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4.
Global Health ; 16(1): 94, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has rapidly and radically changed the face of human health and social interaction. As was the case with COVID-19, the world is similarly unprepared to respond to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the challenges it will produce. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to examine how the international community might better respond to the growing AMR threat. MAIN BODY: The impacts of COVID-19 have manifested in health system, economic, social, and global political implications. Increasing AMR will also present challenges in these domains. As seen with COVID-19, increasing healthcare usage and resource scarcity may lead to ethical dilemmas about prioritization of care; unemployment and economic downturn may disproportionately impact people in industries reliant on human interaction (especially women); and international cooperation may be compromised as nations strive to minimize outbreaks within their own borders. CONCLUSION: AMR represents a slow-moving disaster that offers a unique opportunity to proactively develop interventions to mitigate its impact. The world's attention is currently rightfully focused on responding to COVID-19, but there is a moral imperative to take stock of lessons learned and opportunities to prepare for the next global health emergency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Previsões , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 615-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046915

RESUMO

National Veterinary Services (NVS) are increasingly called upon to respond to a wide range of disasters. The health, safety and wellness of Veterinary Services personnel are essential to maintaining a capable workforce and sustaining operational and organisational effectiveness. Disasters can generate hazards with potential impacts on health, including physical trauma, environmental exposure and psychological stress. Maintaining health, safety and wellness in the workforce requires leadership and training. Individuals and teams must be well equipped and well practised to address hazards and their mitigation, to prevent injury. Of particular concern for veterinarians are the behavioural health aspects of disasters. This issue has not received the attention required considering the scale and scope of the problem which, according to a recent survey, affects up to 50% of veterinary disaster responders. The symptoms cited in this survey range from anxiety to suicidal thoughts. Accordingly, more and better resources, including protective equipment, guidelines and training, must be developed to strengthen the capabilities of NVS to respond to disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 599-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046916

RESUMO

Statistics show that disasters have expanded in scope and scale, with impacts on both humans and animals. As animals are valued not only for their economic value, but also for their companionship, people sometimes risk their lives to protect them, and emergency responders are expected to safeguard their welfare during emergencies. This paper discusses experiences from different regions of the world in animal disaster risk reduction and management in terms of legislation, funding streams, planning, capacity development, and communications. It is widely recognised that human, animal and environmental well-being are interconnected; therefore, as this is the case, and as veterinarians are at the forefront in ensuring animal welfare, they should be involved throughout the disaster management cycle. While animals and their welfare should always be considered in national disaster management plans, sub-regional authorities must be empowered to integrate animal welfare principles when responding to emergencies and implementing risk reduction programmes. Capacity development is key for Veterinary Services personnel who work in the fields of disaster management and risk reduction. Training tools and curricula developed by different organisations are available to foster skills such as incident coordination, risk communication, or response planning using tools such as the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS). Intergovernmental organisations also play a significant role in setting the standards and frameworks within which professionals operate.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 551-559, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046920

RESUMO

Disaster and disaster risk management are described differently by various agencies, but the underlying principles remain the same. Disaster risk management is a continuous and integrated multidisciplinary and multisectoral process of planning and implementing measures that establish a culture of risk avoidance by building resilient communities. Such communities can only be created through a systematic process of education, training and development, involving all stakeholders. A researched comprehensive disaster management plan should be developed, but will only be successful if it sets clear priorities; is practised, tested, adapted and/or amended where necessary; and is practical, feasible and well understood by all those who are involved. Everyone who plays a role in implementing this plan must recognise that role and be well trained in its execution. Capacity building for disaster management is also a multisectoral, multidisciplinary, integrative process, achieved through a system of integrated education, training and public awareness programmes.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 445-450, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046931

RESUMO

Technological disasters present a unique set of requirements for national Veterinary Services, encompassing complex issues of risk to human health, animal health and the environment. Cooperation among agencies and Ministries that do not routinely coordinate with one another during transboundary animal disease incidents or natural disaster responses may be required in technological disasters. Effective preparedness and response requires additional planning, training, exercises, and equipping to safely and efficiently provide the necessary services in a technological disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Humanos
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 435-443, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046932

RESUMO

Complex emergencies, also known as major humanitarian emergencies, differ from emergencies related to natural disasters or major disease outbreaks, in that they are essentially political in nature and will, in most cases, erode the cultural, civil, political and economic stability of societies. They can be exacerbated by natural disasters and eventually require external interventions. National Veterinary Services are usually weakened or partially or totally disrupted. Interventions to support livestock-dependent communities should build on local capacity. Multisector, integrated disaster management plans should be in place and should include not only preparedness and response, but also mitigation, prevention and recovery strategies. National Veterinary Services and their partners should work in close collaboration and are encouraged to look beyond animal-health-related interventions, also addressing access to feed and water, and keeping marketing chains for livestock open. This paper also touches on the specific needs of displaced people, host communities, and pastoralists, as well as addressing disease eradication programmes in the context of complex emergencies.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Emergências/veterinária
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 417-425, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046933

RESUMO

This case study outlines the actions of Cuba's Veterinary Service, as part of the country's disaster risk reduction and management system, in response to Hurricane Irma. The phenomenon affected ten of Cuba's 15 provinces and caused significant damage in 53 of its municipalities (29.6%). During the response effort, the pre-established measures for the various phases (warning, alert and emergency) were deployed according to the disaster reduction plans for each level. In all provinces, animals were protected by moving them to safer locations, allowing for pre-established sanitary measures and technical assistance. Nonetheless, damage was incurred, mainly to the roofs of some animal housing. The following deaths were recorded: 210,150 poultry, 2,752 cattle (of which 73.8% were calves) and 866 pigs (of which 68% were young animals). In addition, 7% of the inventory of hives was damaged and 3.3% of hives were lost. Damage to infrastructure included: 466 poultry houses, 1,422 cattle houses, 431 pig houses, 1,200 wind pumps and 13 of the country's 17 feed concentrate plants. As no major damage was reported to the Veterinary Service's facilities (laboratories and offices), its viability was guaranteed at all times. Rapid damage assessment enabled priorities for rehabilitation and recovery actions to be set, with the result that, just three months after the hurricane had struck, 67% of the poultry houses and 33% of the pig houses had been restored. This article focuses on preparedness, response and lessons learned.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Bovinos , Cuba , Abrigo para Animais , Suínos
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 393-398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046936

RESUMO

This paper outlines the role of laboratories in animal-health-related disasters and emergencies, with a particular focus on biological threats - intentional, accidental and natural. Whilst multisectoral coordination is increasingly recognised as necessary for effective preparedness and response to all kinds of disasters, the role of the laboratory is often overlooked. The laboratories' involvement, not just in the response, but across all phases of disaster management - mitigation, planning, response and recovery - is essential, not only for improved animal health but for preservation of livelihoods and for food security, social cohesion and economic stability.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Laboratórios
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(8): 870-871, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896877

RESUMO

Emergency preparedness is a critical pillar of the International Health Regulations (IHR), a legally binding instrument underlying the global health security regime that came into effect in 2005. Lebanon, a small country of 10 452 km2 bordering the eastern Mediterranean, ratified the IHR in 2007 after the devasting effects of a sudden military conflict in 2006 that severely impacted the recovering health system. Moreover, the Lebanese health system infrastructure was only just recovering from 15 years of civil war that ended in 1990. Since 2005, the country has also faced a complex refugee crisis potentiating the risk of disease outbreaks since 2011, in addition to a severe financial crisis that has degenerated into social unrest since October 2019, and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic since February 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Substâncias Explosivas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pandemias
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(36): 1233-1237, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914768

RESUMO

National Preparedness month is observed every September as a public service reminder of the importance of personal and community preparedness for all events; it coincides with the peak of the hurricane season in the United States. Severe storms and hurricanes can have long-lasting effects at all community levels. Persons who are prepared and well-informed are often better able to protect themselves and others (1). Major hurricanes can devastate low-lying coastal areas and cause injury and loss of life from storm surge, flooding, and high winds (2). State and local government entities play a significant role in preparing communities for hurricanes and by evacuating coastal communities before landfall to reduce loss of life from flooding, wind, and power outages (3). Laws can further improve planning and outreach for catastrophic events by ensuring explicit statutory authority over evacuations of communities at risk (4). State evacuation laws vary widely and might not adequately address information and communication flows to reach populations living in disaster-prone areas who are at risk. To understand the range of evacuation laws in coastal communities that historically have been affected by hurricanes, a systematic policy scan of the existing laws supporting hurricane evacuation in eight southern coastal states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas) was conducted. After conducting a thematic analysis, this report found that all eight states have laws to execute evacuation orders, traffic control (egress/ingress), and evacuation to shelters. However, only four of the states have laws related to community outreach, delivery of public education programs, and public notice requirements. The findings in this report suggest a need for authorities in hurricane-prone states to review how to execute evacuation policies, particularly with respect to community outreach and communication to populations at risk. Implementation of state evacuation laws and policies that support hurricane evacuation management can help affected persons avoid harm and enhance community resiliency (5). Newly emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have and will continue to additionally challenge hurricane evacuations.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been little systematic exploration into what affects timeliness of epidemic response, despite the potential for earlier responses to be more effective. Speculations have circulated that previous exposure to major epidemics helped health systems respond more quickly to COVID-19. This study leverages organisational memory theory to test whether health systems with any, more severe, or more recent exposure to major epidemics enacted timelier COVID-19 policy responses. METHODS: A data set was constructed cataloguing 846 policies across 178 health systems in total, 37 of which had major epidemics within the last 20 years. Hypothesis testing used OLS regressions with World Health Organization region fixed effects, controlling for several health system expenditure and political variables. RESULTS: Results show that exposure to any major epidemics was associated with providing earlier response in the following policy categories: all policies, surveillance/response, distancing, and international travel policies. The effect was about 6-10 days earlier response. The significance of this variable was largely nullified with the addition of the other two independent variables. Neither total cases nor years since previous epidemics showed no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that health systems may learn from past major epidemics. Policymakers ought to institutionalise lessons from COVID-19. Future studies can examine specific generalisable lessons and whether timelier responses correlated with lower health and economic impacts.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994228

RESUMO

COVID-19 has demonstrated that most countries' public health systems and capacities are insufficiently prepared to prevent a localised infectious disease outbreak from spreading. Strengthening national preparedness requires National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs), or their equivalent, to overcome practical challenges affecting timely access to, and use of, data that is critical to preparedness. Our situational analysis in collaboration with NPHIs in three countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria and Pakistan-characterises these challenges. Our findings indicate that NPHIs' role necessitates collection and analysis of data from multiple sources that do not routinely share data with public health authorities. Since initiating requests for access to new data sources can be a lengthy process, it is essential that NPHIs are routinely monitoring a broad set of priority indicators that are selected to reflect the country-specific context. NPHIs must also have the authority to be able to request rapid sharing of data from public and private sector organisations during health emergencies and to access additional human and financial resources during disease outbreaks. Finally, timely, transparent and informative communication of synthesised data from NPHIs will facilitate sustained data sharing with NPHIs from external organisations. These actions identified by our analysis will support the availability of robust information systems that allow relevant data to be collected, shared and analysed by NPHIs sufficiently rapidly to inform a timely local response to infectious disease outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia
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