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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 230-238, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957400

RESUMO

Xiamen is one of China's five major special economic zones and is the core city of Haixi Economic Zone, with a high level of urbanization. Monitoring and driving force analysis of impervious surfaces can increase our understanding of urbanization process and have important significance for urban landscape pattern research and urban ecological environment construction. We used the Landsat remote sensing image data from 1978 to 2018 to reveal the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the impervious surface landscape in Xiamen in the past 40 years, using the full-restricted least squares method, landscape pattern analysis, slope gradient analysis and correlation analysis. We further analyzed its relationship with social and economic factors. The results showed that, during 1978-2018, the impervious surface of Xiamen increased by 348.96 km2, with a mean annual increase of 8.72 km2. The impervious surface dynamics reached a maximum of 9.0% in 2005-2010. More than 86.6% of the impervious surface of Xiamen was distributed within 6° of slope, with a tendency to expand to a greater slope in 2010-2018. With the increases of slope, the proportion of impervious surface decreased, the density of plaque decreased with the shape tending to be regular and continuous, the degree of fragmentation of the impervious surface increased. The increases of impervious surface in Xiamen was significantly related to the regional economic aggregate and population. In the study period, the spatial pattern of impervious surface in Xiamen significantly altered. In the future urban planning process, the extent and speed of impervious surface expansion should be coordinated to avoid ecological problems caused by excessive impervious surface to meet the need for sustainable development of Xiamen.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Ecologia
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 95, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907629

RESUMO

With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, atmospheric pollution has become a major issue, restricting the sustainable development of the urban environment. Since 2013, Beijing has been among China's most seriously affected regions in terms of haze pollution. Atmospheric pollution is closely linked to land use, particularly the spatial patterns of green and urban land. Therefore, the quantification of the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration and its driving factors in Beijing is of considerable significance for environmental management and spatial epidemiological studies. A land use regression (LUR) model was constructed to simulate the spatio-temporal distribution of PM2.5 concentration. In this study, the independent variables (driving factors) included land use, meteorological factors, population, roads, the digital elevation model, and the normalized difference vegetation index. The five models had adjusted R2 of 0.887, 0.770, 0.742, 0.877, and 0.798, respectively. Land use and meteorological factors were the main factors affecting PM2.5 concentration. The driving factors of land use on a large scale and roads on a small scale had a significant impact on PM2.5 emissions. Beijing's PM2.5 concentrations in 2015 showed clear spatio-temporal characteristics. The highest (lowest) average PM2.5 concentration was recorded in winter (summer). In terms of spatial distribution, PM2.5 concentrations showed a "low in the northwest and high in the southeast" trend. The most polluted areas were mainly distributed in the central city and the southeastern and southwestern regions. The PM2.5 concentration boundary was essentially consistent with the boundary of land use type. Different land use types promoted or inhibited PM2.5 concentrations, with a difference of more than 20 µg/m3 PM2.5 between the two land use categories. Thus, PM2.5 concentrations should be controlled by optimizing the spatial and temporal patterns of land use.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pequim , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Estações do Ano , Urbanização
3.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109485, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790866

RESUMO

Different regions in China face greatly dissimilar ecological and environmental problems due to large variations in natural conditions and socioeconomic development levels. Such spatial variability calls for regionalized environmental management and protection policies. Environmental function zoning is an effective tool for the design and implementation of differentiated environmental policies. To contain the ecological degradation in different regions of China, we first created a comprehensive environmental function evaluation index system that included 25 socioeconomic and environmental indicators for the three key elements of natural ecological security protection, healthy human living environment maintenance, and regional environment carrying capacity. To clarify the division of Chinese environmental function zoning in the new period, we use GIS and remote sensing technology. We generated 1-km resolution grid data for the 25 indicators and implemented this index system to evaluate the environmental function of the 2414 counties in China. Differentiated environmental management objectives and strategies were designed and implemented for different zones to avoid the phenomenon of one size fits all. This work lays a scientific foundation and provides a quantitative tool for the design and implementation of differentiated management. By considering not only the natural system but also the social and economic systems and their interactions, this evaluation of environmental function provides a more comprehensive view and thus offers new insights on balancing environmental protection and socioeconomic development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109733, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783207

RESUMO

Identification of flood-risk dynamics is pivotal for refurbishing the existing and future flood-management options. The present study quantifies the marginal and compound contributions of hazard and vulnerability to flood-risk through an innovative concept of Risk-classifier, designed in the form of a 5 × 5 choropleth. The proposed framework is demonstrated at the finest administrative scale of village-level over Jagatsinghpur district in Mahanadi River basin, Odisha (India) for two-time frames: Scenario-I (1970-2011) and Scenario-II (1970-2001). An increase in high and very high hazard and vulnerable villages is noticed in Scenario-I, the majority of them lying in the coastal stretches (S-E region) and adjoining flood plains of Mahanadi River (N-W region). Scenario-I is characterized by the majority of hazard-driven and compound (both hazard and vulnerability) risk villages, while Scenario II is characterized by a majority of vulnerability driven-risk villages. For the vulnerability-driven risk villages, rigorous enforcement of policies and mitigation schemes are recommended, while for hazard-driven risk villages, enhancement of structural measures and flood-plain zoning should be exercised. Such exhaustive flood-risk information may serve as a valuable cartographic product for the civic authorities and stakeholders and help in prioritizing flood mitigation actions for improved environmental planning and management.


Assuntos
Inundações , Rios , Planejamento de Cidades , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Disasters ; 44(1): 103-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231821

RESUMO

Urban planning can serve to minimise the effects of a tsunami and enhance community resilience. This study explores to what extent urban planning has addressed tsunami resilience in four villages on Chile's South Pacific coast, each of which was struck by tsunamis in 1960, 2010, and 2015. Through a detailed policy review and semi-structured interviews with residents, this paper analyses whether tsunami mitigation policies were incorporated into regional and local planning tools. It finds that although the government proposed relocation to tsunami-safe areas after the tsunami of 1960, urban development continued mainly in tsunami inundation zones-in the context of weak local planning frameworks and in the absence of community participation. In only one of the four case studies did participatory planning bring about the relocation of an entire village to a safe location. This paper concludes that incorporating participatory risk zone planning into urban planning enhances tsunami resilience.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Resiliência Psicológica , Tsunamis , Chile , Humanos , Risco
6.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109689, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654929

RESUMO

Sponge City concept is emerging as a new kind of integrated urban water systems, which aims to address urban water problems. However, its implementation has encountered a variety of challenges. The lack of an integrated comprehensive model to assist Sponge City planning, implementation and life cycle assessment is one of the most challenging factors. This review briefly analyses the opportunity of existing urban water management models and discusses the limitation of recent studies in the application of current integrated models for Sponge City implementation. Furthermore, it proposes a new Sponge City model framework by integrating four main sub-models including MIKE-URBAN, LCA, W045-BEST, and MCA in which environmental, social, and economic aspects of Sponge City infrastructure options are simulated. The new structure of Sponge City model that includes the sub-model layer, input layer, module layer, output layer, and programing language layer is also illustrated. Therefore, the proposed model could be applied to optimize different Sponge City practices by not only assessing the drainage capacity of stormwater infrastructure but also pays attention to multi-criteria analysis of urban water system (including the possibility of assessing Sponge City ecosystem services for urban areas and watershed areas) as well. Balancing between simplification and innovation of integrated models, increasing the efficiency of spatial data sharing systems, defining the acceptability of model complexity level and improving the corporation of multiple stakeholders emphasizing on possible future directions of a proper Sponge City design and construction model.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Ecossistema , Cidades , Poluição da Água
7.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109575, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870511

RESUMO

In the last 25 years, unplanned and dispersed urban development has become the norm rather than the exception mostly in medium and small cities of the global south, a region with high poverty rates and weak institutions in charge of land use changes. This paper is based on environmental discourses and governance policy integration to address the limitations in preventing the conversion of open land, which provides ecosystem services, into settlement land. It analyzes the case of the Metropolitan Zone of Queretaro in central Mexico, which has experienced particularly high rates of urban expansion in recent years. This paper focuses on the private sector's significant contribution to urban sprawl, a situation linked to the following deficits: policy domain integration deficit, which is related to competing goals among multi-level, multi-scale and multi-sector actors; the interdisciplinary deficit, which requires various procedures and instruments to promote stakeholder collaboration; and the democracy deficit, which involves micro-level actions rather than substantive policy design to encourage citizens to become agents of change and develop awareness of the value of nature in cities.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Ecossistema , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , México , Políticas
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 1, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792605

RESUMO

This paper defines five criteria and identifies 21 indicators for the modernization level of a province or a city in modern China. It collects raw index data from 31 provinces in China, between 2007 and 2017, and introduces formula for its dimensionless processing. An improved entropy method (IEM) is proposed for the evaluation of the modernization in urban areas, based on the five criteria and 21 indicators. A practical study was implemented in Anhui province employing the said IEM. The results demonstrate that the IEM is being effective in evaluating the modernization level in urban areas.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Entropia , Mudança Social , China , Cidades
9.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 767-777, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875627

RESUMO

Objectives The aim of this study is to report on the health status of residents in supportive housing in urban areas of Japan, and to explore the differences in health conditions across different age groups within this population.Methods The participants were 341 residents who had newly been admitted to supportive housing managed by a nonprofit organization. We examined their admission records and documented their health conditions. Differences in health conditions across age groups were also explored.Results More than 90 percent of the participants were single men, aged 40 or older, and living on welfare. The main reasons for their utilization of supportive housing were the lack of accommodation after leaving a hospital or facility, decrease in physical function, and progression of dementia. A high proportion of participants under 40 years had an addiction problem, schizophrenia, intellectual disorders, or developmental disorders. Participants aged 40-59 years had high rates of lifestyle-related diseases in addition to mental illnesses. Furthermore, for those aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of geriatric syndromes such as dementia, hearing impairment, and visual impairment was high. Additionally, there was a high proportion of elderly participants whose health status was unknown when they were admitted to supportive housing.Conclusion Most residents who had been admitted to supportive housing in the urban areas of Japan had physical or mental illnesses, and their life and support needs varied by age group. These findings suggest that it may be necessary for residents living in urban supportive housing in Japan to receive not only increased medical and psychological care but also age group-specific care.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Habitação Popular , Seguridade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 756, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741063

RESUMO

The physical texture of cities is comprised of built-up spaces, open-green spaces, and transportation arteries. Urbanization is a dynamic that compose of each of the factors above in a fair proportion to human beings and nature. On the other hand, due to the rapid increase in urban population, urbanization has become a concept that poses serious problems for cities in the last decades and this leads a pressure on open-green spaces in urban areas. Open-green spaces have a great importance in improving urban life conditions and balancing the destroyed relations between humans and environment. For this reason, the sustainability of urban open-green spaces cannot be ignored in the planning studies. In this study, the change in the urban texture in Nevsehir (Turkey) was evaluated in a 10-year period (2004-2014) through the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). Through the use of satellite images with high ground sample distance-QuickBird (60 cm) (2004) and Worlview-2 (50 cm) (2014)-the direction of urban expansion and changes which occurred in urban open-green spaces and urban development areas were examined in detail at the whole city and district scales. Analyses consist of satellite image classification, plant index production, and GIS-based analyses methods. According to the results, it was determined that from 2004 to 2014, the 23.28% decrease in urban open-green spaces was detected in Nevsehir city. It was observed that the city expands towards the north-east, south-west, and west. It was indicated that there is a serious increase in built-up areas especially at the north-east part of the city (107.11%). Thus, a significant decrease has happened in the amount of urban open-green spaces in this area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Urbanização/tendências , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Imagens de Satélites , Turquia , População Urbana , Reforma Urbana
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 767, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760509

RESUMO

The Nile Delta of Egypt is increasingly facing sustainability threats, due to a combination of nature- and human-induced changes in land cover and land use. In this paper, an analysis of big time series data from remotely sensed satellite images and the random forests classifier was undertaken to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of urbanization and cropland in the Nile Delta between 2007 and 2017. Out of thirteen variables, five spectral indices were chosen to build 500 decision trees, with a resulting overall accuracy average of 91.9 ± 1.5%. The results revealed that the urban extent in the Nile Delta has increased, between 2007 and 2017, by 592.4 km2 (1.92%). Particularly, the results indicated that the years 2011 and 2012, which coincided the 2011 political uprising in Egypt, so-called the Arab Spring, were associated with significant land-use changes in the Nile Delta, both in rate and scale. As a result, the cropland area in the region decreased between 2010 and 2011 by 1.63% (502.21 km2). Moreover, the results showed that during the period 2012-2017, the mean annual urbanization rate in the region stood at 60 km2/year. In contrast, croplands decreased during the same period at an average annual rate of 2 km2/year. At the governorates' level, the results suggested that top agricultural producing governorates in the Nile Delta, such as Elmonoufia, Elkalubia, Elbouhyra, and Elghrbia, witnessed the highest rates of decrease in cropland areas during the period 2012-2017. Over the same period, urban areas increased the most in Elkalubia, Domiate, and Elmonoufia by 1.98%, 1.72%, and 1.34%, respectively. The f indings from this analysis are discussed along with their implications for sustainable land-use and urban planning policies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagens de Satélites , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Urbanização , Planejamento de Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 771, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773378

RESUMO

Shanghai is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, during the rapid urbanization of the past decades, impervious surface expanded dramatically and became a main factor influencing surface water quality. Thus, exploring the driving forces of impervious surface has great implications in such metropolitan area. In this study, an impervious surface coefficient method (ISC) was used to measure the percentage of total impervious area (PTIA) of Shanghai; regression analysis was conducted to define the relationship between PTIA and three socio-economic factors, population density, unit area gross domestic product, and unit area industrial output at the city and district scale. Results showed that the industrial land use generated the highest ISC value, followed by high-density residential. Strong correlations were showed between PTIA and socio-economic indicators, in which population density was the most significant. Threshold effect was presented that when population density was higher than 15000 per/km2, this relationship would become less significant and PTIA remained stable. Similar effects were found when unit area gross domestic product exceeded 125 million yuan/km2. Scale effect was also discussed that the relationship was more significant at city scale than district. An improved understanding of the threshold effect and scale effect will help guide future urban planning and design new urban ecosystem policies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Propriedades de Superfície , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Movimentos da Água
13.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 93, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have suggested that infrastructural interventions can be effective in promoting cycling. Given inherent methodological complexities in the evaluation of such changes, it is important to understand whether study results obtained depend on the study design and methods used, and to describe the implications of the methods used for causality. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the effects obtained in studies that used a wide range of study designs to assess the effects of infrastructural interventions on cycling and physical activity, and whether the effects varied by study design, data collection methods, or statistical approaches. METHODS: Six databases were searched for studies that evaluated infrastructural interventions to promote cycling in adult populations, such as the opening of cycling lanes, or the expansion of a city-wide cycling network. Controlled and uncontrolled studies that presented data before and after the intervention were included. No language or date restrictions were applied. Data was extracted for any outcome presented (e.g. bikes counted on the new infrastructure, making a bike trip, cycling frequency, cycling duration), and for any purpose of cycling (e.g. total cycling, recreational cycling, cycling for commuting). Data for physical activity outcomes and equity effects was extracted, and quality assessment was conducted following previous methodologies and the UK Medical Research Council guidance on natural experiments. The PROGRESS-Plus framework was used to describe the impact on subgroups of the population. Studies were categorized by outcome, i.e. changes in cycling behavior, or usage of the cycling infrastructure. The relative change was calculated to derive a common outcome across various metrics and cycling purposes. The median relative change was presented to evaluate whether effects differed by methodological aspects. RESULTS: The review included 31 studies and all were conducted within urban areas in high-income countries. Most of the evaluations found changes in favor of the intervention, showing that the number of cyclists using the facilities increased (median relative change compared to baseline: 62%; range: 4 to 438%), and to a lesser extent that cycling behavior increased (median relative change compared to baseline: 22%; range: - 21 to 262%). Studies that tested for statistical significance and studies that used subjective measurement methods (such as surveys and direct observations of cyclists) found larger changes than those that did not perform statistical tests, and those that used objective measurement methods (such as GPS and accelerometers, and automatic counting stations). Seven studies provided information on changes of physical activity behaviors, and findings were mixed. Three studies tested for equity effects following the opening of cycling infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings of natural experiments evaluating infrastructural interventions to promote cycling depended on the methods used and the approach to analysis. Studies measuring cycling behavior were more likely to assess actual behavioral change that is most relevant for population health, as compared to studies that measured the use of cycling infrastructure. Triangulation of methods is warranted to overcome potential issues that one may encounter when evaluating environmental changes within the built environment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of this study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42018091079).


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Promoção da Saúde , Adulto , Planejamento de Cidades , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574988

RESUMO

As the modern urban-suburban context becomes increasingly problematic with traffic congestion, air pollution, and increased cost of living, city planners are turning their attention to transit-oriented development as a strategy to promote healthy communities. Transit-oriented developments bring valuable resources and improvements in infrastructure, but they also may be reinforcing decades-old processes of residential segregation, gentrification, and displacement of low-income residents and communities of color. Careful consideration of zoning, neighborhood design, and affordability is vital to mitigating the impacts of transit-induced gentrification, a socioeconomic by-product of transit-oriented development whereby the provision of transit service "upscales" nearby neighborhood(s) and displaces existing community members with more affluent and often White residents. To date, the available research and, thus, overall understanding of transit-induced gentrification and the related social determinants of health are limited and mixed. In this review, an overview of racial residential segregation, light rail transit developments, and gentrification in the United States has been provided. Implications for future transit-oriented developments are also presented along with a discussion of possible solutions.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Características de Residência , Mudança Social , Segregação Social , Transportes , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105162, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648155

RESUMO

Cities play a significant role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Urban land planning shapes the urban form and is considered to be an effective approach for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, there is little knowledge about what urban forms can reduce both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate stresses while considering trade-offs between them. Here, we investigate the role of urban land use in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. In particular, we assess quantitatively the competition between strategies for mitigation and adaptation and identify potential win-win solutions in land use responses. Using a coastal city as a case study, we find that the land use strategies for unilateral mitigation or adaptation can cause contradicting consequences with respect to the reductions in GHG emissions and climate stresses, i.e. reductions in GHGs could increase climate stresses or vice versa. Poorly integrated strategies potentially may compromise international efforts to meet the Climate Action in the Sustainable Development Goals. Properly integrated mitigation and adaptation strategies, or climate-sensitive land use planning, however, can lead to win-win outcomes and eventually achieve co-benefits. Yet, any co-benefits will gradually diminish if there is a delay in climate-sensitive land use planning, implying growing GHGs and intensified climate stresses. Our analysis indicates that integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban land use needs to be enacted as soon as possible: any delays in implementation reduce the window to act to maximize the co-benefits.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Cidades , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658690

RESUMO

To meet the needs of park users, planners and designers must know what park users want to do and how they want the park to offer different activities. Big data may help planners and designers gain this knowledge. This study examines how big data collected in an urban park could be used to identify meaningful implications for planning and design. While big data have emerged as a new data source, big data have not become an accepted source of data due to a lack of understanding of big data analytics. By comparing a survey as a traditional data source with big data, this study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of using big data analytics in park planning and design. There are two research questions: (1) what activities do park users want; and (2) how satisfied are users with different activities. The Gyeongui Line Forest Park, which was built on an abandoned railway, was selected as the study site. A total of 177 responses were collected through the onsite survey, and 3703 tweets mentioning the park were collected from Twitter. Results from the survey show that ordinary activities such as walking and taking a rest in the park were the most common. These findings also support existing studies. The results from social media analytics found notable things such as positive tweets about how the railway was turned into a park, and negative tweets about diseases that may occur in the park. Therefore, a survey as traditional data and social media analytics as big data can be complementary methods for the design and planning process.


Assuntos
Big Data , Planejamento de Cidades , Parques Recreativos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627399

RESUMO

In the context of global climate change and accelerated urbanization, the deterioration of the urban living environment has had a serious negative impact on the life of residents. However, studies on the effects of forms and configurations of outdoor spaces in residential areas on the outdoor thermal environment based on the particularity of climate in severe cold regions are very limited. Through field measurements of the thermal environment at the pedestrian level in the outdoor space of residential areas in three seasons (summer, the transition season and winter) in Harbin, China, this study explored the effects of forms and configurations of three typical outdoor spaces (the linear block, the enclosed block, and the square) on the thermal environment and thermal comfort using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that the thermal environment of all outdoor space forms was relatively comfortable in the transition season but was uncomfortable in summer and winter. The semi-enclosed block with a higher sky view factor (SVF) had a higher thermal comfort condition in summer and winter. The linear block with higher buildings and wider south-north spacing had a higher thermal comfort condition in summer and winter. When the buildings on the south side were lower and the south-north spacing was wider, the thermal environment of the square was more comfortable in winter.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Habitação , Sensação Térmica , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estações do Ano , Urbanização
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561590

RESUMO

With the rapid expansion of impervious surfaces, urban waterlogging has become a typical "urban disease" in China, seriously hindering the sustainable development of cities. Therefore, reducing the impact of impervious surfaces on surface runoff is an effective approach to alleviate urban waterlogging. Presently, the development mode of many cities in China has shifted from an increase in urban scale to the improvement of urban quality through urban renewal, which is the current and future development path for most cities. Optimizing the design of impervious surfaces in urban renewal planning to reduce its impact on surface runoff is an important way to prevent and control urban waterlogging. The aim of this research is to construct an optimization model of impervious surface space layout under the framework of a geographic simulation technology-integrated ant colony optimization (ACO) and Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) model (ACO-SCS) in a case study of Guangzhou in China. Urban runoff plots in the study area are divided according to the area of the urban planning unit. With the goal of minimizing the runoff coefficient, the optimal space layout of the impervious surfaces is obtained, which provides a technical method and reference for urban waterlogging prevention and control through urban renewal planning. The results reveal that the optimization of impervious surface space layout through ACO-SCS achieves a satisfactory effect with an average optimization rate of 9.52%, and a maximum optimization rate of 33.16%. The research also shows that the initial impervious surface layout is the key influencing factor in ACO-SCS. In the urban renewal planning stage, the space layout of the impervious surfaces with a high-low-high density discontinuous connection can be constructed by transforming medium-density impervious surfaces into low-density impervious surfaces to achieve the flat and long-type agglomeration of the low-density and high-density impervious surfaces, which can effectively reduce the influence of urban development on surface runoff. There is spatial heterogeneity of the optimal results in different urban runoff plots. Therefore, the policy of urban renewal planning for urban waterlogging prevention and control should be different. The optimized results of impervious surface space layout provide useful reference information for urban renewal planning.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Chuva , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109591, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563602

RESUMO

There is dearth of studies on climate change based vulnerabilities of the urban people. It has been a matter of widespread debate whether nature of livelihood has any role to play in regulating the vulnerabilities of an individual. To find an answer, in a first ever attempt, this study tested three different approaches viz. Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), LVI IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) models and Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) to estimate climate change vulnerability of urban communities from various livelihoods in Guwahati city, Assam, India. Guwahati is considered to be the gateway to the seven North Eastern states of India and therefore strategically very important for this region. A structured survey was conducted involving 200 stakeholders from various livelihood sectors viz. construction workers, perishable item sellers, farmers, taxi/auto driver/rickshaw puller/coolie, tea stall/fast food seller, gas cylinder deliverymen, street vendors/salespersons, traffic police/police, doctors and boatmen. Data was systematically aggregated and examined using the above-mentioned composite indices. The differential vulnerabilities were compared and results suggested that the farmers were the most vulnerable community by virtue of their high sensitivity towards health, economic losses, exacerbated by their poor adaptive capacity toward unpredictable climatic variations. Doctors were the least vulnerable owing to their higher levels of awareness and adaptive capacity. These results reiterated the importance of awareness and access to resources in regulating vulnerability. The vulnerability scores also revealed that LVI and Model II (M II) of LVI IPCC approaches were the two most suitable indices and could be used for comparative vulnerability analysis. These pragmatic approaches can be used to assess the community vulnerabilities and could stimulate robust Climate Smart Urban Planning (CSUP).


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Mudança Climática , Cidades , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Índia
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105276, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525649

RESUMO

Traffic safety analysis at the macroscopic level usually relies on previously defined areal traffic analysis zones (TAZs) that are used as the units of investigation. Hence, statistical inference is made on the basis of such units, implying that the consideration of a certain TAZ configuration may influence the results and conclusions achieved. Regarding this, the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a well-known issue in the field of spatial statistics, which refers to the effects that arise in statistical properties and estimations when there is a change in areal units of analysis. In this paper, the consequences of MAUP have been investigated through a dataset of traffic crashes that occurred in Valencia within the years 2014 and 2015 and two common statistical models: a conditional autoregressive model and a geographically weighted regression. In the absence of an established TAZ scheme for the city, four classes of basic spatial units (BSUs) were considered: census tracts, hexagonal units and two types with construction based on the structure of main roads and intersections of the city. Each of these BSU types was specified at different levels of spatial aggregation. The main research objective was to investigate the final effects that changes in BSU type and scale have on model parameter estimations, but also the specific alterations that MAUP causes to data in terms of the distributional characteristics of the response, multicollinearity among the covariates and covariates' spatial autocorrelation. The results showed the presence and severity of MAUP for the dataset and area that were analysed. Although effects from scale variations were more moderate, changing the BSU type affected the results severely. The joint use of hexagonal units and a conditional autoregressive model achieved the best performance among all the possibilities explored, but the choice of a proper BSU unit should rely on more factors. Despite MAUP effects, educational centres showed a consistent (and negative) association with traffic crashes, a fact possibly related to their distribution across the whole city. Other covariates revealed a positive correlation with crash counts, but these findings were more uncertain given the discrepancies found at different scales and zonings.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança , Espanha
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