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1.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 6-16, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465406

RESUMO

Across the world, there is an increasing tendency for businesses to rely on best practices, based on the assumption that they provide proven, credible and efficient solutions. In-depth scrutiny of 'best practicism', however, paints a different picture of its effectiveness; indeed, the adoption of best practices is commonly ineffective due to their misapplication or the use of unsupported assumptions. This article explores the use of best practices in the business resilience profession and describes reasons why assumptions about them are often incorrect. Cautions about best practices focus on the importance of change processes, underestimating problem complexity, and the influence of confirmation bias. These factors, and ways to address them, are described in the context of business resilience.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio
2.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 17-29, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465407

RESUMO

Exercise GTA Unified was a functional, multi-agency, cross-jurisdictional, health-sector focused mass casualty preparedness exercise conducted in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) on 28th November, 2019. With over 1,000 unique paper-based and electronic injects and 34 participating agencies, including 22 separate hospital sites, Exercise GTA Unified is likely the largest health-sector focused mass casualty preparedness exercise ever conducted in Canada. The exercise design approach supported a successful, objective-based functional exercise, with elements of marked realism for participants. The exercise offered a unique opportunity to collect data for future analysis and the insights gained will have a transformative impact on interagency engagement and cooperation for emergency response planning. Furthermore, the approach adopted for the exercise is affordable, reproducible, scalable and transferrable to sectors beyond the health system. This paper provides a detailed review of the key planning and design components adopted in the development and implementation of the exercise, as well as practical insights for the design and conduct of multi-agency, cross-jurisdictional functional exercises.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Canadá , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
3.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 30-43, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465408

RESUMO

Federal medical stations (FMS) and alternative care sites are used to provide surge capability and capacity for short-term inpatients with healthcare needs that cannot be accommodated or provided for in a general shelter or general acute care facilities. In March and April 2020, an FMS was deployed to support the management of the COVID-19 pandemic in the 'hotspot' of Santa Clara County, CA. This paper describes how the flexibility of the incident command system allowed for the positions of situation unit leader and liaison officer to be combined at the FMS, supporting the effectiveness and efficiency of the FMS through comprehensive situational awareness, information-sharing and collaboration. This method of combining closely related roles is not suitable for all healthcare emergencies, but as this paper demonstrates, it is well worth considering in circumstances where competences and capacity align.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 44-52, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465409

RESUMO

With the world becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, the disruptions that businesses face are becoming increasingly unpredictable. Traditional approaches to business continuity planning must therefore evolve to enhance organisational resilience. As this paper will discuss, it is vital to ensure a balance between detailed planning and flexibility and adaptability. This can be achieved through: 1) creating closer links between business continuity and strategic management; 2) embedding a culture of resilience throughout the organisation; 3) decentralising business continuity planning and enabling teams and departments to design and own their own plans; 4) making planning principles- based; and 5) exercising more frequently. This paper argues that planning must be based on principles and outcomes rather than processes, and how it must, to be integrated within broader risk management and strategy functions to be inclusive of everyone, from the staff all the way up to the board. In short, preparedness and resilience must become part of their DNA.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio , Humanos , Organizações , Gestão de Riscos
5.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 53-64, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465410

RESUMO

A pandemic is a unique natural disaster that will pose challenges for any organisation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, organisations of all types have struggled to maintain operations while assuring the health and wellbeing of the various persons who work on their behalf. Certainly, many organisations have found that their risk management and business continuity plans fail to consider adequately the disruption associated with a pandemic caused by a novel pathogen. As this paper discusses, this suggests a need to revisit risk assessments and business impact analyses; the assumptions and timeframes on which they are based; and the plans that they have generated. The paper argues that static plans are ill-suited to address the evolving threat of pandemic, and that effective planning and management of pandemic response must be dynamic in nature.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 65-77, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465411

RESUMO

This paper explores the significance of supply chains to modern economies and the brittle nature of those supply chains. It considers how this brittleness is increasingly exposed by an array of threats, both natural and manmade, as well as the pressures placed on supply chains from rapid changes in society's expectations and priorities, including with respect to globalisation and ethical considerations. The paper establishes why resilience matters, setting out the degree to which known risks are mitigated and assessing the current status of supply chain resilience. Finally, practical techniques are suggested by which organisations may better understand the risks to their supply chains and enhance the resilience of those chains.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres
7.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 78-86, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465412

RESUMO

Globally, disasters appear to be growing in frequency, intensity and cost. While national governments provide varying levels of assistance to affected populations and regions, are local agencies doing what they can to prepare for the next disaster? This article discusses what can be done, sometimes at minimal cost, to be better prepared to recover economically from the next disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Folclore , Ouro
8.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 87-104, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465413

RESUMO

Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are vulnerable to disasters because of their limited ability to duplicate, separate and diversify their risk. SMEs must therefore rely on local personnel and resources to plan for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Unfortunately, community-level planning does not readily incorporate SMEs effectively. SMEs are thus forced to plan in isolation as current hazard risk analysis (HRA) models do not adequately account for the capacity of local personnel to respond to emergent hazards. Accordingly, this study posits an easy-to-use SME disaster impact model for HRA that combines probability theory and statistical analysis to integrate local personnel capacity. The model is designed specifically for SME usage; although, it can be applied to any organisation regardless of size. This study proposes a standardised HRA probability and consequence sequence based on the analysis of over 400 locations and risks that determined the model's reliability in practice. The posited SME disaster impact model for HRA effectively integrates vulnerability and local personnel capacity with services, personnel and equipment to optimise SME disaster response and recovery capacity.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
11.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 51-54, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks are growing in frequency, increasing concerns about chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Asphyxiants (e.g., cyanide), opioids (e.g., carfentanyl), and nerve agents (e.g., ricin) represent some of the most lethal CWAs. Our aim was to define the epidemiology of CWA use in terrorism and detail specific agents used to allow for the development of training programs for responders. METHODS: The open-source Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all chemical attacks from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2018. Attacks were included when they fulfilled the terrorism-related criteria as set forth in the internal Codebook of the GTD. Events meeting only partial criteria were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 347 terrorism-related chemical events occurred, with 921 fatalities and 13,361 nonfatal injuries (NFIs) recorded during the study period. South Asia accounted for nearly 30% (101 of 347) of CWA attacks, with 73 of 101 occurring in Afghanistan. The Taliban was implicated in 40 of 101 events utilizing a mixture of agents, including unknown chemical gases (likely representing trials of a number of different chemicals), contamination of water sources with pesticides, and the use of corrosive acid. The largest death toll from a single event (200 fatalities) was attributed to a cult-related mass murder in the Kasese District of Uganda in March 2000. East Asia sustained the highest NFI toll of 7,007 as a result of chemical attacks; 5,500 were attributed to the Tokyo subway sarin gas attack of 1995 by Aum Shinrikyo. CONCLUSION: The use of CWAs remains a concern given the rising rate of terrorist events. First responders and healthcare workers should be aware of potential chemical hazards that have been used regionally and globally and should train and prepare to respond appropriately.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Planejamento em Desastres , Terrorismo , Ásia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
14.
Nature ; 596(7870): 80-86, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349288

RESUMO

Flooding affects more people than any other environmental hazard and hinders sustainable development1,2. Investing in flood adaptation strategies may reduce the loss of life and livelihood caused by floods3. Where and how floods occur and who is exposed are changing as a result of rapid urbanization4, flood mitigation infrastructure5 and increasing settlements in floodplains6. Previous estimates of the global flood-exposed population have been limited by a lack of observational data, relying instead on models, which have high uncertainty3,7-11. Here we use daily satellite imagery at 250-metre resolution to estimate flood extent and population exposure for 913 large flood events from 2000 to 2018. We determine a total inundation area of 2.23 million square kilometres, with 255-290 million people directly affected by floods. We estimate that the total population in locations with satellite-observed inundation grew by 58-86 million from 2000 to 2015. This represents an increase of 20 to 24 per cent in the proportion of the global population exposed to floods, ten times higher than previous estimates7. Climate change projections for 2030 indicate that the proportion of the population exposed to floods will increase further. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the satellite observations will improve our understanding of where floods are changing and how best to adapt. The global flood database generated from these observations will help to improve vulnerability assessments, the accuracy of global and local flood models, the efficacy of adaptation interventions and our understanding of the interactions between landcover change, climate and floods.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Demografia , Planejamento em Desastres , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Imagens de Satélites , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Clima Extremo , Humanos , Medição de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nuclear or radiation disaster risk within the French Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes state is low (but not absent) due to its proximity to four Nuclear Power Generation Centers and two regional cancer control centers. This study aims to compare subjective stress ratings for emergency health care workers regarding nuclear and radiation disasters between two locations: at work versus at home. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We distributed an anonymous online questionnaire via RedCap® to all emergency health care workers who could be involved in patient care after a nuclear or radiation disaster. It comprised 18 questions divided into three parts-theoretical knowledge and practical assessment, stress assessment, and sociodemographic criteria. RESULTS: We analyzed 107 responses. There was a significant 11-point increase in stress levels between work and home regarding nuclear or radiation disaster risks (p = 0.01). Less than 25% of emergency health care workers surveyed benefited from annual training. CONCLUSION: The stress levels of emergency health care workers regarding nuclear or radiation disaster were higher at work than at home and increased without annual training. It is important to increase knowledge about these protocols and to mandate yearly training for all workers potentially involved in these disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 644654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458219

RESUMO

The need to prepare veterinarians to serve as part of the disaster medical response for mass casualty incidents has been recognized since at least the 1960's. The potential value of incorporating veterinarians for mass casualty disaster response has been noted by organizations throughout the world. Clinical veterinarians are highly trained medical professionals with access to equipment, medications, and treatment capabilities that can be leveraged in times of crisis. The ongoing threat of disasters with the current widespread healthcare access barriers requires the disaster management community to address the ethical constraints, training deficiencies and legal limitations for veterinary medical response to mass casualty disasters. An ethical imperative exists for veterinarians with translatable clinical skills to provide care to humans in the event of a mass casualty disaster with insufficient alternative traditional medical resources. Though this imperative exists, there is no established training mechanism to prepare veterinarians for the provision of emergency medical care to humans. In addition, the lack of clear guidance regarding what legal protections exist for voluntary responders persists as a barrier to rapid and effective response of veterinarians to mass casualty disasters. Measures need to be undertaken at all levels of government to address and remove the barriers. Failure to do so reduces potentially available medical resources available to an already strained medical system during mass casualty events.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Médicos Veterinários , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360083

RESUMO

The management of emergencies consists of a chain of actions with the support of staff, stuff, structure, and system, i.e., surge capacity. However, whenever the needs exceed the present resources, there should be flexibility in the system to employ other resources within communities, i.e., flexible surge capacity (FSC). This study aimed to investigate the possibility of creating alternative care facilities (ACFs) to relieve hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Using a Swedish questionnaire, quantitative data were compiled from facilities of interest and were completed with qualitative data obtained from interviews with key informants. Increasing interest to take part in a FSC system was identified among those interviewed. All medical facilities indicated an interest in offering minor treatments, while a select few expressed interest in offering psychosocial support or patient stabilization before transport to major hospitals and minor operations. The non-medical facilities interviewed proposed to serve food and provide spaces for the housing of victims. The lack of knowledge and scarcity of medical instruments and materials were some of the barriers to implementing the FSC response system. Despite some shortcomings, FSC seems to be applicable in Thailand. There is a need for educational initiatives, as well as a financial contingency to grant the sustainability of FSC.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Emergências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Tailândia
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