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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658902

RESUMO

The people of Tengger, Indonesia have used plants as traditional medicine for a long time. However, this local knowledge has not been well documented until recently. Our study aims to understand the utilization of plants in traditional medicine by the people of Tengger, who inhabit the Ngadisari village, Sukapura District, Probolinggo Regency, Indonesia. We conducted semi-structured and structured interviews with a total of 52 informants that represented 10% of the total family units in the village. The parameters observed in this study include species use value (SUV), family use value (FUV), plant part use (PPU), and the relative frequency of citation that was calculated based on fidelity level (FL). We successfully identified 30 species belonging to 28 genera and 20 families that have been used as a traditional medicine to treat 20 diseases. We clustered all the diseases into seven distinct categories. Among the recorded plant families, Poaceae and Zingiberaceae were the most abundant. Plant species within those families were used to treat internal medical diseases, respiratory-nose, ear, oral/dental, and throat problems. The plant species with the highest SUV was Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (1.01), whereas the Aloaceae family (0.86) had the highest FUV. Acorus calamus L. (80%) had the highest FL percentage. The leaves were identified as the most used plant part and decoction was the dominant mode of a medicinal preparation. Out of the plants and their uses documented in our study, 26.7% of the medicinal plants and 71.8% of the uses were novel. In conclusion, the diversity of medicinal plant uses in the Ngadisari village could contribute to the development of new plant-based drugs and improve the collective revenue of the local society.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Etnobotânica , Povos Indígenas , Indonésia , Poaceae/classificação , Zingiberaceae/classificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574178

RESUMO

The abomasal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus can influence the abomasal microbiome of the host. On the other hand, no information occurs on the influence of the parasite on the hindgut microbiome of the host. We evaluated the impact of Haemonchus contortus on the fecal microbial community of the experimentally infected lambs treated with a mixture of medicinal herbs to ameliorate the haemonchosis. Twenty-four female lambs were divided into four groups: infected animals (Inf), infected animals supplemented with a blend of medicinal herbs (Inf+Herb), uninfected control animals (Control), and uninfected animals supplemented with medicinal herbs (C+Herb). Inf and Inf+Herb lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 L3 larvae of a strain of H. contortus susceptible to anthelmintics (MHco1). Herb blend (Herbmix) consisted of dry medicinal plants of Althaea officinalis, Petasites hybridus, Inula helenium, Malva sylvestris, Chamomilla recutita, Plantago lanceolata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Solidago virgaurea, Fumaria officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, Melisa officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia absinthium. Each animal was fed meadow hay and a commercial concentrate (600 + 350 g DM/d). Inf+Herb and C+Herb lambs were fed Herbmix (100 g DM/d and animal). Treatment lasted for 50 days. The fecal microbial fermentation parameters (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and pH) were evaluated at intervals of 0, 20, 32, and 50 days. The fecal eubacterial populations were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) at day 32 when H. contortus infection was the highest. No substantial effects of the H. contortus infection and the herbal treatment on fecal microbial fermentation parameters and fecal eubacterial populations were observed. Evaluation of DGGE patterns by Principal component analysis pointed to the tendency to branch the C+Herb group from the other experimental groups on Day 32. The results indicate that hindgut microbial activity was not disturbed by H. contortus infection and herbal treatment.


Assuntos
Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/microbiologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 689-696, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237530

RESUMO

Indigenous knowledge and traditional culture for sustainable use of native plants in Juenang cultural region of Rangtang county, Aba Zang and Qiang Prefecture of Sichuan province, have been characterized in this paper followed the principles and methods of ethnobotany. The results indicate that 38 species from 27 families(including 6 species of fungi) are ethnobotanically used commonly in this area. Of 38 species of the native plants, 13 species from 12 families are collected for eatables and vegetables, 12 families and 16 species of indigenous plants for medicinal and edible use, 4 species from 4 families for decoration, 4 species from 4 families used for building materials or firewood, and 1 species from 1 families used for religious folklore. Under the influence of Juenang culture and Tibetan culture, indigenous knowledge such as instinctive reverence and gratitude for nature, protection ecological environment and habitats, and moderate use of natural resources(especially wild bioresource), have been gotten passed on from generation to generation in Juenang culture region of Rangtang county, which is of great significance to the protection of local bioresources and environment, including ethnic medicinal plants, and also to provide practical guidance for biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration in those alpine ecological vulnerable areas.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Fungos/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Biodiversidade , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Conhecimento , Fitoterapia
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 720-731, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237471

RESUMO

Dao-di herbs are the Chinese herbs which have high quality and best clinic effects. Sichuan is one of the proviences most rich in Chinese herb resources,which has 7 290 species of Chinese herbs, such as Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Ophiopogonis Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, Gentianae Radix, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Curcumae Rhizoma, Gardeniae Fructus, ect. After textual research on materia medica of the 7 290 Chinese herbs, we find there are 86 Dao-di herbs in Sichuan, such as Chuanxiong Rhizoma from Dujiangyan, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata from Jiangyou, Fritillariae Radix, Notoptergii Rhizoma et Radix, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix from Suining, Ophiopogonis Radix from Santai, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Zhongjiang, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex from Pingwu. In China more attention is paid to the production of Dao-di herbs. In 2018, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine launched the "Construction Plan of national production base of genuine medicinal materials". Developing genuine medicinal materials in genuine production areas is one of the effective ways to ensure the quality of medicinal materials. Based on the study of geographical environment and ecological factors(altitude, climate, soil) in Sichuan province. The Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province are divided into 4 districts, including, Sichuan basin medicinal materials production area, mountain and the basin edge medicinal materials production area, Panxi medicinal materials production area, Plateau Mountain Canyon medicinal materials production area. The suitable regions and best suitable regions of the 86 Dao-di herbs in Sichuan are determined by remote sensing and GIS spatial analysis of the suitable environmental indicators of these Dao-di herbs. Our study is beneficial to the rational distribution of the production and to improvement of the quality of traditional Chinese medicine in Sichuan province.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211

RESUMO

Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Etnobotânica , Antibacterianos/química , Bioensaio , México
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 19, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, bacterial and parasitic diseases contribute to a high burden of mortality and morbidity. These infectious diseases are treated with antibiotics, antihelmintic or antiparasitic drugs. However, misuse of these has been affecting the potential to treat ailments. It has been reported that many people from Maputo city and province apart from the existing contemporary medicine, still use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases due to traditional heritage and beliefs. It is, therefore, important to register this knowledge in order to use it for future pharmacological studies. This study aimed to identify the medicinal plants sold in Xipamanine, Xiquelene and Mazambane markets for treatment of bacterial and parasitic diseases. METHODS: An ethnobotanical survey, using interviews, was conducted to the main vendors of the markets. Data about the plant name, part used, mode of preparation and administration route were collected. RESULTS: A total of 64 medicinal plants belonging to 32 families were listed as sold for treatment of bacterial and parasitic diseases in the three markets. Terminalia sericea, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Tiliacora funifera and Hypoxis hemerocallidea were the most cited plants. Roots were the most often sold suggesting it is the most used part. We also found out that medicinal plants trade is still common in Maputo markets. This suggests that people still use plant-based herbal medicines for their basic health care. CONCLUSIONS: Several medicinal plants were sold in Maputo city's markets for treatment of bacterial and parasitic diseases, with more emphasis on diarrhea and helminthiases. These plants were commonly bought by local residents and play an important role in the subsistence of vendors. Pharmacological studies are needed in order to isolate the plants active principles and understand their mechanism of action, so that new drugs can be developed.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Comércio , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Adulto , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique
9.
J Genet ; 992020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089530

RESUMO

The endangered medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis is one of the important natural source of furanocoumarin, which has been used as mucolytic, antitussive, antitumour and antibacterial. However, the genetic information of furanocoumarin biosynthesis in G. littoralis is scarce at present. The objective of this study was to mine the putative candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis pathwayof furanocoumarin and provide references for gene identification, and functional genomics of G. littoralis. We carried out the transcriptome analysis of leaves and roots in G. littoralis, which provided a dataset for gene mining. Psoralen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin were detected in G. littoralis by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Candidate key genes were mined based on the annotations and local BLAST with homologous sequences using BioEdit software. The relative expression of genes was analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Further, the CYP450 genes were mined using phylogenetic analyses using MEGA 6.0 software. Atotal of 156,949 unigenes were generated, of which 9021 were differentially-expressed between leaves and roots. A total of 82 unigenes encoding eight enzymes in furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway were first obtained. Seven genes that encoded key enzymes in the downstream furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway and expressed more in roots than leaves were screened. Twenty-six candidate CYP450 unigenes expressed abundantly in roots and were chiefly concentrated in CYP71, CYP85 and CYP72 clans. Finally, we filtered 102 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) unigenes. The transcriptome of G. littoralis was characterized which would help to elucidate the furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway in G. littoralis and provide an invaluable resource for further study of furanocoumarin.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/genética , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Furocumarinas/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Apiaceae/classificação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Transcriptoma
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 29-64, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102866

RESUMO

The study of the relationship between man and nature can reveal the potential of plant resources. In the present study we used non-probabilistic sampling and snowball technique in communities of the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve-Pará, namely, Caju-Úna Community, Céu Settlement, and Pesqueiro Village, in order to analyze the medicinal plants used by these peoples, focusing on the diversity, consensual use and cultural importance of species, and providing ethnopharmacological information available in the scientific literature. To this end, participant observation, semi-structured interviews and free lists were used, as well as ethnobotanical indices and scientific studies retrieved from databases. We identified 90 species, among which Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia and Libidibia ferrea stood out. The species were distributed in 50 families, mainly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. The most frequent diseases treated with these plants, mainly with preparations in the form of teas, were flu, inflammations and stomach problems. The Caju-Úna Community had the highest indices of total species diversity and evenness. Nine species stood out in the consensus factor and importance value and pharmacological studies corroborated 35% of the popular indications.


El estudio de la relación entre el hombre y la naturaleza puede revelar el potencial de los recursos vegetales. En el presente estudio utilizamos técnicas de muestreo no probabilístico y de bola de nieve en las comunidades de la Reserva Extractiva Marina de SourePará, que incluyeron a la Comunidad Caju-Úna, el Establecimiento de Céu y el Pueblo de Pesqueiro, ello con el propósito de analizar las plantas medicinales utilizadas por estos pueblos. El estudio se centró en la diversidad, el uso consensual y la importancia cultural de las especies, sobre la base de información etnofarmacológica disponible en la literatura científica. Con este fin, se utilizaron observaciones de los participantes, entrevistas semiestructuradas y información de acceso libre, así como índices etnobotánicos y estudios científicos obtenidos de bases de datos. Se identificaron 90 especies, entre las que destacan Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia y Libidibia ferrea. Las especies se distribuyeron en 50 familias, principalmente Lamiaceae, Asteraceae y Fabaceae. Las enfermedades más frecuentes tratadas con estas plantas, principalmente mediante infusiones fueron gripe, inflamaciones y problemas estomacales. La comunidad de Caju-Úna tuvo los índices más altos de diversidad y uniformidad total de especies. Se destacaron 9 en el factor consenso y valor de importancia, y los estudios farmacológicos corroboraron el 35% de las indicaciones populares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Brasil , Reservas Naturais
11.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 311-322, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273669

RESUMO

This study provides a list of popular medicinal plants found in southern Benin (West Africa) with their mode of use, diseases treated, and thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography profiles. The list includes 10 of the most widely used plant species from Dantokpa Market (biggest market located in Cotonou) and Abomey-Calavi in the Republic of Benin. Species were identified by the Laboratory of Botany and Applied Ecology, University of Abomey-Calavi. Voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan, and in the National Herbarium of Benin, University of Abomey-Calavi. The list was as follows-Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpiniaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Garcinia kola (Clusiaceae), Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae), Monodora myristica (Annonaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), Talinum fruticosum (Talinaceae), Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae), and Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae).


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Benin , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Humanos , Japão
12.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 315-328, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713286

RESUMO

Convolvulus genus is a representative of the family of Convolvulaceae. Convolvulus plants are broadly distributed all over the world and has been used for many centuries as herbal medicine. Convolvulus genus contains various phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, mucilage, unsaturated sterols or terpenes, resin, tannins, lactones, and proteins. This review highlights the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, application as food preservative, traditional medicine use, anticancer activities, and clinical effectiveness in human of Convolvulus plants. All the parts of Convolvulus plants possess therapeutic benefits; preliminary pharmacological data validated their use in traditional medicine. However, further preclinical and clinical experiments are warranted before any application in human health.


Assuntos
Convolvulus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Convolvulus/classificação , Conservantes de Alimentos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
13.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 323-330, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555997

RESUMO

Agarwood is a type of resinous wood found in the trunks of Aquilaria and some other genera. It is widely used as an herbal medicine for sedation, detoxification, and treatment of stomachaches, as well as for incense sticks. However, the number of source plants is decreasing, and in 2005, they were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). To identify source species of agarwood, we previously developed a DNA-barcoding method using resin deposition sites. In this study, to identify additional agarwood source species, the barcoding method was applied to source plants and commercial agarwood samples collected from Sumbawa, Lombok, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan in Indonesia, a major agarwood-producing country. In addition, the method was also applied to incense stick samples labeled as agarwood. As a result, several samples were identified as Gyrinops, which is not currently listed as an agarwood source plant in the Japanese standards for non-Pharmacopoeial crude drugs 2018 (Non-JPS 2018). From the viewpoint of securing future resources, these findings suggest that Gyrinops species should, therefore, be added to the list of agarwood source species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Resinas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Thymelaeaceae/química , Thymelaeaceae/classificação , Comércio , DNA , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Indonésia , Internacionalidade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112849, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499429

RESUMO

Herbal extracts and essential oils have been used over the centuries for their dietary, cosmetic and therapeutic properties. Quality control is needed to guarantee the safety and quality of these consumables. In this regard, fingerprinting techniques are important for inspection of the authenticity and for quality control. Analytical fingerprinting techniques provide signals related to the composition of a matrix (oil, plant extract, food…). The resulting fingerprint (spectrum or chromatogram) obtained for an untargeted or targeted approach is coupled to chemometric data processing, which may allow, for instance, the desired identification or discrimination of the sample considered. In this context, recent advances in untargeted/targeted fingerprinting approaches (especially chromatographic and spectroscopic) were described and their application in the taxonomic identification, classification and authentication of plants (medicinal) and essential oils discussed. An overview of the applications of untargeted/targeted fingerprinting techniques on herbal-extracts and essential-oils analysis, using different chemometric tools, has been included.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Controle de Qualidade , Geografia , Metabolômica/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 60, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild edible and medicinal plants were an important component of traditional diets and continue to contribute to food security, nutrition, and health in many communities globally. For example, the preparation and consumption of soup made of medicinal plants for promoting health and preventing disease are a key component of the traditional diets of the Hakka socio-linguistic group of China's West Fujian Province. As environmental and socio-economic factors drive the shift away from traditional diets, there is a need for ethnobotanical documentation of the diversity of wild edible and medicinal plants as well as associated knowledge and practices. METHOD: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in Hakka communities in West Fujian Province between 2017 and 2018 to document plants used in medicinal soups as well as associated traditional ecological knowledge, practices, and conservation status. Surveys included semi-structural interviews, key informant interviews, participatory rural appraisal, and focus group discussions. Quantitative indices, including cultural food significance index (CFSI) and relative frequency of citation (RFC), were calculated to evaluate the importance of documented plants to Hakka communities. The species with the highest CFSI and RFC values were ranked by informants and further evaluated according to their individual properties and growth environment. RESULTS: A total of 42 medicinal plant species, belonging to 25 families and 41 genera, were documented for making soup by the Hakka. The Asteraceae botanical family was the most prevalent, and their root or the entire plant is used for soup making. Informants incorporate different ingredients in soups for their flavors as well as medicinal properties on the basis of the local ethnonutrition system. The most prevalent medicinal uses of the documented plants for making soups were used for clearing inner heat (58.1% of the species), treating inflammation (37.2%), and counteracting cold in the body (20.9%). Informants perceived that the medicinal properties of soup-making plants are influenced by the time of harvest, the local environment, and the climate. CONCLUSION: Efforts are needed to preserve the ecological knowledge associated with traditional diets towards supporting both environmental and human well-being in rapidly developing communities experiencing the nutrition transition and biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Dieta , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Grupos Étnicos , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Conhecimento
16.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 57, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous lists number from 55 to 176 plant species as "Biblical Medicinal Plants." Modern studies attest that many names on these lists are no longer valid. This situation arose due to old mistranslations and/or mistakes in botanical identification. Many previously recognized Biblical plants are in no way related to the flora of the Bible lands. Accordingly, the list needs revision. METHODS: We re-examine the list of possible medicinal plants in the Bible based on new studies in Hebrew Biblical philology and etymology, new studies on the Egyptian and Mesopotamian medicinal use of plants, on ethnobotany and on archaeobotany. RESULTS: In our survey, we suggest reducing this list to 45 plant species. Our contribution comprises 20 "newly" suggested Biblical Medicinal Plants. Only five species are mentioned directly as medicinal plants in the Bible: Fig (Ficus carica), Nard (Nardostachys jatamansi), Hyssop (Origanum syriacum), balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis) and Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum). No fewer than 18 medicinal plants are mentioned in old Jewish post-Biblical sources, in addition to those in the Bible. Most of these plants (15) are known also in Egypt and Mesopotamia while three are from Egypt only. Seven of our suggested species are not mentioned in the Bible or in the Jewish post-Biblical literature but were recorded as medicinal plants from Egypt, as well as from Mesopotamia. It is quite logical to assume that they can be included as Biblical Medicinal Plants. CONCLUSIONS: All our suggested Biblical Medicinal Plants are known as such in Ancient Egypt and/or Mesopotamia also. Examination of our list shows that all these plants have been in continuous medicinal use in the Middle East down the generations, as well as being used in the Holy Land today. Precisely in King Solomon's words, "That which has been is what will be, that which is done is what will be done. And there is nothing new under the sun" (Ecclesiastes 1:9).


Assuntos
Bíblia , Etnobotânica/história , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Egito , História Antiga , Idioma , Mesopotâmia
17.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(10): 738-745, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703754

RESUMO

Herba Anoectochili is a commonly used medicinal material. However, its adulteration is a serious concern. Due to the similar morphological characteristics of Herba Anoectochili and its adulterants, traditional identification techniques often fail to distinguish between them accurately, which is not conducive to the circulation management and safety of the medicinal materials. To improve the distinction between Herba Anoectochili and its adulterants accurately, this study identified 41 Herba Anoectochili and its adulterant samples based on the ITS2 sequence. Sequence characteristics, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) application, genetic distance, construction of phylogenetic tree, secondary structure prediction, and other methods showed the ITS2 sequence to accurately identify Herba Anoectochili from its adulterants. Furthermore, in this study, we designed a specific primer, based on the ITS2 sequence, and established a real-time PCR detection system for the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of the original plant of Herba Anoectochili. Compared to DNA barcoding technology, this method has shorter detection time, stronger specificity, and higher sensitivity, which lays the foundation for the rapid identification of Herba Anoectochili.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Controle de Qualidade
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3151-3156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602866

RESUMO

"Qi medicinal herbs" in China refers to a kind of regional national folk herbs related to the treatment of five labors and seven injuries,the last word of which is "Qi". Our study is to sort out and standardize the name and basic confused varieties through the establishment of " Qi medicinal herbs" VFP information database. " Qi medicinal herbs" variety sorting model of " literature research-variety survey-data mining-spatial distribution" was developed by means of literature analysis which the names and varieties of " Qi medicinal herbs" in the literature were summarized and sorted out. The relationship between the distribution of " Qi medicinal herbs" resources and the use of ethnic groups were visualized by Cytoscape 2. 8. 0 software. The information database of " Qi medicinal herbs" involved in 230 kinds of medicinal materials which including 211 species of plants( including varieties) from 66 families. Medicinal materials standard in China have 9 kinds of " Qi medicinal herbs". Among them,there are 31 kinds of " Qi medicinal herbs" with the confusion of " the different names of the same" and " the different substance of the same names". The most used ethnic groups are Tujia,Qiang and Miao. The main efficacy is clearing heat and detoxification,dispelling wind and removing dampness,etc.,and the main treatment is for injury,rheumatic arthralgia and so on. Names and varieties of " Qi medicinal herbs" among Chinese ethnic groups and folk are standardized and sorted out,which is served to promotethe " Qi medicinal herbs" reasonable protection and utilization of resources,and provide effective reference for exploring the information technology and geographical distribution of ethnic medicine and standardizing clinical medication.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qi , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3633-3636, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602934

RESUMO

As a treasure of traditional Chinese medicine culture,Dao-di herbs are famous for their high quality and good effect.However,traditional characteristics of Dao-di herbs and their producing areas are mostly confined to qualitative description,lacking objective evaluation indicators. Numerical taxonomy,which uses mathematical methods to improve the research of taxonomy from qualitative description to quantitative comprehensive analysis,is objective and accurate,so is widely used in the field of biology and medicine.This paper reviews the concept and main research fields of numerical taxonomy,and summarizes its application status and development prospects in the study of Dao-di herbs and characteristics of production areas,in order to lay the foundation for the objectification and standardization of Dao-di herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 613-620, oct 2019. tab, fig, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046788

RESUMO

In searching for alternatives to traditional chemical medicines, including feed antibiotics, scientists around the world are developing a new generation of medicines, phytobiotics. This work was aimed at studying the phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) production technology using the method of low-temperature vacuum water-ethanol extraction of Siberian medicinal plants, followed by low-temperature vacuum drying and determination of the main biologically active substances that had the required pharmacological effect on the organisms of farm animals and poultry. The objects of the study in this work were Siberian medicinal plants and ready phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances). The article describes the technological conditions for obtaining pharmaceutical substances and their properties concerning the content of biologically active substances. It has been found that for obtaining pharmaceutical substances, extraction should be performed in three stages: two water extractions and ethanol- water extraction. The article provides a list of medicinal plants and the amounts of biologically active substances that ensure certain pharmacological effects on the set of economically useful qualities in farm animals and poultry and contained in phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) based on extracts from medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Tecnologia , Biofarmácia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Aditivos Alimentares , Animais Domésticos
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