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2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009583, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081744

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic reveals a major gap in global biosecurity infrastructure: a lack of publicly available biological samples representative across space, time, and taxonomic diversity. The shortfall, in this case for vertebrates, prevents accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of emerging pathogens and their reservoir host(s) and precludes extended investigation of ecological, evolutionary, and environmental associations that lead to human infection or spillover. Natural history museum biorepositories form the backbone of a critically needed, decentralized, global network for zoonotic pathogen surveillance, yet this infrastructure remains marginally developed, underutilized, underfunded, and disconnected from public health initiatives. Proactive detection and mitigation for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) requires expanded biodiversity infrastructure and training (particularly in biodiverse and lower income countries) and new communication pipelines that connect biorepositories and biomedical communities. To this end, we highlight a novel adaptation of Project ECHO's virtual community of practice model: Museums and Emerging Pathogens in the Americas (MEPA). MEPA is a virtual network aimed at fostering communication, coordination, and collaborative problem-solving among pathogen researchers, public health officials, and biorepositories in the Americas. MEPA now acts as a model of effective international, interdisciplinary collaboration that can and should be replicated in other biodiversity hotspots. We encourage deposition of wildlife specimens and associated data with public biorepositories, regardless of original collection purpose, and urge biorepositories to embrace new specimen sources, types, and uses to maximize strategic growth and utility for EID research. Taxonomically, geographically, and temporally deep biorepository archives serve as the foundation of a proactive and increasingly predictive approach to zoonotic spillover, risk assessment, and threat mitigation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/provisão & distribuição , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Redes Comunitárias/provisão & distribuição , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Geografia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Contramedidas Médicas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
4.
Health Secur ; 19(3): 327-337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826857

RESUMO

Closed points of dispensing (PODs) are an essential component of local public health preparedness programs because most local public health agencies lack the infrastructure to distribute medical countermeasures to all community members in a short period of time through open PODs alone. However, no study has examined closed POD recruitment strategies or approaches to determine best practices, such as how to select or recruit an agency, group, or business to become a closed POD site once a potential partner has been identified. We conducted qualitative interviews with US disaster planners to identify their approaches and challenges to recruiting closed POD sites. In total, 16 disaster planners participated. Recruitment considerations related to selecting sites, paperwork needed, and challenges faced in recruiting closed POD sites. Important selection criteria for sites included size, agencies or businesses with vulnerable or confined populations who lack access or ability to get to or through open POD sites, and critical infrastructure organizations. Major challenges to recruitment included difficulty convincing sites of closed POD importance, obstacles with recruiting sites that can administer mass vaccination, and fear of legal repercussions related to medical countermeasure dispensing or administration. Closed POD recruitment is a frequently challenging but highly necessary process both before and during the current pandemic. These recommendations can be used by other disaster planners intending to start or expand their closed POD network. Public health agencies should continue working toward improved distribution plans for medical countermeasures, both oral and vaccine, to minimize morbidity and mortality during mass casualty events.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Bioterrorismo/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
5.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(3): 281-286, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909535

RESUMO

Behind the coronavirus headlines the year 2020 set multiple extreme weather records, including unprecedented wildfires in Australia and California, massive flooding in China, and back-to-back hurricanes in Central America. The impacts on the well-being of local populations have been devastating. We reviewed these extreme weather events, together with the year's newly published climate and health science reports, and identified three important themes for building health resilience in the decade ahead: (1) preparing for greater magnitude and intensity of climate hazards, extreme events, and population health impacts; (2) better anticipating cascading and compound impacts on population well-being, particularly for the most vulnerable; and (3) identifying appropriate, effective preparedness tools and strategies. While decarbonizing the economy is the urgent goal to protect both human and planetary health from a changing climate, 2020 demonstrates that recognizing the likely magnitude and complexity of future extreme weather events, and preparing local public health agencies and communities with the knowledge and tools to respond to them, will be essential in this critical decade.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos
9.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659634

RESUMO

In the present commentary, we raise the question whether the COVID-19 pandemic should be seen as just the dress rehearsal for what awaits us in the impending climate crisis. Many factors have helped us navigate the challenge of this coronavirus pandemic and continue to do so. These include: recognizing scientific expertise, medical education, and digitalization as important driving forces, providing us with key information about the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as integrating it into our curricula and promoting action-oriented research. However, the "premiere of the climate pandemic" will, in all likelihood, confront us with even greater challenges, difficulties, and threats. Adhering to scientific findings, promoting medical education about the effects of global warming and using the power of digitalization, as well as consciously engaging in our role as medical caregivers and leaders will make a decisive contribution to providing impetus for climate action.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(2): 131-141, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665797

RESUMO

Background: During epidemics and pandemics, health systems, and especially hospitals, face many challenges in the management of patients and staff. Hospital preparedness measures are critical for hospitals to respond effectively to the admission and management of COVID-19 patients. Ministry of health policy for pandemics must cover the ability of hospitals to respond to COVID-19. Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a checklist for evaluating the preparedness of hospitals to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We searched for and reviewed available evidence, including the literature and guidelines presented by related organizations. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, face-to-face interview was not possible so we used telephone and video connections, mobile applications and email for unstructured interviews. Checklist development was carried out by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Results: After applying the opinions of the experts, the final checklist had 2 main domains: measures at national and measures at hospital level. Preparedness at national level was categorized into 3 aspects that are implemented by the health ministry. Preparedness at hospital level was categorized in 24 subgroups. Conclusion: Hospital preparedness for admission and management of COVID-19 patients is essential. A checklist for the assessment of hospital preparedness for COVID-19 patient management and hospital management was designed and developed. Our preparedness assessment checklist is an expanded tool that provides clear and practical guidance that can be adapted for any hospital admitting COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pandemias , Administração em Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 580, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic a public health emergency of international concern. South Africa, like many other countries, initiated a multifaceted national response to the pandemic. Self-isolation and quarantine are essential components of the public health response in the country. This paper examined perceptions and preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine during the initial phase of the pandemic in South Africa. METHODS: The analysis used data obtained from an online quantitative survey conducted in all nine provinces using a data-free platform. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Of 55,823 respondents, 40.1% reported that they may end up in self-isolation or quarantine, 32.6% did not think that they would and 27.4% were unsure. Preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine was 59.0% for self, 53.8% for child and 59.9% for elderly. The odds of perceived possibility for self-isolation or quarantine were significantly higher among Coloureds, Whites, and Indians/Asians than Black Africans, and among those with moderate or high self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 than those with low risk perception. The odds were significantly lower among older age groups than those aged 18-29 years, and those unemployed than fully employed. The odds of preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine were significantly less likely among females than males. Preparedness for self, child and elderly isolation or quarantine was significantly more likely among other population groups than Black Africans and among older age groups than those aged 18-29 years. Preparedness for self, child and elderly isolation or quarantine was significantly less likely among those self-employed than fully employed and those residing in informal dwellings than formal dwellings. In addition, preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine was significantly less likely among those with moderate and high self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 than low risk perception. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the challenge of implementing self-isolation or quarantine in a country with different and unique social contexts. There is a need for public awareness regarding the importance of self-isolation or quarantine as well as counter measures against contextual factors inhibiting this intervention, especially in impoverished communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(1): 67-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625324

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected libraries across the globe, including academic health sciences libraries, in many ways. This manuscript describes the challenges, solutions, and practices employed by the Stony Brook University Health Sciences Library in order to maintain continuity of services to patrons including faculty, hospital staff, students, and clinicians while operating in one of the earliest epicenters of the pandemic. Some of the major changes the library underwent in response to the pandemic included implementing new online anatomy resources, contactless circulation, remote interlibrary loan services and modified operating practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Bibliotecas Digitais/organização & administração , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Pandemias , Humanos , Bibliotecas Digitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliotecas Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , New York , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(5): 793-796, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592250

RESUMO

The US is facing the most significant health challenge since the 1918-1919 flu pandemic. A response commensurate with this challenge requires engaged leadership and organization across private and public sectors that span federal agencies, public and private healthcare systems, professional organizations, and industry. In the trauma and emergency care communities, we have long discussed the tension between competition in healthcare and the need for regional cooperation to respond to large-scale disasters. The response to COVID-19 has required unprecedented coordination of private and public sector entities. Given the competitive nature of the US health system, these sectors do not regularly work together despite the requirement to do so during a national emergency. This crisis has exposed how structural aspects of the present healthcare system have limited our ability to rapidly transition to a whole-nation response during a national crisis. We propose a renewed focus on the intersection of the healthcare system and national security, with the express goal of creating a public-private partnership focused on leveraging our healthcare infrastructure to support the national security interests of the US.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parcerias Público-Privadas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Liderança , SARS-CoV-2 , Medidas de Segurança/economia , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(3): 265-269, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia is ranked 71st on the Global Terrorism Index (GTI; 2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While it has a relatively low terrorist risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a sub-specialty needed to address these threats on the front line. This study aims to provide the epidemiological context for the past decade, detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter, and to develop training programs utilizing these data. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in Australia from the years 2009-2019. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the following terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD. Ambiguous events were excluded when there was uncertainty as to whether the incident met all of the criteria for inclusion as a GTD terrorist incident. The grey literature was reviewed, and each event was cross-matched with reputable international and national newspaper sources online to confirm or add details regarding weapon type used, and whenever available, details of victim and perpetrator fatalities and injuries. RESULTS: Thirty-seven terrorist events occurred in the study time period. Of the thirty-seven incidents, twenty-six (70.2%) involved incendiary weapons, five (13.5%) involved firearms, four (10.8%) involved melee (bladed weapon/knife) attacks, two (5.4%) were explosive/bombing/dynamite attacks, and one (2.7%) was a mixed attack using both incendiary and melee weapons. All except one firearms-related incident (four out of five) resulted in either a fatality or injury or both. Every melee incident resulted in either a fatality or injury or both. CONCLUSIONS: In the decade from 2009 to 2019, terrorist attacks on Australian soil have been manageable, small-scale incidents with well-understood modalities. Eleven fatalities and fourteen injuries were sustained as a result of terrorist events during that period. Incendiary weapons were the most commonly chosen methodology, followed by firearms, bladed weapons, and explosive/bombings/dynamite attacks.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Terrorismo/prevenção & controle , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(3): 270-275, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is ranked 42nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While China has a relatively low terrorism risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions for future attacks, putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. This study aims to provide the epidemiological context for the past decade detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and to develop training programs utilizing these data. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in China between the years 2008-2018. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD's Codebook. Ambiguous events, as defined by the GTD's Codebook, were excluded. English language grey literature was searched to ensure no events meeting these criteria were missed. A focused search of online English language newspaper articles was also performed for any terrorist events between 2008-2018. RESULTS: One-hundred and eight terrorist events occurred in the study time period. Of the 108 incidents, forty-seven (43.5%) involved Explosives/Bombs/Dynamite (E/B/D) only, with an average fatality count of 2.9 and injury count of 7.5 per event. Twenty-seven (25.0%) used bladed or blunt weapons in melees with an average fatality count of 9.7 and an injury count of 8.8 per event. Five (4.6%) involved incendiary weapons with an average fatality count of 2.4 and an injury count of 7.2 per event. Two used only chemical weapons (1.8%) with no recorded deaths and an injury count of 27.0 per event. Two events had unknown weapon types (1.8%) with one recorded death and no injury count. One event used a firearm (0.9%) and led to one death and no injuries. One event used a vehicle (0.9%), which also led to one death and no recorded injuries. Twenty-three attacks used a mix of weapons (21.2%) with an average fatality count of 17.1 and an injury count of 12.0 per event. CONCLUSIONS: One-hundred and eight terrorist attacks were recorded between 2008-2018 on Chinese soil using well-understood modalities. This resulted in a total of 809 recorded fatalities with 956 non-fatal injuries. The most commonly chosen methodology was E/B/D, followed by melees and the use of bladed weapons. Three events individually recorded a combined casualty toll of over 100 people.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Terrorismo/prevenção & controle , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
20.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(3): 240-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570870

RESUMO

A mixed-methods approach was taken to describe lessons learned by local health department leaders during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York State and to document leaders' assessments of their departments' emergency preparedness capabilities and capacities. Leaders participating in a survey rated the effectiveness of their department's capabilities and capacities in administrative and public health preparedness, epidemiology, and communications on a scale from 1 to 5; those partaking in focus groups answered open-ended questions about the same 4 topics. Subjects rated intragovernmental activities most effective ( = 4.41, SD = 0.83) and reported receiving assistance from other county agencies. They rated level of supplies least effective ( = 3.03, SD = 1.01), describing low supply levels and inequitable distribution of testing materials and personal protective equipment among regions. Local health departments in New York require more state and federal aid to maintain the public health workforce in preparation for future emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Defesa Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
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