Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 213
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401747

RESUMO

As urbanization progresses, increasingly impervious surfaces have changed the hydrological processes in cities and resulted in a major challenge for urban stormwater control. This study uses the urban stormwater model to evaluate the performance and costs of low impact development (LID) scenarios in a micro urban catchment. Rainfall-runoff data of three rainfall events were used for model calibration and validation. The pre-developed (PreDev) scenario, post-developed (PostDev) scenario, and three LID scenarios were used to evaluate the hydrologic performance of LID measures. Using reduction in annual runoff as the goal, the best solutions for each LID scenario were selected using cost-effectiveness curves. The simulation results indicated that the three designed LID scenarios could effectively reduce annual runoff volumes and pollutant loads compared with the PostDev scenario. The most effective scenario (MaxPerf) reduced annual runoff by 53.4%, followed by the sponge city (SpoPerf, 51.5%) and economy scenarios (EcoPerf, 43.1%). The runoff control efficiency of the MaxPerf and SpoPerf scenarios increased by 23.9% and 19.5%, respectively, when compared with the EcoPerf scenario; however, the costs increased by 104% and 83.6%. The reduction rates of four pollutants (TSS, TN, TP, and COD) under the MaxPerf scenario were 59.8-61.1%, followed by SpoPerf (53.9-58.3%) and EcoPerf (42.3-45.4%), and the costs of the three scenarios were 3.74, 3.47, and 1.83 million yuan, respectively. These results can provide guidance to urban stormwater managers in future urban planning to improve urban water security.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Planejamento Ambiental , Chuva , Urbanização , Movimentos da Água , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Planejamento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição da Água/economia
4.
Environ Res ; 158: 179-187, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646717

RESUMO

The valuation of urban water management practices and associated nature-based solutions (NBS) is highly contested, and is becoming increasingly important to cities seeking to increase their resilience to climate change whilst at the same time facing budgetary pressures. Different conceptions of 'values' exist, each being accompanied by a set of potential measures ranging from calculative practices (closely linked to established market valuation techniques) - through to holistic assessments that seek to address wider concerns of sustainability. Each has the potential to offer important insights that often go well beyond questions of balancing the costs and benefits of the schemes concerned. However, the need to address - and go beyond - economic considerations presents policy-makers, practitioners and researchers with difficult methodological, ethical and practical challenges, especially when considered without the benefit of a broader theoretical framework or in the absence of well-established tools (as might apply within more traditional infrastructural planning contexts, such as the analysis of transport interventions). Drawing on empirical studies undertaken in Sheffield over a period of 10 years, and delivered in partnership with several other European cities and regions, we compare and examine different attempts to evaluate the benefits of urban greening options and future development scenarios. Comparing these different approaches to the valuation of nature-based solutions alongside other, more conventional forms of infrastructure - and indeed integrating both 'green and grey' interventions within a broader framework of infrastructures - throws up some surprising results and conclusions, as well as providing important sign-posts for future research in this rapidly emerging field.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(34): 8957-8962, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062692

RESUMO

The environmental fragility of cities under advanced urbanization has motivated extensive efforts to promote the sustainability of urban ecosystems and physical infrastructures. Less attention has been devoted to neighborhood inequalities and fissures in the civic infrastructure that potentially challenge social sustainability and the capacity of cities to collectively address environmental challenges. This article draws on a program of research in three American cities-Boston, Chicago, and Los Angeles-to develop hypotheses and methodological strategies for assessing how the multidimensional and multilevel inequalities that characterize contemporary cities bear on sustainability. In addition to standard concerns with relative inequality in income, the article reviews evidence on compounded deprivation, racial cleavages, civic engagement, institutional cynicism, and segregated patterns of urban mobility and organizational ties that differentially connect neighborhood resources. Harnessing "ecometric" measurement tools and emerging sources of urban data with a theoretically guided framework on neighborhood inequality can enhance the pursuit of sustainable cities, both in the United States and globally.


Assuntos
Cidades/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Ecossistema , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Urbanização , Boston , Chicago , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Planejamento de Cidades/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Los Angeles , Reforma Urbana/economia , Reforma Urbana/métodos , Reforma Urbana/tendências
6.
Environ Manage ; 59(1): 10-20, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27812794

RESUMO

To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental , Rios , Urbanização , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política Ambiental/economia , Finlândia , Humanos , Incerteza , Urbanização/tendências
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2016: 6972818, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195005

RESUMO

The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Organização e Administração , Emissões de Veículos
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 31 Suppl 1: 39-50, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648362

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city's historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City's Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Esportes , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(supl.1): 39-50, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-767945

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city’s historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City’s Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016.


Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo es discutir las contradicciones del legado olímpico, en relación con la salud y el medio ambiente en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Las políticas públicas, orientadas por los mega-eventos deportivos, son criticadas por contribuir y profundizar las históricas desigualdades socio-espaciales del municipio. Este trabajo, basado en una investigación documental y de análisis de datos, adoptó un enfoque dirigido a la construcción de una propuesta de ciudad sostenible, de acuerdo a lo establecido en la Ley 10.257/2001 del Estatuto de la ciudad. El trabajo concluye realizando consideraciones generales y específicas sobre el urbanismo olímpico, su orientación según la lógica del mercado y los errores en la superación de problemas de salud pública y saneamiento ambiental que permanecerán como herencia tras el 2016.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho é discutir as contradições do legado olímpico em relação à saúde e ao meio ambiente na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. As políticas públicas, orientadas pelos megaeventos esportivos, são criticadas por contribuírem e aprofundarem as históricas desigualdades socioespaciais do município. Com base em pesquisa documental e análise de dados, adotou-se uma abordagem voltada para a construção de uma proposta de cidade sustentável conforme estabelece a Lei no 10.257/2001 – o Estatuto da Cidade. Conclui-se tecendo considerações gerais e específicas sobre o urbanismo olímpico, sua orientação mercadológica e as falhas na superação de problemas de saúde pública e saneamento ambiental, que permanecerão como herança após 2016.


Assuntos
Humanos , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Esportes , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0135871, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308858

RESUMO

In this paper, we aim at exploring how individual location decisions affect the shape of a growing city and, more precisely, how they may add up to a configuration that diverges from equilibrium configurations formulated ex-ante. To do so, we provide a two-sector city model merging a static equilibrium analysis with agent-based simulations. Results show that under strong agglomeration effects, urban development is monotonic and ends up with circular, monocentric long-term configurations. For low agglomeration effects however, elongated and multicentric urban configurations may emerge. The occurrence and underlying dynamics of these configurations are also discussed regarding commuting costs and the distance-decay of agglomeration economies between firms. To sum up, our paper warns urban planning policy makers against the difference that may stand between appropriate long-term perspectives, represented here by analytic equilibrium configurations, and short-term urban configurations, simulated here by a multi-agent system.


Assuntos
Cidades/economia , Simulação por Computador , Geografia/economia , Heurística , Urbanização/tendências , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Planejamento de Cidades/tendências , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Reforma Urbana/economia
13.
Environ Manage ; 55(6): 1354-65, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832343

RESUMO

In an effort to increase the livability of its cities, public agencies in Australia are investing in green infrastructure to improve public health, reduce heat island effects and transition toward water sensitive urban design. In this paper, we present a simple and replicable approach to building a business case for green infrastructure. This approach requires much less time and resources compared to other methods for estimating the social and economic returns to society from such investments. It is a pragmatic, reasonably comprehensive approach that includes socio-demographic profile of potential users and catchment analysis to assess the economic value of community benefits of the investment. The approach has been applied to a case study area in the City of Brimbank, a western suburb of Greater Melbourne. We find that subject to a set of assumptions, a reasonable business case can be made. We estimate potential public benefits of avoided health costs of about AU$75,049 per annum and potential private benefits of AU$3.9 million. The project area is one of the most poorly serviced areas in the municipality in terms of quality open spaces and the potential beneficiaries are from relatively low income households with less than average health status and education levels. The values of cultural (recreational benefits, avoided health costs, and increased property values) and regulating (reduction in heat island effect and carbon sequestration) ecosystem services were quantified that can potentially offset annual maintenance costs.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Investimentos em Saúde , Reforma Urbana/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Austrália , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Planejamento Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Áreas de Pobreza , Saúde da População Urbana , População Urbana , Reforma Urbana/economia
14.
Am J Public Health ; 105(3): 470-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602866

RESUMO

There is mounting concern for the health of urban populations as cities expand at an unprecedented rate. Urban green spaces provide settings for a remarkable range of physical and mental health benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effective tool for planning healthy cities. Despite this, limited information on how specific elements of nature deliver health outcomes restricts its use for enhancing population health. We articulate a framework for identifying direct and indirect causal pathways through which nature delivers health benefits, and highlight current evidence. We see a need for a bold new research agenda founded on testing causality that transcends disciplinary boundaries between ecology and health. This will lead to cost-effective and tailored solutions that could enhance population health and reduce health inequalities.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/normas , Ecossistema , Planejamento Ambiental/normas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde/normas , Saúde da População Urbana , Causalidade , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Planejamento de Cidades/tendências , Análise Custo-Benefício , Planejamento Ambiental/economia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Planejamento em Saúde/economia , Planejamento em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Natureza
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. 250 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-782193

RESUMO

Por suas dinâmicas sociais e territoriais complexas, as metrópoles estão sujeitas aos graves impactos causados por eventos climáticos extremos, reais ou esperados. Organismos internacionais multilaterais e extensa literatura acadêmica avalizam a importância do papel dos ecossistemas para a redução dos riscos e na mitigação das consequências dos desastres ambientais, tanto em áreas rurais como urbanas. Propõe-se a valoração das áreas verdes livres e dos parques urbanos como recurso que integre estratégias para o desenvolvimento da qualidade ambiental das cidades através dos serviços ecossistêmicos derivados da cobertura arbórea local, divisando-se a manutenção da saúde pública em um meio ambientalmente equilibrado. Foi aplicada ferramenta tecnológica representada pelo software i-Tree como método empregado para a identificação, quantificação e estimativas de valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos prestados pelas árvores contidas no Parque Ibirapuera, em São Paulo, que serviu como referência. É discutida a significância da inserção dos princípios e objetivos do instrumento do Pagamento por Serviços Ecossistêmicos no planejamento, ordenamento e gestão urbanos, integrando-o a políticas de melhoria da saúde ambiental nas cidades...


For their complex social and territorial dynamics, the cities are subject to the severe impacts of extreme weather events, actual or expected. Multilateral international organizations and extensive academic literature endorse the important role of ecosystems to reduce risks and mitigate the consequences of environmental disasters, both rural and urban areas. It is proposed to valuation the green areas and urban parks as a resource that integrates strategies for the development of environmental quality in cities through the ecosystem services derived from local tree cover, for the purpose of maintenance of public health. Was applied technological tool represented by i-Tree software as a method used to identify, quantify and estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by trees contained in Ibirapuera Park, in São Paulo, which served as a reference. Discussed the relevance of the integration of the principles and objectives of the instrument Payment for Ecosystem Services in urban planning and management, integrating it in policies to improve environmental health in cities...


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecossistema , Saúde Ambiental , Área Urbana , Planejamento de Cidades/economia
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 24(4): 927-34, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23898647

RESUMO

Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Ecossistema , Rios , China , Cidades , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA