhada , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Recreação , Características de Residência
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 170: 106638, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339878

RESUMO

The expected crash frequency is the long-term average crash count for a specific site. It is extensively used to systematically evaluate the crash risk associated with roadway elements. To estimate the expected crashes, the Empirical Bayesian (EB) approach is typically employed. The EB method is a computationally convenient approximation to the Full Bayesian (FB) method, which gained popularity due to its simple interpretation, computational efficiency, and the ability to account for the regression to the mean bias. However, the common EB method used in traffic safety analysis is only applicable when the traditional Negative Binomial (NB) model is used. The NB model, however, is not a suitable choice when data is highly dispersed, skewed, or has a large number of zero observations. The Negative Binomial-Lindley (NB-L) model is a mixture of the NB and Lindley distributions and has shown superior fit compared to the NB model, especially when the dataset is characterized by excess zero observations. Even though several studies have used the NB-L in developing crash prediction models, the application of the NB-L in other safety-related tasks (e.g., hot spot identification) is largely neglected. This study proposed a framework to develop the EB method for the NB-L model and subsequently estimate the expected crash values. A comparison between the EB and FB estimates was performed to validate the approximation framework in general. The results indicated that the proposed EB framework is able to estimate expected crashes with comparable precision to the FB estimate, but with much less computational cost. In addition, a site ranking analysis using the EB estimates was conducted to validate the proposed approximation method in safety studies. However, it should be noted that any other type of safety analysis that requires access to the expected crashes can benefit from the proposed EB method. This study concluded that the proposed EB framework can properly approximate the underlying FB approach and can reasonably be considered as an alternative to the traditional EB formula derived from the NB model. The results of this study can help to extend the application of the advanced predictive models beyond predicting crashes to other safety-related tasks, with no additional computational efforts.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança
14.
J Safety Res ; 80: 226-234, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper investigates the Empirical Bayes (EB) method and the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) predictive methodology for network screening on low-volume roads in Oregon. METHOD: A study sample of around 870 miles of rural two-lane roadways with extensive crash, traffic and roadway information was used in this investigation. To understand the effect of low traffic exposure in estimating the EB expected number of crashes, the contributions of both the observed and the HSM predicted number of crashes were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The study found that, on low-volume roads, the predicted number of crashes is the major contributor in estimating the EB expected number of crashes. The study also found a large discrepancy between the observed and the predicted number of crashes using the HSM procedures calibrated for the state of Oregon, which could partly be attributed to the unique attributes of low-volume roads that are different from the rest of the network. However, the expected number of crashes for the study sample using the HSM EB method was reasonably close to the observed number of crashes over the 10-year study period. Practical Applications: Based on the findings, it can still be very effective to use network screening methods that rely primarily on risk factors for low-volume road networks. This is especially applicable in situations where accurate and reliable crash data are not available.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Oregon , Segurança
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270325

RESUMO

The literature on children's active transportation has shown the influence of the built environment characteristics on walking and crashes. Various reviews have examined those two questions. One influence on walking is the perception of traffic safety. However, it is not clear how, or even if, the built environment affects such perceptions. This research aims to understand which traffic and built environment characteristics influence objective and subjective/perceived traffic safety for children based on the analysis of previous studies in the field. Two types of research were used: the first examines the association between traffic and built environment characteristics and child pedestrian and/or cyclist collisions/injuries; the second relates to the perception of safety by parents and children for active transportation and, where studied, its relationship with built environment characteristics. A systematic review was conducted using five electronic databases. The total number of articles retrieved was reduced to 38 following the eligibility criteria and quality assessment, where 25 articles relate to injuries among children and 13 articles pertain to perception of safety. The results showed that high traffic volume and high vehicle speed are the main reasons children and parents feel unsafe when children use active travel, which matches the main findings on objective safety. Few articles on perception of safety related to the objective built environment were found. However, consistent findings exist. The presence of sidewalk was related to the safety of children. The presence of a crossing guard was positively related to perceived safety but was associated with higher rates of injuries among children. Intersection density was related to unsafe perceptions but was not statistically associated with objective traffic safety. Additionally, population density was found to be positively related to injuries among children, but not to perception of safety. The results help policy strategy to enhance the safety of children when using active transport modes.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Segurança , Transportes/métodos , Caminhada/lesões
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0262727, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320819

RESUMO

Rich literature has examined the impact of the built environment on commuting distance. Linear models assume that the influence of the built environment is spatially homogeneous. However, given the spatial heterogeneity of urban space, conclusions might be different or even be contrary. The influence of the built environment might also be different by home and work locations. To explore the spatially heterogeneous effect of the built environment from both home-based and work-based perspectives, this study applied large-scale cellular cellphone data in Guangzhou, China. Commuting was measured by decay parameters of probabilistic distributions of commuting distances. Geographically weighted regression models were applied to examine the spatially heterogeneous effect, differentiated by home-based and work-based perspectives. Results confirmed that the impact of the built environment on commuting distance is spatially heterogeneous. The urban space is classified into clusters of central areas, inner suburbs, and outer suburbs. Results also revealed the double-edged effect of the built environment. Residential population, recreation facilities, and mixed development are residence-attractive factors that increase the home-based commuting distance and decrease the work-based commuting distance. Work population and transport facilities are work-attractive factors that decrease home-based commuting distance and increase work-based commuting distance. The results further provide evidence to support area-based policies in urban planning practice.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Características de Residência , China , Planejamento Ambiental , Transportes/métodos , Caminhada , Local de Trabalho
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 169: 106632, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279617

RESUMO

Urban arterials form the main structure of city street networks, and typically have high traffic volume and high crash frequency. To reduce the number of crashes, hotspot identification (HSID) is the first step in the traffic safety management process, and often utilizes crash prediction models. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between roadway characteristics and traffic safety at the micro level, that is, they treat road segments and intersections as isolated units. Micro-level analysis has limitations, however, when examining urban arterial crashes: 1) signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials in dense street networks, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate; and 2) for practical engineering, a hotspot to which countermeasures are applied generally consists of several adjacent intersections and road segments instead of a single intersection or road segment. To address these concerns, signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments were combined into meso-level units, which were adopted to investigate traffic safety data from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, China. To determine if the meso-level unit is the most suitable research unit for identifying hotspots on urban arterials, and if so, which HSID method can most consistently identify them, this study identified micro-level (separate intersection and road segment) and meso-level (combined intersection and road segment) hotspots using crash frequency, empirical Bayesian (EB), potential for safety improvement (PSI), and full Bayesian (FB) methods. To evaluate the performance of the HSID methods, hotspot consistency over two years was tested. The results showed that 1) EB and PSI performed better than the other methods no matter which research unit was used; 2) substantial inconsistency between the identified micro- and meso-level hotspots. To identify both hazardous corridors and individual intersections and road segments on urban arterials, a combination of micro- and meso-level hotspots should be recommended to local transportation authorities.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança , Gestão da Segurança
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 450, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walkability is a popular term used to describe aspects of the built and social environment that have important population-level impacts on physical activity, energy balance, and health. Although the term is widely used by researchers, practitioners, and the general public, and multiple operational definitions and walkability measurement tools exist, there are is no agreed-upon conceptual definition of walkability. METHOD: To address this gap, researchers from Memorial University of Newfoundland hosted "The Future of Walkability Measures Workshop" in association with researchers from the Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) in November 2017. During the workshop, trainees, researchers, and practitioners worked together in small groups to iteratively develop and reach consensus about a conceptual definition and name for walkability. The objective of this paper was to discuss and propose a conceptual definition of walkability and related concepts. RESULTS: In discussions during the workshop, it became clear that the term walkability leads to a narrow conception of the environmental features associated with health as it inherently focuses on walking. As a result, we suggest that the term Active Living Environments, as has been previously proposed in the literature, are more appropriate. We define Active Living Environments (ALEs) as the emergent natural, built, and social properties of neighbourhoods that promote physical activity and health and allow for equitable access to health-enhancing resources. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this broader conceptualization allows for a more comprehensive understanding of how built, natural, and social environments can contribute to improved health for all members of the population.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Canadá , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Caminhada
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 219, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having destinations within walking distance can encourage older people to walk. Yet, not all destinations may be equally important. Little is known about the types of destinations fostering older adults' walking for transport in small and medium-sized towns and rural communities. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the availability of different destinations and walking for transport among older adults living in communities with less than 100,000 inhabitants. METHODS: Between May and September 2019, self-reported data from 2242 older adults (≥ 65 years) living in the Metropolitan Region Northwest (Germany) were collected within the project AFOOT - Securing urban mobility of an aging population. Data from 2137 study participants were eligible for this analysis. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between the perceived destination availability of 19 different destinations within a 20-min or 10-min walk from home, respectively, and the engagement in walking for transport. Crude and adjusted models were run separately for each destination and distance category. Exploratory subgroup analyses examined the associations between the availability of destinations within a 20-min walk from home and walking for transport stratified by gender, use of a walking aid, and car availability. RESULTS: The availability of each of the investigated destinations within a 20-min walk and of nearly all of these destinations within a 10-min walk from home was significantly positively associated with walking for transport in crude models. Most associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates. The strongest associations were found for the availability of small stores, pharmacy, and bakery. The availability of a bus stop showed the weakest associations and was not significantly associated with walking for transport after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of local amenities within walking distance may be a promising approach to foster older adults' walking for transport in smaller communities with less than 100,000 inhabitants and to enable active and healthy aging in place. Further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to validate these findings and to better understand older adults' walking behavior.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Caminhada
20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Isolamento de Pacientes/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Competência Clínica , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Planejamento Ambiental , Alemanha/epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Fluxo de Trabalho
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...