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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190208, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411242

RESUMO

The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for nutrition, medicines and beauty. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world, with a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of the Brazilian territory, we would like to highlight the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies and the importance of scientific programs to support the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Biológicos , Descoberta de Drogas , Farmacoeconomia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Brasil , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 378-391, jul. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008176

RESUMO

The content of certain metals in 13 medicinal teas made from 16 plant species was measured by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrometer with flame methods. The measurements were evaluated against metal intake levels recommended by health authorities. The results indicate that the medicinal teas tested, regularly consumed by inhabitants of the Urubueua de Fátima River Community, Abaetetuba-Para, Brazil, present no risk of poisoning people older than six months. However, decoctions of Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum and Hyptis mutabilis, mostly given to children, had Mn values potentially exceeding the recommended maximum intake for infants in the 0-6 months age group, in the quantities customarily administered. Consequently, studies are needed to assess bioavailability for safe human consumption. Results also showed the consumption of medicinal tea alone is not enough to supply an adult's daily metal requirements or treat deficiencies. Additionally, cures emphasized by interviewed Community members might be associated with the bioactivity of organic substances that the medicinal teas contain.


El contenido de algunos metales en 13 tés medicinales de las 16 especies consumidas por los habitantes de la comunidad del Río Urubueua de Fátima, Abaetetuba-Para, Brasil, se evaluó mediante un fotómetro de llama y un espectrómetro de absorción atómica con métodos de llama, y se comparó con los niveles recomendados por las agencias de la salud. Los tés medicinales evaluados no mostraron riesgo de intoxicación para las personas mayores de seis meses de edad, sino las decocciones de Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum y Hyptis mutabilis, en su mayoría dirigidos a la ingesta de niños, informaron valores de Mn superiores a la ingesta máxima recomendada para el grupo de infantes (0-6 meses), debido a que estos estudios son necesarios para evaluar la biodisponibilidad para un consumo humano seguro. Los resultados también mostraron que solo el consumo de té medicinal no es suficiente para satisfacer las necesidades diarias recomendadas de ingesta de minerales o para tratar las deficiencias. Además, los informes de curación, enfatizados por los habitantes, indican que la bioactividad observada podría estar asociada a sustancias orgánicas presentes en el té.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chás Medicinais , Metais/análise , Valores de Referência , Brasil
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900299, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287220

RESUMO

The biotransformation of huperzine B (hupB), one of the characteristic bioactive constituents of the medicinal plant Huperzia serrata, by a fungal endophyte of the host plant was studied. One new compound, 8α,15α-epoxyhuperzine B (1), along with two known oxygenated hupB analogs, 16-hydroxyhuperzine B (2) and carinatumin B (3), was isolated and identified. The structures of all the isolates were deduced by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra. The known compounds 2 and 3 were obtained from a microbial source for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the microbial transformation of hupB and would facilitate further structural modification of hupB by chemo-enzymatic method. In the LPS-induced neuro-inflammation injury assay, 8α,15α-epoxyhuperzine B (1) exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the viability of U251 cell lines with an EC50 of 40.1 nm.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Huperzia/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Huperzia/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Conformação Molecular , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
4.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 1024-1033, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261420

RESUMO

Halimium halimifolium (Hh) is a shrub used in Algerian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal pain. An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn method was developed to identify the metabolic profile of the traditionally used infusion (Hh-A) from the aerial parts. The structures of flavanols were confirmed by NMR analysis after the isolation procedure from a hydrohalcolic extract (Hh-B) that also allowed for the identification of phenolic acids, an aryl butanol glucoside, and different derivatives of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Tiliroside isomers were the chemical markers of Hh-A and Hh-B (54.33 and 36.00 mg/g, respectively). Hh-A showed a significant scavenging activity both against the radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (EC50 = 10.49 µg/mL and TEAC value = 1.98 mM Trolox/mg infusion) and the lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species release in A375 and HeLa cells. Moreover, the antihyperglycemic properties, by inhibiting the α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes (IC50 = 0.82 mg/mL and 25.01 µg/mL, respectively), were demonstrated. To upgrade the therapeutic effect, a microencapsulation process is proposed as a strategy to optimize stability, handling, and delivery of bioactive components, avoiding the degradation and loss of the biological efficacy after oral intake. Hh-loaded microparticles were designed using cellulose acetate phthalate as the enteric coating material and spray drying as a production process. The results showed a satisfactory process yield (67.9%), encapsulation efficiency (96.7%), and micrometric characteristics of microparticles (laser-scattering, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopy). In vitro dissolution studies (USPII-pH change method) showed that Hh-loaded microparticles are able to prevent the release and degradation of the bioactive components in the gastric tract, releasing them into the intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Cistaceae/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cistaceae/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Composição de Medicamentos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1767-1773, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342700

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn berries and leaves are two medicinal parts derived from the same primitive plant,mostly used as ethnic medicine,which have a long history in Mongolian and Tibetan. This paper reviews the studies on the chemical composition and differences between sea buckthorn berries and leaves. They have the same or similar composition and content of flavonoids,triterpenes,steroids,organic acids and volatile oils,also have some differences. The main differences are as follows: the flavonoids content in the sea buckthorn leaves is greater than that of the sea buckthorn berries,but the species of flavonoids in the berries are higher than leaves. The species and content of steroids and organic acids in the berries are higher than that of the leaves. The berries contain abundant volatile oil,and the leaves contain many phenolic compounds. Finally,the main problems and the prospect of the next research are put forward.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Flavonoides/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1960-1964, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342727

RESUMO

Alpinia oxyphylla is mainly produced in Hainan,and also one of the four famous traditional Chinese medicines in South China with increasing importance in traditional Chinese medicine industry. Field surveys and literatures show that A. oxyphylla has widely used as a medicinal and edible plant,it is an important raw material for many Chinese patent medicines,health products and food,with a long history of artificial cultivation and application. The future development is prospected on health market. But A. oxyphylla industry has faced a lot of problems,including unreasonable planting layout,lack of good varieties,imperfect seed breeding system,low level of standardization,inconsistent quality of medicinal materials,low level of industry,and so on. The suggestions for sustainable development are listed below.First,it is essential to strengthen the research on the basis and application technology of A. oxyphylla,speed up the selection and breeding of improved varieties,and popularize standardized cultivation techniques. Secondly,it is important to strengthen the research on quality standards,improve the quality evaluation system of medicinal materials. Thirdly,it is necessary to take full advantage of the functional components to develop functional products with Hainan characteristics,find out the unique product characteristics of A. oxyphylla,build a famous brand and improve the product competitiveness in the market. It is also important to strengthen policy support and industrial supervision,promote the healthy and rapid development of A. oxyphylla industry.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sementes
7.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 987-996, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350736

RESUMO

The rise of diabetes incidence in Nigeria enhances the use of popular remedies that may interact with conventional therapies. The aqueous extracts of 27 popular Nigerian "antidiabetic" plants were tested for their in vitro effects on glutathione levels within HepG2 cells, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated Rh-123 efflux activity in Caco-2 vincristine-resistant cells, and modulation of glibenclamide transport in Caco-2 monolayers. The extract from Ximenia americana significantly depleted intracellular glutathione at 100 µg/mL similarly to the reference buthionine sulphoximine (p < 0.05). Other 10 extracts raised glutathione levels. Eight extracts inhibiting P-gp efflux in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.01) were selected for further evaluation in a bi-directional transport model across Caco-2 monolayers: Annona senegalensis, Bridellia ferruginea, Cassytha filiformis, Daniellia ogea, Khaya ivorensis, Syzygium guineense, Terminalia avicennioides, and X. americana. When interferences in paracellular transport were discarded, only 3 of them may be modulating the efflux ratio of glibenclamide (efflux ratio: 2.65 ± 0.13) in the same manner the reference drug verapamil (efflux ratio: 1.14 ± 0.25, p < 0.01) does: Syzygium guineense (efflux ratio: 1.70 ± 0.23, p < 0.01), Terminalia avicennioides (efflux ratio: 1.80 ± 0.25, p < 0.05), and X. americana (efflux ratio: 1.66 ± 0.10, p < 0.01). HPLC-UV analyses for P-gp inhibitors in these extracts revealed several phenolic compounds such as rutin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid reported to decrease P-gp expression and/or directly modify its function. In conclusion, some popular herbal medicines used by Nigerian diabetic patients are here shown to potentially affect glibenclamide absorption at concentrations that could be reached in the intestinal tract.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Glibureto/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 343, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis represents a serious threat to the poultry industry, affecting production and causing high morbidity, mortality and significant costs resulting from treatment and prophylaxis. In-feed anticoccidials have been used for decades for managing avian coccidiosis and were very effective until drug resistance emerged. The use of natural remedies has become a promising alternative in combating coccidiosis in chickens. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a commercial herbal formula (H), as oral liquid preparations, in experimental chicken coccidiosis. METHODS: Two independent controlled battery experiments (BE1 and BE2) were designed and the product was tested in 3 different formulas (H1, H2 and H3): H1 contained a propylene glycol extract of Allium sativum and Thymus serpyllum; H2 contained Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis and Chelidonium majus; and H3 contained Allium sativum, Urtica dioica, Inula helenium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Thymus serpyllum, Tanacetum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum. Chickens were divided into five groups for each BE as follows: (i) uninfected untreated control (UU1, UU2); (ii) infected untreated control (IU1, IU2); (iii) infected treated with amprolium (ITA1, ITA2); and (iv, v) two experimental groups infected treated with H1 (ITH1) and H2 (ITH2) formulas in the BE1 and with H3 (ITH3-5 and ITH3-10) formula in the BE2. The chickens from infected groups were challenged with 5000 (BE1) and 50,000 (BE2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. (E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. maxima), respectively. The anticoccidial efficacy was assessed by recording the following: oocysts output (OPG), lesion score (LS), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and anticoccidial index (ACI). Additionally, polyphenolics and flavonoids (caffeic-chlorogenic acid, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercitin, quercitrin) from herb extracts found in H3 formula were determined by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS: H1 and H2 reduced the WG, and increased the FCR and OPG compared with controls. H1 reduced the duodenal lesions, whilst H2 reduced the caecal lesions, compared with control. H3 decreased the OPG of Eimeria spp., reduced the total lesion score and improved the zootechnical performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio). According to ACI value, H1 and H2 had no efficacy on Eimeria spp. infection, but H3 had good to marked anticoccidial effect, the ACI being slightly greater in the group ITH3-5. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, the concentration of polyphenols in H3 formula was the highest, the sum of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid being 914.9 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: H3 formula is a promising natural anticoccidial and field trials are recommended in order to validate the obtained data.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiostáticos/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 693-698, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257324

RESUMO

We aim to attain the sustainable use of longgu and have investigated the significance of longgu in Keishikaryukotsuboreito (KRB) decoction. We have already reported that longgu alters compound profiles in KRB decoction and hypothesized that it does so by adsorbing foreign organic compounds into its superficial pores. In the present study, we focused on the adsorbability of organic materials onto longgu surface as the cause of component profile alteration. We analyzed the physical changes in longgu through the decoction process by measuring the adsorbed water on longgu surface. 1H magic angle spinning NMR (1H-MASNMR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that raw longgu (R-raw) as well as decocted longgu [whether single (R-r) or KRB (R-krb) decoction] adsorbed water. However, the amount of adsorbed water in R-krb was smaller than that in R-raw and R-r. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms of longgu samples indicated that longgu was macroporous. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of R-krb was smaller than that of R-raw and R-r. Further, thermogravimetric analysis of longgu samples showed that R-krb adsorbed matter that R-raw and R-r did not adsorb. The above findings and the 1H-MASNMR analysis of heated longgu samples suggested that longgu adsorbed organic compounds into the pores. We considered that longgu adsorbed organic compounds during KRB decoction into its superficial pores through the decoction process.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Adsorção , Fósseis , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Termogravimetria
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 1989-2008, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355552

RESUMO

Polygonatum plants are perennial plants of Liliaceae. There are about 60 species reported at home and abroad,32 species in China,mainly distributed in the north temperate zone. Their main chemical components are steroidal saponins,polysaccharides,flavonoids,alkaloids,etc. They have anti-aging,anti-tumor,immunomodulation,antibacterial,antiviral,hypoglycemic and blood lipid effects. With the development of health industry,Polygonati Rhizome used as medicine and food has attracted great attention in recent years,and has become a research hotspot. However,the material basis of its efficacy is unclear and the product quality is uneven,which seriously limited the rapid upgrading of the industry. This review summarizes Polygonatum plants system classification,the chemical composition and pharmacological activity to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Polygonatum plants.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polygonatum/química , China , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizoma/química
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110594, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226431

RESUMO

The phytochemical composition and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a mixture of 23 plants, named Horchata, traditionally consumed in Ecuador, have been evaluated. The study was carried out using the hydroalcoholic extract (HHext) and infusion (IHext) of the horchata plant mixture. It was verified that thermal treatment affected the contents of vitamin C and carotenoids, but hardly those of polyphenols, which would be the main bioactive compounds in the infusion, the common form of preparation of horchata for consumption. Among phenolic compounds, caffeoylquinic acids, flavones and flavonols (mostly quercetin glycosides) were prominent. Both HHext and IHext extracts managed to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against LPS-induced cytotoxic damage, increasing the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Greater protective effects were obtained for HHext compared to IHext, which was in agreement with its higher content of phenolic compounds favoured by a more efficient extraction in the hydroalcoholic medium. Nonetheless, the infusion still maintained a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which would support the protective effects on health traditionally attributed to its consumption by the population.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Equador , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Nitritos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Células RAW 264.7 , Temperatura Ambiente , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152790

RESUMO

Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed on relative liver and placental weights of animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight DH extract. The placental numbers were decreased with the increased of DH extract concentration. Liver histological examination in all treated groups showed that tissues underwent degeneration characterized by hepatocyte swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cytolysis, margination and clumping of nucleus chromatin. Changes of the basal and labyrinth zone were observed in placental tissues in all treated groups. Glycogen cells were reduced with fibrin deposition in the basal zone, while irregular vessel formation was demonstrated in the labyrinth zone. UHPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence four steroidal saponins DH. In conclusion, DH aqueous extract exert hepatotoxicity and adverse effects on the placenta of rats. However, the underlying mechanism and phytochemicals inducing the observed toxicity require further investigation.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 150, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine remedies are commonly used for treatment of diverse ailments including bacterial infections. The activity against resistant bacteria and safety of some remedies sold as anti-infective treatments in market places in Buea, Southwest Cameroon were investigated as potential alternative treatment to counter increasing antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Ten remedies were purchased, their components documented and microbial load estimated. Methanol extracts of the remedies were tested for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and microdilution. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on monkey kidney epithelial cells (LLC-MK2) while acute oral toxicity was done in BALB/c mice for the bactericidal extract. Extracts were further analysed using phytochemical tests. RESULTS: All the remedies had microbial loads above the acceptable limit of 105 CFU/g. The highest activity was produced by extracts of four remedies (TP 1, 2, 4, 6a, 6b) against all clinical isolates among which three were active against four control strains. Zones of inhibition ranged from 8 to 27 mm. Two of the four extracts produced zones ≥20 mm against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli but were less active compared to Gentamycin positive control (P < 0.0001-0.0014). The most active extracts also recorded minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 to 4 mg/mL. One of them (TP2) was bactericidal against a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 8 mg/mL. Extracts of six remedies did not show cytotoxicity and no mortality or adverse effect was recorded in the acute oral toxicity test. Phytochemical screening showed the most active extracts contained relatively high amounts of alkaloids and flavonoids. CONCLUSION: Only four of the eight remedies tested showed activity against multidrug resistant bacteria suggesting some of these remedies may not be effective against bacterial infections. Production and handling methods should be improved and the product quality controlled to ensure biosecurity. The remedies which were both active and non-toxic should be further investigated including in vivo experiments to assess their efficacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Camarões , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 196: 111509, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128431

RESUMO

Cnidium officinale Makino is an important medicinal plant of oriental clinics and is considered as the main source of phthalides, polyphenols, and flavonoids. However, there is no available report regarding the effect of different light colors on the secondary metabolites composition of C. officinale. In this study different light (dark, white, blue, red and red: blue) conditions were arranged to raise callus on MS medium containing 0.5 mg·L-1 of each 2,4-D and BAP. Callus grown in dark condition showed maximum (2.0 g) fresh weight with lower total phenolic and flavonoids contents. Also, in dark condition callus faced higher catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities to avoid free radicals. Mix (red: blue) light condition favored the synthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in callus at the cost of higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes expression. However, DPPH free radical scavenging activity was less variable among the samples from the different light conditions. Interestingly, the HPLC profile showed higher (28.3 µg·g-1 DW) phthalide accumulation in dark grown-cultures. Compared to other light conditions, 3-butyledinephthalide accumulation was higher (0.43 µg·g-1 DW) in white light-grown callus. These findings suggest that light conditions play an important role in the regulation of in vitro callus growth and synthesis of important medicinal compounds of C. officinale.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cnidium/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cnidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cnidium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(5): 443-461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061264

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the variability in elemental composition of seven medicinal plants and their respective soils belonging to protected and nearby unprotected sites of the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park. The medical plants under study were Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Peganum harmala Linn, Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth, Seriphidium quettense (Podlech.) Ling, Hertia intermedia (Bioss) O. Ktze, and Nepeta praetervisa Rech. F. Macro (C, H, N, S, K, Ca), micro (Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn), beneficial (Al, Co, Na), others (As, Br, Cr, Cs, Hf, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Sn, V and Th) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb) were characterized by means of standard organic elemental and instrumental neutron activation methodologies and by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that, among macro nutrients, carbon concentration was the highest element in both plant and soil samples followed by H and K. Elements such as Cl, Na and Fe were detected in considerably good amounts; all the other elements were found in trace quantities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify spatial variation in elemental composition of medicinal plants, in which 80-90% of the total variance in whole set of data was found. In particular, the findings highlighted the presence of essential and beneficial elements such as C, H, N, K, Ca, Fe, Mn and Na, in samples from protected sites, while potentially dangerous elements such as Al, As, Br and Cr were detected in samples from unprotected sites. These results emphasized on the need for rational exploitation of valuable medicinal plants and supporting protected areas as an excellent source of biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Elementos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Cloro/análise , Ferro/análise , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Paquistão , Sódio/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1598: 122-131, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047662

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used in orient countries for thousands of years, while their inconsistent quality and therapy issues have become increasingly serious as a result of the absence of effective methods for quality control. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel and specific evaluation system for TCMs' quality involved with not only composition but also bioactivity. In this study, we used Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill as an example and developed a novel integrated approach involved with various chemical analysis and data processing methods to explore its quality marker (Q-marker) underlying its anti-depressive effects. First, six bioactive lignans were identified and semi-quantified in rat brain samples via high resolution mass spectrometry. Then, the bioinformation analysis showed that all the six bioactive components could modulate various diseases relative to noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. Thus, the monoaminergic metabolites contained in these three pathways were selected to screen potential biomarkers of depression treated by S. chinensis based on target metabolomics using a rapid HPLC-MS/MS method. Finally, the correlation analysis between the six components and potential biomarkers was employed to uncover the Q-markers of S. chinensis. It is suggested that schisandrol A, schisandrin A, schisandrin C and gomisin N could be determined as Q-markers for S. chinensis. Thus, the integrated approach describing here for discovering Q-markers was expected to offer an alternative quality assessment strategy of herbal medicines for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Schisandra/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclo-Octanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lignanas/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(3): 308-316, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062607

RESUMO

Herbs are an important part of traditional medicine in Poland. Therefore, the aim of this study was the determination of polonium 210Po in 48 selected medicinal herb samples from the Polish market. The activity concentrations of 210Po were measured using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentration of 210Po was in the range from 0.3 ± 0.1 to 28.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg-1. The obtained results were compared with corresponding studies conducted worldwide. A higher 210Po activity concentration was observed in the above-ground part of plants. The obtained results show that the highest 210Po activity concentration was observed in evergreen plants and winter-hardy plants. Yet even infusions with 2 g of the most contaminated herbs examined were considered to be radiologically safe.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Polônio/análise , Polônia , Monitoramento de Radiação
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 223-238, mayo 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007927

RESUMO

Plants of the genera Werneria (Asteraceae) and Xenophyllum (genus extracted from Werneria) are used in traditional medicine of Latin America for the treatment of mountain sickness, hypertension and gastrointestinal disorders. Only a small number of species of these genera have been studied, leading to the isolation of compounds belonging to the classes of benzofurans, chromenes, acetophenones, coumarates, diterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Some of the plant extracts and/or compounds have shown antimicrobial, anti-HIV, hypotensive and photoprotective activities.


Las plantas de los géneros Werneria (Asteraceae) y Xenophyllum (género extraido de Werneria) son usadas en la medicina tradicional de América Latina para el tratamiento del mal de montaña, hipertensión y desórdenes gastrointestinales. Solo un pequeño número de especies de estos géneros ha sido investigado, lográndose aislar compuestos que pertenecen a las clases de benzofuranos, cromenos, acetofenonas, cumaratos, diterpenos y alcaloides pirrolizidínicos. Algunos de los extractos y/o compuestos de dichas plantas han mostrado actividades antimicrobianas, anti-HIV, hipotensoras y fotoprotectoras.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Asteraceae/química , Acetofenonas/química , Terpenos/análise , Benzopiranos/química , Flavonoides/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Alcaloides/química , Doença da Altitude/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional
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