Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 396
Filtrar
1.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 247-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602502

RESUMO

Many researchers proved that plant endophytes manage successful issues to synthesize active chemicals within plant cells. These bioactive compounds might support a range of plant defense mechanism against many pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a total of 22 isolates representing 21 fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera in addition to one variety were isolated and identified for the first time from Euphorbia geniculate plants. The genus Aspergillus was the most common fungus isolated from the studied plant. The fungus Isaria feline was recorded in both leaves and stem, while Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus var. terreus, Emercilla nidulans var. acristata, Macrophomina phaseolina colonized both stem and root. The isolated fungi showed antagonistic activities against six strains of plant pathogenic fungi viz., Eupenicillium brefeldianum, Penicillium echinulatum, Alternaria phragmospora, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticilloid, and Alternaria alternata in dual culture assay. The highest antagonistic activity fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and Fusarium lateritium) and the lowest (Cladosprium herbarum, F. culomrum, and Sporotrichum thermophile) showed twining in their secondary metabolites especially terpens and alkaloids with that of their host E. geniculata. Three concentrations of (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of these secondary metabolites extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol from the above six endophytic fungal species were tested against three pathogenic fungi isolated from infected tomato plant (E. brefeldianum-EBT-1, P. echinulatum-PET-2, and A. phragmospora-APT-3), whereas these pathogens showed promising sensitivity to these fungal secondary metabolites. In conclusion, this is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. geniculata and evaluation of their antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Endófitos/química , Euphorbia/microbiologia , Fungos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
2.
Microbes Environ ; 34(4): 413-420, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611488

RESUMO

The present study was performed to investigate root-associated bacteria from Platycodon grandiflorum, a medicinal plant commonly grown in East Asia. Isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere or root interior with various culture media, and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on their 16S rDNA sequences. In consideration of practical applications, traits related to plant growth promotion and niche adaptation were assessed in several endophytic strains with fewer biosafety concerns. The effects of a bacterial inoculation on seedling and mature plant growth were evaluated. Seventeen genera that encompassed more than 30 bacterial lineages were successfully retrieved from the roots, the majority of which have not been reported as P. grandiflorum-associated bacteria, particularly for non-negligible Proteobacteria. Although nitrogen-fixing or phosphate-solubilizing and indole acetic acid-producing activities were recorded in all of the strains selected, these strains were beneficial or detrimental to plant growth as evidenced by their influence on the length of seedlings and biomass of mature plants. Among the 4 endophytic Rhizobium species tested in the present study, the potentially novel Rhizobium sp. BF-E16, which was more compatible with the non-leguminous medicinal plant P. grandiflorum, was identified. Other than plant growth-promoting traits, characteristics such as plant constituent-hydrolyzing activities need to be taken into consideration and their roles clarified when investigating plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Platycodon/microbiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Platycodon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia
3.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 131: 109396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615679

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi provide benefits to host plants by producing a diverse class of secondary metabolites (natural products). Arrays of polyketide natural products are synthesized by specific classes of polyketide synthases (PKS I, II and III) in host organisms. In the present study, we attempt to screen and identify type III PKSs in culturable fungal endophytes isolated from the ethno medicinal plants including Arbus precatorius, Bacopa monnieri,Citrus aurantifolia and Datura metel to detect the genetic potential of endophytic fungi in producing bioactive compounds. A total of seventeen endophytic fungal strains belonging to eight genera were identified using fungal morphology and rDNA-ITS phylogenetic analyses. A CODEHOP-PCR based strategy was followed to design degenerate primers for the screening of type III PKS genes from fungal endophytes. We had successfully amplified partial PKS genes from eight endophytes. The amplified PKS sequences showed 60-99% identity to already characterized/putative PKS genes. From the partial sequence of FiPKS from Fusarium incarnatum BMER1, a full-length gene was amplified, cloned and characterized. FiPKScDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli Lemo21 (DE3) and the purified protein was shown to produce pyrones and resorcinols using acyl-CoA thioesters as substrates. FiPKS showed the highest catalytic efficiency of 7.6 × 104 s-1 M-1 with stearoyl CoA as a starter unit. This study reports the identification and characterization of type III PKS from endophytes of medicinal plants by CODEHOP PCR.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Endófitos/enzimologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Expressão Gênica , Cinética , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Filogenia , Pironas/metabolismo , Resorcinóis/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10660-10666, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479263

RESUMO

Two new indolyl diketopiperazines, gartryprostatins A and B (1 and 2), with an unusual 2,3-furan-fused pyrano[2,3-g]pyrrolo[1″,2″:4',5']pyrazino[1',2':1,5]pyrrolo[2,3-b]indole nucleus, along with a new naturally occurring compound (gartryprostatin C, 3) were isolated from the solid culture of Aspergillus sp. GZWMJZ-258, an endophyte from Garcinia multiflora (Guttiferae). The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, Marfey's analysis of amino acids, and chemical calculation. Compounds 1-3 displayed selective inhibition on human FLT3-ITD mutant AML cell line, MV4-11, with IC50 values of 7.2, 10.0, and 0.22 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/química , Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Endófitos/química , Garcinia/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicetopiperazinas/química , Dicetopiperazinas/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
5.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104282, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381956

RESUMO

Four new polyketides, alternatains A-D (1-4), along with 17 known compounds (5-21) were obtained from the solid substrate fermentation cultures of Alternaria alternata MT-47, an endophytic fungus isolated from the medicinal plant of Huperzia serrata. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HRESIMS) and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) method. Compounds 4, 6, 15, and 21 exhibited inhibitory activities on ATP release of thrombin-activated platelets with IC50 values in the range of 18.2-68.8 µM.


Assuntos
Alternaria/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Huperzia/microbiologia , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Butirilcolinesterase , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Endófitos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1468-1478, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403229

RESUMO

AIMS: Medicinal plant-associated endophytic fungi are important sources of precious bioactive compounds, contributing more than 80% of the natural drugs for various ailments. The present study was aimed at evaluating the anticancer activity of the crystallized compound alternariol methyl ether (AME) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro and in vivo from an endophytic fungus residing in the medicinal plant Vitex negundo. METHODS AND RESULTS: The secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata MGTMMP031 were isolated. Purification and characterization of the compound was performed and the potential compound was identified as AME. The crystal structure of AME was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray analysis. AME has been checked for its antibacterial and anticancer properties which showed its effectiveness against various bacteria and demonstrated marked anti-proliferative activity against the human HCC cells (HUH-7) both in vitro and in vivo. Mode of actions included cell cycle arrest, reducing the level of markers enzymes of liver cancer and preventing tumour growth. CONCLUSIONS: Alternariol methyl ether acts as a potential therapeutic target against HCC. The compound was isolated and the crystal structure was obtained for the first time from the endophytic fungus A. alternata MGTMMP031. In the present study, the crystallized structure of AME was obtained by slow evaporation technique. It can be concluded that AME acts as a potential therapeutic target against HCC. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Endophytic fungi residing in the medicinal plants have strong biological significance and bioactive compounds from these fungi provide better therapeutic targets against diseases.


Assuntos
Alternaria/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Endófitos/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Éteres Metílicos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalização , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Éteres Metílicos/isolamento & purificação , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
7.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1067-1077, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403348

RESUMO

To reduce microbial loads in medicinal herbs, Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma were subjected to electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation at doses (≤10 kGy) as permitted by the Korean Food Code. The effects of e-beam irradiation on the microbial load, stability of the active components, and anti-inflammatory activity of medicinal herbs were determined. We observed that the total aerobic bacteria (TAB; 4.0-7.0 log CFU/g), yeasts and molds (Y&M; 3.3-6.8 log CFU/g), and coliform counts (CC; 3.2-3.8 log CFU/g) in both herb samples were effectively reduced in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in acceptable levels of <3.0 log CFU/g in TAB and Y&M and negative in CC at 10 kGy irradiation. The concentration of the active components (0.87-4.22 mg/g) of Cnidii Rhizoma, including z-ligustilide, chlorogenic acid, senkyunolide A, and ferulic acid, in order of prevalence and those (0.86-2.76 mg/g) of Alismatis Rhizoma, including Alisol B acetate and Alisol B, were not changed at irradiation doses of ≤10 kGy. The extracts of e-beam irradiated Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma showed a reduced production of inflammation-related factors, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6, in a concentration-dependent manner, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cell. However, there was no significant difference observed at e-beam irradiation doses of 0, 1, 5, and 10 kGy. Thus, we confirm that e-beam irradiation up to 10 kGy was effective for the control of microbial load in Cnidii Rhizoma and Alismatis Rhizoma without causing considerable changes in their major active components and anti-inflammatory activity. The results show the potential of e-beam application for sanitization of medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Alisma/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Apiaceae/química , Carga Bacteriana , Rizoma/química , Alisma/microbiologia , Alisma/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apiaceae/microbiologia , Apiaceae/efeitos da radiação , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Elétrons , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Células RAW 264.7 , Rizoma/microbiologia , Rizoma/efeitos da radiação
8.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470066

RESUMO

The biotransformation of huperzine A (hupA), one of the characteristic bioactive constituents of the medicinal plant Huperzia serrata, by a fungal endophyte of the host plant was studied. Two previously undescribed compounds 1-2, along with a known analog 8α,15α-epoxyhuperzine A (3), were isolated and identified. The structures of all the isolates were established by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra. In particular, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by CD spectra comparison and theoretic NOE strength calculation. In the LPS-induced neuro-inflammation injury assay, 1-3 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the viability of U251 cell lines with EC50 values of 35.3 ±â€¯0.9, 32.1 ±â€¯0.9, and 50.3 ±â€¯0.8 nM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Huperzia/microbiologia , Polyporales/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Huperzia/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
9.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 905-910, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278698

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of three different approaches for artificially inducing the formation of agarwood over time in young Aquilaria sinensis trees using antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined by a two-fold serial dilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (two bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and seven fungal strains: Penicillium melinii, Penicillium adametzi, Penicillium urticae, Penicillium notatum, Paecilomyces varioti, Mucor saturninus Hagem and Aspergillus niger). The results showed that artificial agarwood obtained by comprehensive stimulated method (formic acid plus fungal inoculation) and extended longer inducing time have better antimicrobial activity, which is similar to the result of chemical analysis. Therefore, it is a beneficial exploration to the first use of antimicrobial activity to evaluate artificial agarwood obtained by different producing methods and different culture time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymelaeaceae/química , Thymelaeaceae/microbiologia , Madeira/química , Madeira/microbiologia
10.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104273, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344395

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi have been considered a rich source for bioactive secondary metabolites with novel chemical structures. A high diverse group of endophytes, isolated from different medicinal plants, belongs to the genus Diaporthe. In a previously study performed by our group the crude extract of strain LGMF1583 showed considerable antibacterial activity mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. Based on ITS phylogeny analysis, strain LGMF1583 was identified as belonging to Diaporthe genus and may represent a new species. In the present study, we described the new species Diporthe vochysiae based on multilocus phylogeny analysis and morphological characteristics. The species name refers to the host, from which strain LGMF1583 was isolated, the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens. In view of the biotechnological potential of strain LGMF1583, we have also characterized the secondary metabolites produced by D. vochysiae. Chemical assessment of the D. vochysiae LGMF1583 revealed two new carboxamides, vochysiamides A (1) and B (2), in addition to the known metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol (3). In the biological activity analysis, vochysiamide B (2) displayed considerable antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC), a producer of carbapenemases, MIC of 80 µg/mL. Carbapenemases are considered a major antimicrobial resistance threat, and infections caused by KPC have been considered a public health problem worldwide, and new compounds with activity against this bacterium are nowadays even more required.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Myrtales/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/classificação , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endófitos/química , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(8): 2547-2554, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215860

RESUMO

A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain SX2RGS8T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of an endangered medicinal plant (Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen) collected from Xinjiang, north-western PR China. The taxonomic position of the candidate was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain SX2RGS8T was found to be aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and axiolitic-shaped. Strain SX2RGS8T grew at 4-45 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 4.0-10.0 (pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipids detected for strain SX2RGS8T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, unidentified phosphoglycolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone of strain SX2RGS8T was ubiquinone 10 and the major fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 66.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Erythrobacteraceae and showed 99.2 % (Porphyrobacter mercurialis), 95.5 % (Porphyrobacter donghaensisi) and 95.4 % (Porphyrobacter colymbi) similarities to its closest relatives. The isolate contained carotenoids, but no bacteriochlorophyll a. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SX2RGS8T represents a novel species of a novel genus in the family Erythrobacteraceae, for which the name Croceibacterium ferulae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SX2RGS8T (=CGMCC 1.16402T=KCTC 62090T). In addition, Porphyrobacter mercurialis Coil et al. 2016 is proposed to be transferred to this new genus as Croceibacterium mercuriale comb. nov.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Ferula/microbiologia , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
12.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 150, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine remedies are commonly used for treatment of diverse ailments including bacterial infections. The activity against resistant bacteria and safety of some remedies sold as anti-infective treatments in market places in Buea, Southwest Cameroon were investigated as potential alternative treatment to counter increasing antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Ten remedies were purchased, their components documented and microbial load estimated. Methanol extracts of the remedies were tested for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and microdilution. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on monkey kidney epithelial cells (LLC-MK2) while acute oral toxicity was done in BALB/c mice for the bactericidal extract. Extracts were further analysed using phytochemical tests. RESULTS: All the remedies had microbial loads above the acceptable limit of 105 CFU/g. The highest activity was produced by extracts of four remedies (TP 1, 2, 4, 6a, 6b) against all clinical isolates among which three were active against four control strains. Zones of inhibition ranged from 8 to 27 mm. Two of the four extracts produced zones ≥20 mm against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli but were less active compared to Gentamycin positive control (P < 0.0001-0.0014). The most active extracts also recorded minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 to 4 mg/mL. One of them (TP2) was bactericidal against a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 8 mg/mL. Extracts of six remedies did not show cytotoxicity and no mortality or adverse effect was recorded in the acute oral toxicity test. Phytochemical screening showed the most active extracts contained relatively high amounts of alkaloids and flavonoids. CONCLUSION: Only four of the eight remedies tested showed activity against multidrug resistant bacteria suggesting some of these remedies may not be effective against bacterial infections. Production and handling methods should be improved and the product quality controlled to ensure biosecurity. The remedies which were both active and non-toxic should be further investigated including in vivo experiments to assess their efficacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Camarões , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 102, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of traditional Chinese medicine stimulates the prosperous development of herb medicines, but the annual generation of massive herb residues becomes big issues about environmental pollution and waste of resources. Microbes play important roles in the circulation of substances in nature, and endophytes represent an underexplored microbial resource possessing the unique symbiotic relationship with plants, not only for discovery of secondary metabolites, but also for potential green recycling of herb residues. RESULTS: The recycling capacities of several endophytic strains were respectively evaluated via solid state fermentation with herb residues of commercial Huazhenghuisheng oral-liquid (HOL). Among them, Aspergillus cristatus CB10002, a probiotic fungus isolated from Chinese Fu-brick tea, was competent to recycle HOL residues for the production of medicinal valuable anthraquinones, in which four of them, especially citreorosein with significant anti-obesity activity, were first discovered in A. cristatus. Subsequent quantitative analysis showed that about 2.0 mg/g citreorosein and 7.5 mg/g total anthraquinones could be obtained after 35-day fermentation, which was very competitive and economically beneficial. Further nutritional comparisons also revealed that the recycling process indeed ameliorated the nutrients of HOL residues, and thus proposed a possibility to directly dispose the final leftovers as a compost organic fertilizer. CONCLUSIONS: The endophytic and probiotic fungus A. cristatus CB10002 isolated from Chinese Fu-brick tea was screened out to effectively reutilize HOL residues for the production of nine medicinal valuable anthraquinones, whose biosynthesis may be regulated by the induction of HOL residues. The competitive yields of these anthraquinones, as well as the certain composting properties of final leftovers, have made the microbial recycling of HOL residues economically beneficial. Our work demonstrated a promising applied potential of A. cristatus in reutilization of herb residues, and provided a practical strategy for sustainable and value-added microbial recycling of herb residues.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fermentação
14.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112560

RESUMO

In the present study, endophytic fungi have been isolated from various parts of the medicinal herb Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort), which is known as a source of medically important metabolites. The isolated strains were cultured in liquid media and their ability to synthesize hypericin, the secondary metabolite of the host and its suspected precursor, emodin was tested analyzing the extracts of the fermentation broth and the mycelia. The HPLC-UV analysis of the chloroform/methanol extracts of the mycelia revealed that three isolates were able to produce emodin (SZMC 23771, 19.9 ng/mg; SZMC 23772, 20.8 ng/mg; SZMC 23769, 427.9 ng/mg) and one of them also could synthesize hypericin (SZMC 23769, 320.4 ng/mg). These results were also confirmed via UHPLC-HRMS technique both in full scan and MS/MS mode. The strains producing only emodin belong to the section Alternata of the genus Alternaria, while the isolate producing both metabolites was identified as Epicoccum nigrum. The mycelial extracts of E. nigrum and the Alternaria sp. SZMC 23772 showed higher inhibitory activities in the antimicrobial tests against the six selected bacteria compared to the hypericin and emodin standards in the applied concentration (100 µg/mL), while in case of the Alternaria sp. SZMC 23771 lower inhibition activities were observed on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptomyces albus than the pure compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Fungos não Classificados/metabolismo , Hypericum/química , Hypericum/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Clorofórmio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Emodina/química , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/química , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 74, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053977

RESUMO

In the present study, an endophytic fungal strain was isolated from its non-Taxus host plant Terminalia arjuna and identified as Alternaria brassicicola based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. This fungus was grown in potato dextrose broth and analyzed for the presence of taxol by using chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. The ethyl acetate extract of A.brassicicola was subjected to column chromatography. Among the different fractions, the fraction 7 showed positive to taxol, which was further confirmed by UV absorption, HPLC, FTIR spectra and LC-ESI-MS by comparing with the authentic taxol (Paclitaxel). The peaks of fraction 7 obtained by UV spectroscopy, FTIR and HPLC analysis were quite similar to that of standard taxol confirming the presence of taxol. A parent ion peak of m/z 854.95 was observed in the LC-ESI-MS spectrum which was similar to paclitaxel with reported m/z of 854 [M+H]+ ion. A. brassicicola produced about 140.8 µg/l taxol as quantified through HPLC. Present study results suggest that the endophytic fungus A.brassicicola serves as a potential source for the production of taxol isolated from non-Taxus plant.


Assuntos
Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/química , Paclitaxel/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Terminalia/microbiologia , Alternaria/classificação , Cromatografia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(13): 3554-3564, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860831

RESUMO

Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. is a valuable food and medicinal plant with functions, such as an increase in sexual function, mainly attributed to its complex secondary metabolites. However, the effect of internal microbes on metabolite production in C. songaricum is still largely unclear. In this study, the relationship between endophytes and differential secondary metabolites in C. songaricum from seven major producing regions of China were explored based on established methods of metabolomics and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that there were 13 different marker metabolites, seven shared fungal OTUs, and numerous unshared OTUs among C. songaricum distributed at different locations in China and identified significant correlations between metabolites and endophytic fungi. Our study revealed that endophytic fungi may be one possible factor that can affect the plant secondary metabolite composition.


Assuntos
Cynomorium/microbiologia , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , China , Cynomorium/química , Cynomorium/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
17.
Int Microbiol ; 22(3): 343-353, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810997

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to isolate Actinobacteria, preferably Streptomyces spp. from the rhizosphere soils of three ethno-medicinal plants collected in Serbia (Papaver rhoeas, Matricaria chamomilla, and Urtica dioica) and to screen their antifungal activity against Candida spp. Overall, 103 sporulating isolates were collected from rhizosphere soil samples and determined as Streptomyces spp. Two different media and two extraction procedures were used to facilitate identification of antifungals. Overall, 412 crude cell extracts were tested against Candida albicans using disk diffusion assays, with 42% (43/103) of the strains showing the ability to produce antifungal agents. Also, extracts inhibited growth of important human pathogens: Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata. Based on the established degree and range of antifungal activity, nine isolates, confirmed as streptomycetes by 16S rRNA sequencing, were selected for further testing. Their ability to inhibit Candida growth in liquid culture, to inhibit biofilm formation, and to disperse pre-formed biofilms was assessed with active concentrations from 8 to 250 µg/mL. High-performance liquid chromatographic profiles of extracts derived from selected strains were recorded, revealing moderate metabolic diversity. Our results proved that rhizosphere soil of ethno-medicinal plants is a prolific source of streptomycetes, producers of potentially new antifungal compounds.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sérvia , Streptomyces/classificação , Streptomyces/genética
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1253-1258, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735111

RESUMO

A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain SZ4R5S7T, was isolated from surface-sterilized root of an endangered medicinal plant (Ferula songorica Pall. ex Spreng) collected from Xinjiang, north-west China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to be aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, short rods and non-motile. Strain SZ4R5S7T grew at 4-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 5.0-9.0 (pH 6.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipids detected for strain SZ4R5S7T were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified lipids. The predominant menaquinone of strain SZ4R5S7T was MK-8(H4), and the major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C14 : 0. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 72.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain SZ4R5S7T belongs to the genus Nocardioides and showed highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to members of the strain Nocardioideskribbensis KSL-2T (97.8 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SZ4R5S7T represents a novel species in the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides ferulae sp. nov. is proposed and the type strain is SZ4R5S7T (=CGMCC 4.7456T=KCTC 39994T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Ferula/microbiologia , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3716-3720, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our contemporary way of life has led us to consume high amounts of chemically-synthesized allopathic medicinal products and anxiolytics to which a viable alternative is the use of Passiflora-based herbal medicines with composition containing vitexin, a flavonoid with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for enhancing the production of biomolecules, however, increase production of phytochemistry in Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to select AMF to benefit the production of vitexin in leaves of P. edulis by inoculating seedlings in the region of roots with Acaulospora longula, Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Gigaspora albida. RESULTS: The inoculation increased the concentration of vitexin in 63.64% and the inoculation with A. longula also increased the content of flavonoids and total saponins in the leaves in relation to the control. CONCLUSION: The increase in the production of vitexin in the leaf in response to the inoculation with AMF, with emphasis to A. longula, interests the pharmaceutical industry and can generate profit to the production of yellow passionfruit-based anxiolytic herbal medicine. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Ansiolíticos/análise , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Passiflora/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ansiolíticos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicina Herbária , Passiflora/química , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Passiflora/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(3): 816-820, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694172

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped (0.2-0.4 µm×1.2-1.7 µm), endophytic bacterium, designated HBUM179779T, was isolated from the stem of a medicinal plant,Gynura bicolor, collected from Pixian county in Sichuan province, China. The strain did not produce endospores and its cells could secrete mucus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, two unknown aminolipids, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phospholipid. Branched fatty acids (iso-) and hydroxy fatty acids were the main fatty acids, which mainly included iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HBUM179779T fell within the family Chitinophagaceae, and its closest neighbour was Pseudoflavitalea rhizosphaerae T16R-265T (94.46 %). However, strain HBUM179779T did not make a coherent clade with members of the recognized organisms. The average nucleotide identity value between strain HBUM179779T and Pseudoflavitalea rhizosphaerae T16R-265T was 67.1 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of this bacterium, a novel genus and species, Gynurincola endophyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HBUM179779T (=CGMCC 1.15525T=NBRC 112424T).


Assuntos
Asteraceae/microbiologia , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Filogenia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA