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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 144877, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although walkability is known to be associated with obesity and hypertension through increased physical activity; data on cardiovascular risk factors (especially in the Europe) are scarce. We assessed the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and cardiometabolic factors (including obesity, hypertension, the blood lipid profile, and serum glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels) among adults living in northern France. METHODS: Data were extracted from the ELISABET study database (2011-2013). The participants (aged between 40 and 65) resided in or around the cities of Lille and Dunkirk. For each residential address, we determined a neighbourhood walkability index (using a geographic information system) and the Walk Score®. Multilevel linear and logistic models were used to assess the relationships between neighbourhood walkability on one hand and body mass index (BMI), obesity, blood pressure, hypertension, serum HDLC, LDL-C, triglyceride and HbA1c levels, and physical activity level on the other. RESULTS: 3218 participants were included. After adjusting for individual and neighbourhood variables, we found that a higher neighbourhood walkability index was associated with a lower BMI (-0.23 kg.m-2; 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.44;-0.01] for a one interquartile range (IQR) increment), a lower systolic blood pressure (-1.66 mmHg; 95% CI [-2.46;-0.85] per IQR), a lower prevalence of hypertension (% of increase: -7.12, 95% CI [-13.56;-0.52] per IQR), and a higher prevalence of moderate or high physical activity (% of increase = 6.9; 95% CI [1.2;12.72] per IQR). The walkability index was not significantly associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. Similar results were observed for the Walk Score®. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that residence in a more walkable neighbourhood was associated with a lower prevalence of vascular risk factors. Promoting neighbourhood walkability might help to improve the population's cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Planejamento Ambiental , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Caminhada
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782111

RESUMO

The bicycle is a low-cost means of transport linked to low risk of transmission of infectious disease. During the COVID-19 crisis, governments have therefore incentivized cycling by provisionally redistributing street space. We evaluate the impact of this new bicycle infrastructure on cycling traffic using a generalized difference in differences design. We scrape daily bicycle counts from 736 bicycle counters in 106 European cities. We combine these with data on announced and completed pop-up bike lane road work projects. Within 4 mo, an average of 11.5 km of provisional pop-up bike lanes have been built per city and the policy has increased cycling between 11 and 48% on average. We calculate that the new infrastructure will generate between $1 and $7 billion in health benefits per year if cycling habits are sticky.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automóveis , Ciclismo/economia , Ciclismo/normas , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Segurança , Transportes/métodos
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 378-383, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646868

RESUMO

Long-term care facilities have been devastated by COVID-19, with one exception: a group of small facilities called Green Houses.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Formação de Conceito , Desinstitucionalização , Planejamento Ambiental , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , /mortalidade , Humanos
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): 167-172, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe a new service model, the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit (OAU), designed to provide care for trauma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients without COVID-19 symptoms and isolated musculoskeletal injuries were redirected to the OAU. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed patients throughput during the peak of the global pandemic (7 May 2020 to 7 June 2020) and compared with our historic service provision (7 May 2019 to 7 June 2019). The Mann-Whitney and Fisher Exact tests were used to test the statistical significance of data. RESULTS: A total of 1,147 patients were seen, with peak attendances between 11am and 2pm; 96% of all referrals were seen within 4h. The majority of patients were seen by orthopaedic registrars (52%) and nurse practitioners (44%). The majority of patients suffered from sprains and strains (39%), followed by fractures (22%) and wounds (20%); 73% of patients were discharged on the same day, 15% given follow up, 8% underwent surgery and 3% were admitted but did not undergo surgery. Our volume of trauma admissions and theatre cases decreased by 22% and 17%, respectively (p=0.058; 0.139). There was a significant reduction of virtual fracture clinic referrals after reconfiguration of services (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid implementation of a specialist OAU during a pandemic can provide early definitive trauma care while exceeding national waiting time standards. The fall in trauma attendances was lower than anticipated. The retention of orthopaedic staff in the department to staff the unit and maintain a high standard of care is imperative.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Ortopedia/organização & administração , Entorses e Distensões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Entorses e Distensões/diagnóstico , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
5.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup2): S8-S11, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573494

RESUMO

The Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant and unprecedented shifts in the delivery of health care services in the United States. Although wound care remains an essential service during the COVID-19 pandemic, the financial consequences and infectious disease ramifications of the pandemic have resulted in closure or limitation of hours in many outpatient wound and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) centers. As HBOT patients often require daily treatment sessions for a period of months, it is necessary for facilities providing HBOT services to adjust to the COVID-19 pandemic while still maintaining availability of this important service. Modification of HBOT session timing and chamber decontamination procedures, utilisation of telehealth services for initial patient evaluations, and acceptance of novel patient populations and diagnoses are mechanisms by which HBOT centers can adapt to the evolving model of health care delivery throughout a pandemic. While COVID-19 is not a currently accepted indication for HBOT, patients may be referred for HBOT consultation due to the post-infectious sequelae of the virus, and thus HBOT facilities must be aware of the potential uses of this treatment for post-viral complications. By redefining paradigms for health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, HBOT and wound centers can continue to provide high-quality and uninterrupted care to vulnerable patient populations.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Agendamento de Consultas , Desinfecção , Planejamento Ambiental , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Telemedicina , Triagem/métodos , Estados Unidos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112207, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636449

RESUMO

Most street tree inequality studies focus on examining tree abundance at single time point, while overlooking inequality dynamics measured based on a complete set of tree measures. Whether the severities of street tree inequalities vary with different tree structure measures, whether street tree inequalities are diminishing or growing over time, and how the inequality dynamics are affected by tree-planting programs remain largely unexplored. To fill these gaps, this study applied binned regression and cluster analyses to street tree census data of 1995-2015 in New York City. We investigated different structural measures of street tree inequalities pertaining to various aggregations of people, compared street tree inequalities over time, and revealed the inequity remediation role of the MillionTreesNYC initiative. We found that the underprivileged populations, characterized by higher percentages of the poor, racial minorities, young people, and less-educated people, are more likely to have lower tree abundance, less desired tree structure, poorer tree health condition, and more sidewalk damages. When disaggregating inequalities across various aggregations of people, income-based and education-based inequalities were the most severe, but the inequalities diminished over time. The race-based and age-based inequalities show mixed results that disfavor Hispanics, Blacks, and young people. The equity outcome of the MillionTreesNYC initiative is not ideal as the inequalities decrease when measured using tree count and species diversity, whereas they increase when measured using tree health and average diameter at breast height. The findings have important implications for more effective decision-making to balance resources between planting trees and protecting existing trees, and between increasing tree abundance and improving tree structure.


Assuntos
Árvores , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572643

RESUMO

Enhancing the walkability of urban streets is an effective means to improve public health, alleviate traffic congestion, and enhance the living environment. In China, the government has actively encouraged green travel and promoted improvements in the walk system. The walkability of the built environment is affected by many factors. In addition to the configuration of daily life facilities, street greening can have significant effects on walkability. To explore the rationality of street life facilities and understand the impact of the natural attributes of the block space (street-level greening) on the quality of the walking environment, we evaluated the walkability of Zhongshan Road in Qingdao, China and optimized the algorithm of the walk score. In this study, we selected residential areas as the starting point and modified the weight coefficients for facilities to evaluate the walkability of streets. Traditional research methods were combined with street view image capture, and the rate of the attenuation factor was used for the new optimization algorithm. We discussed the rationality of street life facilities and increased the green vision rate using a correction index. By comparing changes in walkability before and after joining, we analyzed the necessity of including new indicators. The results show that the average walking index of Zhongshan Road is 79.74, and the overall performance is good, showing a high trend in the west and a low trend in the east, and a high trend in the south and a low trend in the north. According to the general walking index, western stations and southern coastal areas have higher scores, and living facilities are well equipped; old northern and eastern residential areas have lower scores. Among them, the average weight of bookstores is 0.74, and the average weight of parks is 0.69. To meet residents' needs for daily leisure activities, adding bookstores or similar facilities in community parks would be necessary to improve daily facilities and services. The average green viewing rate of Zhongshan Road is 20.48%, which is lower than the best visual perception value of 25.00%. Comparing the walking index changes before and after adding the green viewing rate, the high-scoring area shifted from the west to the south, and the west walking index has the most significant decline. Street greening has a certain impact on the quality of the walking environment. The results and conclusions of this study can be used as a reference in developing street walkability indicators and further improving the evaluation system.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Caminhada , China , Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562711

RESUMO

Covid-19 changed the way many people viewed and interacted with the natural environment. In the UK, a series of national lockdowns limited the number of places that individuals could use to support their mental and physical health. Parks, gardens, canals and other "green infrastructure" (GI) resources remained open and were repositioned as "essential infrastructure" supporting well-being. However, the quality, functionality and location of GI in urban areas illustrated a disparity in distribution that meant that in many cases communities with higher ethnic diversity, lower income and greater health inequality suffered from insufficient access. This paper provides commentary on these issues, reflecting on how planners, urban designers and environmental organizations are positioning GI in decision-making to address inequality. Through a discussion of access and quality in an era of austerity funding, this paper proposes potential pathways to equitable environmental planning that address historical and contemporary disenfranchisement with the natural environment in urban areas.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Natureza , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401738

RESUMO

Increasing active school travel (AST) among children may provide the required level of daily physical activity and reduce the prevalence of obesity. Despite efforts to promote this mode, recent evidence shows that AST rates continue to decrease in suburban and urban areas alike. The aim of this research study, therefore, is to facilitate our understanding of how objective and perceived factors near the home influence children's AST in an understudied city, Istanbul, Turkey. Using data from a cross-sectional sample of students aged 12-14 from 20 elementary schools (n = 1802) and consenting parents (n = 843), we applied a nominal logistic regression model to highlight important predictors of AST. The findings showed that street network connectivity (as measured by two novel space syntax measures, metric reach and directional reach) was the main deciding factor for active commuting to school, while parents' perceptions of condition of sidewalks and shade-casting street trees were moderately significant factors associated with AST. Overall, this study demonstrated the significance of spatial structure of street network around the homes in the potential for encouraging AST, and more importantly, the need to consider objective and perceived environmental attributes when strategizing means to increase this mode choice and reduce ill-health among children.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Características de Residência , Transportes , Caminhada , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas , Turquia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478140

RESUMO

This paper explores the intersection of the World Health Organization's (WHO) concepts of age-friendly communities and The Blue Zones® checklists and how the potential of integrating the two frameworks for the development of a contemporary framework can address the current gaps in the literature as well as consider the inclusion of technology and environmental press. The commentary presented here sets out initial thoughts and explorations that have the potential to impact societies on a global scale and provides recommendations for a roadmap to consider new ways to think about the impact of health and wellbeing of older adults and their families. Additionally, this paper highlights both the strengths and the weaknesses of the aforementioned checklists and frameworks by examining the literature including the WHO age-friendly framework, the smart age-friendly ecosystem (SAfE) framework and the Blue Zones® checklists. We argue that gaps exist in the current literature and take a critical approach as a way to be inclusive of technology and the environments in which older adults live. This commentary contributes to the fields of gerontology, gerontechnology, anthropology, and geography, because we are proposing a roadmap which sets out the need for future work which requires multi- and interdisciplinary research to be conducted for the respective checklists to evolve.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Tecnologia , Idoso , Previsões , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466259

RESUMO

This qualitative investigation makes suggestions about creating age-friendly cities for older adults focusing on three domains of the World Health Organization (WHO) age-friendly city framework namely "Communication and Information", "Outdoor Spaces and Buildings" and "Social Participation". The authors present two case studies, the first one focusing on older adults using activity wearables for health self-management in the neighborhood, and the second one focusing on older adults engaged in social prescribing activities in the community. The authors then reflect on the relationships of the domains and future opportunities for age-friendly cities. These case studies apply a co-design and citizen-based approach focusing within these larger frameworks on emotions, values and motivational goals of older adults. Results suggest how the convergence of the often siloed age-friendly city components based on older adults' goals and input can lead to better social participation and longer-term health outcomes. The authors propose that the digital, physical and social aspects need to be considered in all domains of age-friendly cities to achieve benefits for older adults. Further work involving older adults in the future shaping of age-friendly neighborhoods and cities, and identifying barriers and opportunities is required.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Planejamento Ambiental , Promoção da Saúde , Idoso , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Participação Social
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478168

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate the accepted concept of using land-use mix (LUM) to promote physical activity is ineffective and even counteractive in the Chinese context. Before considering LUM as a whole, different amenity types need to be respectively analyzed in relation to various functions and demands. This study aims to examine the specific associations between food-related amenities and perceived daily walking duration (WD) in small Chinese cities. Two interviewer-administered questionnaire surveys (n = 354) were conducted in Yuncheng and Suihua between 2017 and 2018. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of WD with seven different categories of food outlet at three levels of walking distance. The associations were further explored by food environment diversity and through two age groups. With the exception of café/tea house, the other six food outlets were positively associated with WD. After adjusting for socioeconomic variables, the associations of grocery store and supermarket weakened. Higher levels of food environment diversity were associated with a longer WD. Among the age groups, food outlets were more associated with older adults' WD. This novel quantitative study suggests that increasing the number and heterogeneity of food-related amenities (including mobile street vendors) within a neighborhood can enhance physical activity in small Chinese cities.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Caminhada , Idoso , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Características de Residência
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e046636, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Only international studies can provide the full variability of built environments and accurately estimate effect sizes of relations between contrasting environments and health-related outcomes. The aims of the International Physical Activity and Environment Study of Adolescents (IPEN Adolescent) are to estimate the strength, shape and generalisability of associations of the community environment (geographic information systems (GIS)-based and self-reported) with physical activity and sedentary behaviour (accelerometer-measured and self-reported) and weight status (normal/overweight/obese). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The IPEN Adolescent observational, cross-sectional, multicountry study involves recruiting adolescent participants (ages 11-19 years) and one parent/guardian from neighbourhoods selected to ensure wide variations in walkability and socioeconomic status using common protocols and measures. Fifteen geographically, economically and culturally diverse countries, from six continents, participated: Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hong Kong SAR, India, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Portugal, Spain and USA. Countries provided survey and accelerometer data (15 countries), GIS data (11), global positioning system data (10), and pedestrian environment audit data (8). A sample of n=6950 (52.6% female; mean age=14.5, SD=1.7) adolescents provided survey data, n=4852 had 4 or more 8+ hours valid days of accelerometer data, and n=5473 had GIS measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured by waist-worn ActiGraph accelerometers and self-reports, and body mass index was used to categorise weight status. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was received from each study site's Institutional Review Board for their in-country studies. Informed assent by adolescents and consent by parents was obtained for all participants. No personally identifiable information was transferred to the IPEN coordinating centre for pooled datasets. Results will be communicated through standard scientific channels and findings used to advance the science of environmental correlates of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status, with the ultimate goal to stimulate and guide actions to create more activity-supportive environments internationally.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Caminhada , Adolescente , Austrália , Bangladesh , Bélgica , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia , Israel , Malásia , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Nigéria , Portugal , Características de Residência , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
15.
Public Health ; 190: 16-22, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence, and the demographic, socio-economic, and health correlates to Outdoor Gyms (OGs) use for adults from a southern Brazilian city. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 431 adults (66.8% women) aged 18-87 years living in the surroundings of four OGs distributed in different regions of the city were randomly selected. Information about OG use for physical activity (PA) practice, and demographic, socio-economic, and health variables were collected by household interviews. Associations between independent variables and OG use were analyzed with results expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: About one-third of participants (30.4%; 95% CI: 26.1-34.7) informed using OGs for PA practice, and 20.4% (95% CI 16.8-24.4) informed using it twice or more times a week (≥2x/week). Adjusted analysis indicated that the OG use ≥2x/week is higher for women (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.11-3.35) and for those with lower family income (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.03-4.13) than men and those with higher family income, respectively. CONCLUSION: About 30% of the population uses OGs for PA practice. Women and low-income people are those who more commonly use OGs for PA practice. The installation of these facilities in public spaces may reduce social inequities related to leisure-time PA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Características de Residência , Equipamentos Esportivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322469

RESUMO

Planning plays a critical role in promoting healthy communities for children. We conducted a national survey of United States (US) cities and counties in 2019 and found only half of the 1312 responding communities report they give attention to the needs of children in their community plans. Those that do, provide more services and have more child-friendly zoning codes. We use a human ecological framework to build structural equation models of child-friendly zoning and services. We find communities with more engagement of families with children and youth and a common vision across generational, race, and ethnic lines report higher levels of child-friendly zoning and services. Collaboration between health providers and schools builds trust and leads to more services. However, child-friendly zoning is lower in communities with higher child poverty, and in suburbs and rural areas. Our results support a dynamic human ecological model where the processes of collaboration, inclusion, and engagement are key to creating healthy places for children. These processes may be especially important in addressing the unique challenges of suburban and rural communities.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Promoção da Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Pobreza , População Rural , População Suburbana , Estados Unidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322483

RESUMO

Physical activity and health are of significant importance for the rapid aging population in China. Built environment has been suggested to be associated with elderly physical activity and health. However, the association differences between cities remain unclear. Perceived built environment scores and elderly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of 308 elderly in Hangzhou and 304 elderly in Wenzhou were collected using Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. A multivariate linear regression method and T-test were used to analyze of the associations between elderly LTPA and built environment and the differences between the two cities, respectively. The results showed that LTPA was positively associated with walking/cycling facilities and crime safety in both cities. LTPA was positively correlated with residential density, aesthetics, pedestrian/traffic safety in Wenzhou and negatively correlated with access to services in Hangzhou. The perceived scores of aesthetics (2.71 vs. 2.45) and pedestrian/traffic safety (2.11 vs. 1.71) in Hangzhou were significantly higher than those in Wenzhou. The results suggested that built environment elements like higher walking/cycling facilities and crime safety may motivate elderly engaging LTPA in both cities. However, LTPA was affected by different factors in these two cities. In the urban redevelopment, survey conducted in its own city would provide meaningful information and cannot be neglected.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374936

RESUMO

Attention on, and interest in, life satisfaction has increased worldwide. However, research on life satisfaction focused toward the urban dwellers' residential community is mainly from western countries, and the limited research from China is solely focused on the geriatric population via a narrowly constrained research perspective. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate urbanites' life satisfaction toward their community, combining the psychological (behavioral community engagement, mental state of flow, and cognitive community identity), physical (PREQIs-perceived residential environment quality indicators: e.g., green area), and social perspectives (social capital). The proposed conceptual model was tested on a regionally representative sample of 508 urban community residents in the city of Chengdu, Sichuan province, China. Data were analyzed via a structure equation modelling approach in AMOS software. Findings suggested that all of the psychological, physical and social factors contributed to a prediction of life satisfaction. Specifically, social capital mediated the path from community engagement and flow to life satisfaction, and community identity mediated the path from flow experience and green area to life satisfaction. Additionally, social capital contributed to predict life satisfaction through its influence on community identity. Findings provide suggestions for urban designers and policymakers to focus on creating an urban community equipped with green area, which helps to promote physical activities that are flow-productive, to enhance residents' identification to their residential community and, therefore, increase life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Adulto , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA) is the fourth risk factor for all-cause mortality. Regular PA reduces noncommunicable disease (NCD) and mortality risk. The built environment (BE) is a determinant of spontaneous daily PA. Professionals who plan and build the BE therefore affect public health. We tested the hypothesis of a lack of formal pregraduate training about associations between the BE, PA and health in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design academic degree programs (DPs) in Switzerland. METHODS: We reached out to all DPs in Switzerland to ask if and how these associations are taught. For those declaring to teach the topic, the program syllabus and course material were inspected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: For 30 out of 33 identified programs, information for the analysis was obtained. A total of 18 declared teaching the BE, PA and health associations, but this could be confirmed for only 5 after verifying the course content. Teaching principles of building PA-promoting BE represents an underutilized potential for public health promotion. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to introduce formal learning objectives in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design DPs in Switzerland on the associations between BE, PA and health. It is likely that similar needs exist in other countries.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/educação , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento de Cidades/educação , Currículo , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Suíça
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327579

RESUMO

In urban areas where increased density has caused loss of urban open space (UOS), there is a need for high-quality parks that are inclusive and fit for multiple user groups. To make parks more inclusive, UOS management may need to consider multifunction and the perspectives of various age groups in future development and maintenance activities. Walking interviews were conducted in a park in central Landskrona, Sweden, with children, adolescents, and elderly users, and also with the head park manager of the city. The results revealed different perspectives among the three age groups of users concerning affordances and UOS management. The manager described user-oriented management to support multifunction and inclusion, including user participation. All user groups studied showed an appreciation of liveliness, contact with nature, social places for their own age group, clean and safe parks, and a variety of different atmospheres and activities in the park. Social multifunction can be developed in programmed or non-programmed ways, but some functions interfere with each other. UOS managers can develop parks to suit different age groups, promote user participation within management, and develop social multifunction to create inclusive parks for various age groups.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Parques Recreativos , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Planejamento Ambiental/normas , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia , Caminhada
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