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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 447, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (P. notoginseng) is a medicinal plant. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenase superfamily is involved in the synthesis of a variety of plant hormones. Studies have shown that CYP450 is involved in the synthesis of saponins, which are the main medicinal component of P. notoginseng. To date, the P. notoginseng CYP450 family has not been systematically studied, and its gene functions remain unclear. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 188 PnCYP genes were identified, these genes were divided into 41 subfamilies and clustered into 9 clans. Moreover, we identified 40 paralogous pairs, of which only two had Ka/Ks ratio greater than 1, demonstrating that most PnCYPs underwent purification selection during evolution. In chromosome mapping and gene replication analysis, 8 tandem duplication and 11 segmental duplication events demonstrated that PnCYP genes were continuously replicating during their evolution. Gene ontology (GO) analysis annotated the functions of 188 PnCYPs into 21 functional subclasses, suggesting the functional diversity of these gene families. Functional divergence analyzed the members of the three primitive branches of CYP51, CYP74 and CYP97 at the amino acid level, and found some critical amino acid sites. The expression pattern of PnCYP450 related to nitrogen treatment was studied using transcriptome sequencing data, 10 genes were significantly up-regulated and 37 genes were significantly down-regulated. Combined with transcriptome sequencing analysis, five potential functional genes were screened. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that these five genes were responded to methyl jasmonate (MEJA) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a valuable basis for comprehending the classification and biological functions of PnCYPs, and offer clues to study their biological functions in response to nitrogen treatment.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Filogenia
2.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684788

RESUMO

It is known that Senna obtusifolia has been used in medicine since ancient times due to the content of many valuable compounds with a pro-health effect. One of them is betulinic acid, which is a pentacyclic triterpene with antimalarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this work, a continuation of our previous research, an attempt was made to increase the level of betulinic acid accumulation by the cultivation of transgenic hairy roots that overexpress the squalene synthase gene in a 10 L sprinkle bioreactor with methyl jasmonate elicitation. We present that the applied strategy allowed us to increase the content of betulinic acid in hairy root cultures to the level of 48 mg/g dry weight. The obtained plant extracts showed a stronger cytotoxic effect on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line than the roots grown without elicitors. Additionally, the induction of apoptosis, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, chromosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase cascades are demonstrated. Moreover, the tested extract showed inhibition of topoisomerase I activity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/biossíntese , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684798

RESUMO

The genus Vachellia, previously known as Acacia, belongs to the family Fabaceae, subfamily Leguminosae, which are flowering plants, commonly known as thorn trees. They are traditionally used medicinally in various countries including South Africa for the treatment of ailments such as fever, sore throat, Tuberculosis, convulsions and as sedatives. The aim of this study was to determine biochemical variations in five Vachellia species and correlate their metabolite profiles to antioxidant activity using a chemometric approach. The antioxidant activity of five Vachellia aqueous-methanolic extracts were analyzed using three methods: 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) analysis and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay by means of serial dilution and bioautography with the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method. Amongst the Vachellia extracts tested, V. karroo, V. kosiensis and V. xanthophloea demonstrated the highest DPPH, ABTS+ and FRAP inhibitory activity. The antioxidant activities of DPPH were higher than those obtained by ABTS+, although these values varied among the Vachellia species. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), coupled with multivariate statistical modeling tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were performed to profile metabolites responsible for the observed activity. The OPLS-DA categorized the five Vachellia species, separating them into two groups, with V. karroo, V. kosiensis and V. xanthophloea demonstrating significantly higher radical scavenging activity than V. tortilis and V. sieberiana, which clustered together to form another group with lower radical scavenging activity. Annotation of metabolites was carried out using the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS), and it tentatively identified 23 metabolites of significance, including epigallocatechin (m/z = 305.0659), methyl gallate (m/z = 183.0294) and quercetin (m/z = 301.0358), amongst others. These results elucidated the metabolites that separated the Vachellia species from each other and demonstrated their possible free radical scavenging activities.


Assuntos
Acacia/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Acacia/química , Acacia/classificação , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/classificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , África do Sul
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577194

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which initially appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Elderly individuals and those with comorbid conditions may be more vulnerable to this disease. Consequently, several research laboratories continue to focus on developing drugs to treat this infection because this disease has developed into a global pandemic with an extremely limited number of specific treatments available. Natural herbal remedies have long been used to treat illnesses in a variety of cultures. Modern medicine has achieved success due to the effectiveness of traditional medicines, which are derived from medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether components of natural origin from Iranian medicinal plants have an antiviral effect that can prevent humans from this coronavirus infection using the most reliable molecular docking method; in our case, we focused on the main protease (Mpro) and a receptor-binding domain (RBD). The results of molecular docking showed that among 169 molecules of natural origin from common Iranian medicinal plants, 20 molecules (chelidimerine, rutin, fumariline, catechin gallate, adlumidine, astragalin, somniferine, etc.) can be proposed as inhibitors against this coronavirus based on the binding free energy and type of interactions between these molecules and the studied proteins. Moreover, a molecular dynamics simulation study revealed that the chelidimerine-Mpro and somniferine-RBD complexes were stable for up to 50 ns below 0.5 nm. Our results provide valuable insights into this mechanism, which sheds light on future structure-based designs of high-potency inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Protease Viral/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Termodinâmica , Inibidores de Protease Viral/metabolismo , Inibidores de Protease Viral/farmacologia
5.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(6): 1177-1202, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557965

RESUMO

Medicinal plants of the North-Western Himalayan region are known for their unprecedented biodiversity and valuable secondary metabolites that are unique to this dynamic geo-climatic region. From ancient times these medicinal herbs have been used traditionally for their therapeutic potentials. But from the last 2 decades increasing pharmaceutical demand, illegal and unorganized trade of these medicinal plants have accelerated the rate of over-exploitation in a non-scientific manner. In addition, climate change and anthropogenic activities also affected their natural habitat and driving most of these endemic plant species to critically endangered that foresee peril of mass extinction from this eco-region. Hence there is an urgent need for developing alternative sustainable approaches and policies to utilize this natural bioresource ensuring simultaneous conservation. Hither, arise the advent of sequencing-based transcriptomic studies significantly contributes to better understand the background of important metabolic pathways and related genes/enzymes of high-value medicinal herbs, in the absence of genomic information. The use of comparative transcriptomics in conjunction with biochemical techniques in North-Western Himalayan medicinal plants has resulted in significant advances in the identification of the molecular players involved in the production of secondary metabolic pathways over the last decade. This information could be used to further engineer metabolic pathways and breeding programs, ultimately leading to the development of in vitro systems dedicated to the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites at the industrial level. Collectively, successful adoption of these approaches can certainly ensure the sustainable utilization of Himalayan bioresource by reducing the pressure on the wild population of these critically endangered medicinal herbs. This review provides novel insight as a transcriptome-based bioresource repository for the understanding of important secondary metabolic pathways genes/enzymes and metabolism of endangered high-value North-Western Himalayan medicinal herbs, so that researchers across the globe can effectively utilize this information for devising effective strategies for the production of pharmaceutically important compounds and their scale-up for sustainable usage and take a step forward in omics-based conservation genetics.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Ásia Ocidental , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Extinção Biológica , Engenharia Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Propanóis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
6.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112954, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543875

RESUMO

Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (Liliaceae) is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine herb, which contains up to 6 % total steroidal saponins (timosaponins) and has multiple pharmacological properties. However, the timosaponin biosynthetic pathway has not been extensively investigated. Here we conducted de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of A. asphodeloides Bunge and screened for candidate genes involved in the timosaponin biosynthetic pathway. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that timosaponins primarily accumulated in rhizomes, while phytosterols (including cholesterol) were distributed throughout various organs. Most of the identified candidate genes of the timosaponin biosynthetic pathway were also highly expressed in the rhizome, consistent with the results of metabolic analysis. Based on the transcriptome results, two candidate 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purified and identified products supported that Aa7DR1 possessed Δ7-reduction activity in yeast and therefore may be involved in the timosaponins biosynthetic pathway in A. asphodeloides Bunge. Phylogenetic analysis showed Aa7DR1 belongs to monocotyledonous Δ7 reductase of phytosterol biosynthesis. These data expand our understanding of timosaponin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH , Saponinas , Anemarrhena/enzimologia , China , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/enzimologia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rizoma , Esteroides , Transcriptoma
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6656406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212038

RESUMO

Background: Erectile dysfunction has remained as one of the major global health issues. Since the discovery of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, a significant portion of the patients has solved the issue of erectile dysfunction. However, the wide distribution of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzymes at various sites of the body led phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors to cause various unnecessary outcomes. Hence, it is vital to look for and find optional agents that could solve these limitations. The people of Ethiopia depend heavily on medicinal plants to ease their ailments, including erectile dysfunction. Aim of the study. The current study was carried out to systematically review the traditional medicinal plants used for the management of erectile dysfunction in Ethiopia. Method: A systematic and manual search was conducted to retrieve relevant articles published from 2000 to August 2020. Electronic databases of PubMed (Medline), Google Scholar, and grey literature were employed to access the studies. Accordingly, fifty-four published articles and thesis papers were finally included in this study. Result: Seventy plant species have been reported for the management of erectile dysfunction in Ethiopia. The commonly recorded family was Fabaceae, followed by Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Solanaceae. The plant species that represented the highest number of citations were Asparagus africanus, succeeded by Ricinus communis and Carissa spinarum. The commonest plant part used was roots. Majority of the medicinal plants were administered orally. The growth forms of the reported species were primarily herbs followed by shrubs. Conclusion: The present review compiled medicinal plants utilized by the Ethiopian community to manage erectile dysfunction. The findings will serve as a reference for the selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological, and phytochemical investigations in developing new plant-based drugs used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Animais , Asparagus (Planta) , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Etiópia , Etnobotânica , Gengibre , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia , Syzygium , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nat Plants ; 7(8): 1026-1036, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267359

RESUMO

The ancient gymnosperm genus Taxus is the exclusive source of the anticancer drug paclitaxel, yet no reference genome sequences are available for comprehensively elucidating the paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway. We have completed a chromosome-level genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei with a total length of 10.23 gigabases. Taxus shared an ancestral whole-genome duplication with the coniferophyte lineage and underwent distinct transposon evolution. We discovered a unique physical and functional grouping of CYP725As (cytochrome P450) in the Taxus genome for paclitaxel biosynthesis. We also identified a gene cluster for taxadiene biosynthesis, which was formed mainly by gene duplications. This study will facilitate the elucidation of paclitaxel biosynthesis and unleash the biotechnological potential of Taxus.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Paclitaxel/biossíntese , Análise de Sequência , Taxus/genética , Taxus/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204200

RESUMO

Polyploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. The ploidy level of plants is associated with morphological and biochemical characteristics, and its modification has been used as a strategy to alter the quantitative and qualitative patterns of secondary metabolite production in different medicinal plants. Polyploidization can be induced by many anti-mitotic agents, among which colchicine, oryzalin, and trifluralin are the most common. Other variables involved in the induction process include the culture media, explant types, and exposure times. Due to the effects of polyploidization on plant growth and development, chromosome doubling has been applied in plant breeding to increase the levels of target compounds and improve morphological characteristics. Prompted by the importance of herbal medicines and the increasing demand for drugs based on plant secondary metabolites, this review presents an overview of how polyploidy can be used to enhance metabolite production in medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Colchicina/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais , Poliploidia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
10.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153466, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216845

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng (Bruk.) FH Chen is a valuable traditional herb in China, with saponins being the main medicinal components in its roots. However, leaf diseases are a major factor limiting growth and production of P. notoginseng. Melatonin is a ubiquitous signaling molecule associated with abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in leaf disease resistance of P. notoginseng in field conditions. Additionally, saponin concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the suitability of melatonin use in agricultural practice. Our results showed that exogenous application of melatonin promoted the endogenous phytomelatonin accumulation via upregulation of genes involved in its biosynthesis. The application of 10 µM melatonin decreased the incidence of leaf diseases (gray mold, round spot, and black spot) by about 40% compared with the solvent control, which might have been due to the increased expression of genes associated with immunity and disease resistance. Furthermore, concentrations of saponins and expression of their biosynthesis-related genes were significantly increased by melatonin. Taken together, the data presented here suggested that melatonin could be used in agricultural management of P. notoginseng because it increased leaf disease resistance and biosynthesis of saponins.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Melatonina/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Saponinas/biossíntese , China , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15202, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312445

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are considered as one of the most important sources of chemical compounds, so preparing a suitable culture media for medicinal plant growth is a critical factor. The present study is aimed to improve the caffeic acid derivatives and alkylamides percentages of Echinacea purpurea root extract in hydroponic culture media with different perlite particle size and NO3-/NH4+ ratios. Perlite particle size in the growing media was varied as very coarse perlite (more than 2 mm), coarse perlite (1.5-2 mm), medium perlite (1-1.5 mm), fine perlite (0.5-1 mm), and very fine perlite (less than 0.5 mm) in different ratios to peat moss (including pure perlite, 50:50 v/v, 30:70 v/v, and pure peat moss). Two NO3-/NH4+ ratios (90:10 and 70:30) were tested in each growing media. All phytochemical analyses were performed according to standard methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that the E. purpurea grown in the medium containing very fine-grade perlite with 50:50 v/v perlite to peat moss ratio had the maximum caffeic acid derivatives, including chicoric acid (17 mg g-1 DW), caftaric acid (6.3 mg g-1 DW), chlorogenic acid (0.93 mg g-1 DW), cynarin (0.84 mg g-1 DW), and echinacoside (0.73 mg g-1 DW), as well as, alkylamides (54.21%). The percentages of these phytochemical compounds increased by decreasing perlite particle size and increasing of NO3-/NH4+ ratio. The major alkylamide in the E. purpurea root extract was dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z-10 (E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide in all treatments, ranging from 31.12 to 54.21% of total dry weight. It can be concluded that optimizing hydroponic culture media and nutrient solution has significant effects on E. purpurea chemical compounds.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Echinacea/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Dióxido de Silício , Amidas/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Echinacea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15200, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312460

RESUMO

Amomum tsao-ko, as an edible and medicinal variety, has been cultivated for more than 600 years in China. Recently, two cultivars, A. tsao-ko and Amomum paratsao-ko, were found in A. tsao-ko planting area. The two cultivars are often confused because of the similar phenotype and difficult to distinguish through sensory judgment. In this study, the non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used for dissecting the two cultivars with phenotypic differences. According to principal component analysis (PCA) loading diagram and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plot of the metabolites, the accumulation of major components including 1,8-cineole, α-phellandrene, (E)-2-decenal, (-)-ß-pinene, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octanal, D-limonene, and decanal, were present differences between the two cultivars. Seven metabolites potential differentiated biomarkers as ß-selinene, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, (E,Z)-2,6-dodecadienal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-decenal, isogeranial, 1,8-cineole and ß-cubebene were determined. Although A. tsao-ko and A. paratsao-ko belong to the same genera and are similar in plant and fruit morphology, the composition and content of the main components were exposed significant discrepancy, so it is necessary to distinguish them. In this study, the discriminant model established by GC-MS or NIRS combined with multivariate analysis has achieved a good classification effect. NIRS has the advantages of simple, fast and nondestructive and can be used for rapid identification of varieties and fruit tissues.


Assuntos
Amomum/química , Amomum/classificação , Amomum/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 348, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oil-tea tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a woody tree species that produces edible oil in the seed. C. oleifera oil has high nutritional value and is also an important raw material for medicine and cosmetics. In China, due to the uncertainty on maturity period and oil synthesis mechanism of many C. oleifera cultivars, growers may harvest fruits prematurely, which could not maximize fruit and oil yields. In this study, our objective was to explore the mechanism and differences of oil synthesis between two Camellia oleifera cultivars for a precise definition of the fruit ripening period and the selection of appropriate cultivars. RESULTS: The results showed that 'Huashuo' had smaller fruits and seeds, lower dry seed weight and lower expression levels of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in July. We could not detect the presence of oil and oil bodies in 'Huashuo' seeds until August, and oil and oil bodies were detected in 'Huajin' seeds in July. Moreover, 'Huashuo' seeds were not completely blackened in October with up to 60.38% of water and approximately 37.98% of oil in seed kernels whose oil content was much lower than normal mature seed kernels. The oil bodies in seed endosperm cells of 'Huajin' were always higher than those of 'Huashuo' from July to October. CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed that C. oleifera 'Huashuo' fruits matured at a lower rate compared to 'Huajin' fruits and that 'Huajin' seeds entered the oil synthesis period earlier than 'Huashuo' seeds. Moreover, 'Huashuo' fruits did not mature during the Frost's Descent period (October 23-24 each year).


Assuntos
Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(8): e2100316, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114723

RESUMO

The genus Rhanterium (Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout western North Africa and some Rhanterium species are used in folk medicine. The aim of research was to investigate methanolic extracts from different parts (flowers, leaves, and stems) of Tunisian Rhanterium suaveolens as potential sources of bioactive products useful for healthy purposes. In particular, were analyzed the phenolic composition of these extracts and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tyrosinase properties. The phytochemical analyses were performed using standard colorimetric procedures, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Then, several in vitro cell-free assays have been used to estimate the antioxidant/free radical scavenging capability of the extracts. Moreover, in vitro, and in vivo anti-melanogenesis activities of these extracts were tested, respectively, with the tyrosinase inhibition assay and the Zebrafish embryo model. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of these extracts in an in vitro model of acute intestinal inflammation in differentiated Caco-2 cells was evaluated. The R. suaveolens extracts under study appeared particularly rich in flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids and all extracts appeared endowed with good antioxidant/free radical scavenging properties, being the flower extracts slightly more active than the others. Moreover, R. suaveolens flowers extract was able to inhibit in vitro tyrosinase activity and exhibited bleaching effects on the pigmentation of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, all extracts showed good anti-inflammatory activity in intestinal epithelial cells as demonstrated by the inhibition of TNF-α-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8. R. suaveolens aerial parts may be considered as a potential source of whitening agents, as well as of agents for the treatment of disorders related to oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Asteraceae/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tunísia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12040, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103557

RESUMO

Peganum harmala (P. harmala) is a folk medicinal herb used in the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) as a remedy for central disorders. The main constituents, harmine and harmaline, have displayed therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the P. harmala potential on sensitizing central insulin to combat AD remains to be clarified. An AD-like rat model was induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3; 50 mg/kg/day for six consecutive weeks; i.p), whereas a methanolic standardized P. harmala seed extract (187.5 mg/kg; p.o) was given to AD rats starting 2 weeks post AlCl3 exposure. Two additional groups of rats were administered either the vehicle to serve as the normal control or the vehicle + P. harmala seed extract to serve as the P. harmala control group. P. harmala enhanced cognition appraised by Y-maze and Morris water maze tests and improved histopathological structures altered by AlCl3. Additionally, it heightened the hippocampal contents of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and insulin, but abated insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation at serine 307 (pS307-IRS-1). Besides, P. harmala increased phosphorylated Akt at serine 473 (pS473-Akt) and glucose transporter type (GLUT)4. The extract also curtailed the hippocampal content of beta amyloid (Aß)42, glycogen synthase (GSK)-3ß and phosphorylated tau. It also enhanced Nrf2, while reduced lipid peroxides and replenished glutathione. In conclusion, combating insulin resistance by P. harmala is a novel machinery in attenuating the insidious progression of AD by enhancing both insulin and GLP-1 trajectories in the hippocampus favoring GLUT4 production.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Alumínio/química , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Peganum/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Harmalina/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Neurociências , Peganum/química , Fosforilação , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071113

RESUMO

From time immemorial, humans have exploited plants as a source of food and medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recorded 21,000 plants with medicinal value out of 300,000 species available worldwide. The promising modern "multi-omics" platforms and tools have been proven as functional platforms able to endow us with comprehensive knowledge of the proteome, genome, transcriptome, and metabolome of medicinal plant systems so as to reveal the novel connected genetic (gene) pathways, proteins, regulator sequences and secondary metabolite (molecule) biosynthetic pathways of various drug and protein molecules from a variety of plants with therapeutic significance. This review paper endeavors to abridge the contemporary advancements in research areas of multi-omics and the information involved in decoding its prospective relevance to the utilization of plants with medicinal value in the present global scenario. The crosstalk of medicinal plants with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics approaches will be discussed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
18.
Gene ; 791: 145726, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010704

RESUMO

Traditional herbal medicine (THM) comprises a vast number of natural compounds. Most of them are metabolized into different structures after administration, which makes the clarification of THM's mode of action more complicated. To evaluate the biological activities of those components and metabolites, in silico simulation technology is helpful. We focused on mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for druggability assessment of natural products. Mixed-solvent MD is an in silico simulation method for the exploration of ligand-binding sites on target proteins, which uses water and an organic molecule mixture. The selection of organic small molecules is an important factor for predicting the characteristics of natural products. In this study, we used the known crystal structure of estrogen receptors with genistein as a test case and explored fragments reflecting the characteristics of natural products. We found that structures with a 4-pyrone structure are more often included in the natural products database compared with the DrugBank database, and we selectively detected the known-binding sites of estrogen receptor α and ß. The results indicate that the 4-pyrone structure might be promising for predicting the protein druggability of flavonoids. Additionally, mixed-solvent MD simulation discriminates the selectivity of genistein between estrogen receptor ß and α, indicating that the simulation can be evaluated using indices that differ from those of traditional ligand docking. Although this approach is still in its early stages, it has the potential to provide valuable information for understanding the diverse biological activities of natural products.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/química , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/química , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Genisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Estrogênio/química
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3657-3665, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993326

RESUMO

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch is a widely cultivated traditional Chinese medicine plant. In the present study, culture-independent microbial diversity analysis and functional prediction of rhizosphere microbes associated with wild and cultivated G. uralensis Fisch plant (collected from two locations) were carried. Soil physicochemical parameters were tested to assess their impact on microbial communities. A total of 4428 OTUs belonging to 41 bacterial phyla were identified. In general, cultivated sample sites were dominated by Actinobacteria whereas wild sample sites were dominated by Proteobacteria. The alpha diversity analysis showed the observed species number was higher in cultivated soil samples when compared with wild soil samples. In beta diversity analysis, it was noticed that the weighted-unifrac distance of two cultivated samples was closer although the samples were collected from different regions. Functional annotation based on PICRUST and FAPROTAX showed that the nitrogen metabolism pathway such as nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation, nitrite ammonification, and nitrite respiration were more abundant in rhizosphere microorganisms of wild G. uralensis Fisch. These results also correlate in redundancy analysis results which show correlation between NO3--N and wild samples, which indicated that nitrogen nutrition conditions might be related to the quality of G. uralensis Fisch.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Solo
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(4): 953-970, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009475

RESUMO

Flavonoids belong to polyphenolic compounds, which are widely distributed in plants and have rich functions. Euryale ferox Salisb is an important medicinal and edible homologous plant, and flavonoids are its main functional substances. However, the biosynthesis mechanism of flavonoids in E. ferox is still poorly understood. To explore the dynamic changes of flavonoid biosynthesis during the development of E. ferox seeds, the targeted flavonoid metabolome was determined. A total of 129 kinds of flavonoid metabolites were characterized in the seeds of E. ferox, including 11 flavanones, 8 dihydroflavanols, 16 flavanols, 29 flavones, 3 isoflavones, 12 anthocyanins, 29 flavonols, 6 flavonoid carbonosides, 3 chalcones and 13 proanthocyanidins. The relative content of flavonoid metabolites accumulated continuously during the development of E. ferox seeds, and reached the highest at T30. In transcriptome, the expression of key genes in the flavonoid pathway, such as PAL, CHS, F3H, FLS, ANS, was highest in T30, which was consistent with the trend of metabolites. Six candidate transcription factors (R2R3MYBs and bHLHs) may affect the biosynthesis of flavonoids by regulating the expression of structural genes. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis and exogenous ABA and SA treatment demonstrated that ABA (PYR1, PP2Cs, SnRK2s) and SA (NPR1) are involved in the positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. This study clarified the differential changes of flavonoid metabolites during the development of E. ferox seeds, confirmed that ABA and SA promote the synthesis of flavonoids, and found key candidate genes that are involved in the regulation of ABA and SA in the positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Nymphaeaceae , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Nymphaeaceae/genética , Nymphaeaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nymphaeaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
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