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1.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 97-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is the most common renal system pathology; it affects the health of a many people. Because urolithiasis leads to severe pain, it influences the patient in many aspects. The management of urolithiasis is essential. Herein, we discuss the limitations of the management of urolithiasis with conventional drugs and the possibilities of using natural or herbal pharmacologically active agents beyond conventional drugs. PURPOSE: The drugs presently used for the treatment of urolithiasis have many adverse side effects; therefore, alternatives are needed. Traditional literature suggests that many herbal or natural medicines can be easily made available for the management of urolithiasis and its consequences. METHOD: The data used for this study were collected from various research /review articles, Internet sources, and text books. Literature regarding epidemiology and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers were taken into consideration in this review. The data from the last few decades, reported in different formats, were analyzed. CONCLUSION: The present review reveals the severity of the progression of the occurrence of urolithiasis worldwide. The epidemiology gave in this review clearly indicates that stress-related factors and dietary complications, the key factors in the development of urolithiasis. are increasing. In this review, we acknowledge the limitations of conventional therapy. Many natural drug options are abundantly available throughout the world and can be useful for the management of urolithiasis. Future Perspectives: The development of a suitable formulation of bioactive components obtained from natural sources is being widely researched. However, traditional remedies that are very helpful in the management of urolithiasis and its related complications require scientific support and appropriate standardization for the assessment of their quality and dosage.


Assuntos
Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 205-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679308

RESUMO

Artemisia vulgaris is a traditional Chinese herb believed to have a wide range of healing properties; it is traditionally used to treat numerous health ailments. The plant is commonly called mugwort or riverside wormwood. The plant is edible, and in addition to its medicinal properties, it is also used as a culinary herb in Asian cooking in the form of a vegetable or in soup. The plant has garnered the attention of researchers in the past few decades, and several research studies have investigated its biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial properties. In this review, various studies on these biological effects are discussed along with the tests conducted, compounds involved, and proposed mechanisms of action. This review will be of interest to the researchers working in the field of herbal medicine, pharmacology, medical sciences, and immunology.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108844, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600484

RESUMO

Using data from Schink et al. (2018), a large number of herbal extracts were assessed for their capacity to induce pro- and anti-inflammatory effects based on TLR4 expression normalized for cell viability in two immune cell models (i.e., HeLa-TLR4 transfected reporter cell line, and THP-1 monocytes) applying seven concentrations (0.01-3.0%). The analysis revealed that 70-80% of the extracts satisfying the a priori entry criteria also satisfied a priori evaluative criteria for hormetic concentration responses. These findings demonstrate that a large proportion of herbal extracts display hormetic dose responses in immune cells, indicating that hormetic mechanisms mediate pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and may provide a means to guide optimal dosing strategies. The identification of doses eliciting only anti-inflammatory therapeutic activity as well as the use of dose-variable herbal extracts in the treatment of inflammatory diseases will be challenging.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Células HeLa , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3203-3212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602873

RESUMO

In order to provide guidance for the protection and utilization of resources,quality control and breeding of improved varieties,we compared the main phenotypic characters and quality of wild and transplanted Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from different producing areas. Seven phenotypic characters of 33 samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan were determined by conventional methods,and the principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the diversity of the samples. The parissaponin( polyphyllin Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ) content of the samples were detected by HPLC,and analyzed by cluster analysis. Correlation analysis of the phenotypic characters and the parissaponin content was performed. There were significant differences in seven phenotypic characters between wild and transplanted samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis from different habitats,with high phenotypic diversity and abundant genetic variation. The results of principal component analysis showed that leaf shape index was the main factor of morphological variation of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Cluster analysis showed that the phenotypic characters of wild and transplanted P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis could not be completely separated. The content of saponins in wild and transplanted samples from different habitats was quite different. Saponins content of 93. 94% samples met the criterion of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition,and the overall quality was relatively steady. The results of independent sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference of all the active ingredient between wild and transplanted samples,and it couldn't be used to distinguish between wild and transplanted samples. It is the same as the results of cluster analysis. The results of correlation analysis showed that the phenotypic traits of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were correlated with its medicine quality,and the total content of saponins was positively correlated with leaf length and leaf shape index( r = 0. 389,0. 441; P<0. 05). Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan are suitable for the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the transplaned P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis can be used as the same as the wild ones completely. The results provide reference for the protection and selective breeding of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.


Assuntos
Melanthiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Saponinas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecossistema , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2996-3001, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602845

RESUMO

Through the records of herbal and market investigations,the samples collected from different market and origin were analyzed,and the appearance character indexes were determined in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix combined with production practice. This is also to analyze association of the appearance with quality different of intrinsic components. The investigation results indicated the root's long and thick was better,and atrovirens of fracture surface,there are most of the market is dominated by the ungraded goods. Through principal component analysis,variance analysis and cluster analysis,combining with the feasibility of actual operation and herbal record,the length,middle diameter and phloem color were filtrated and the specification was divided into 2 ranks: the selection and ungraded goods,and the grade was divided into 2 ranks for the selection goods: big,small selected goods. Moreover,there were no significant correlation between the appearance and the intrinsic quality index of Dipsaci Radix,the content of extractum were significantly positive correlation with the moisture,but had extremely negative correlation with the total ash. Multiple comparisons indicated that the content of the moisture,extractum and asperosaponin VI of the selected goods were higher than the ungraded goods,while the total ash content were lower,and they hasn't significant difference. The commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix as a basis provide commodity specification and grade standard of communities and standardizing market trade order.


Assuntos
Dipsacaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Plantas Medicinais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3094-3099, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602858

RESUMO

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Medição de Risco
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108825, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553897

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other worldwide health agencies have recently taken initiatives to encourage the use of traditional medicine and/or complementary/alternative medicine in order to promote well-being and public health. In this way, one of the WHO's concerns is the safe use of these therapies. Phytotherapy is a strategy consisting of the use of medicinal plants (MP) and/or herbal medicinal products (HMP) for medicinal purposes. The use of phytotherapy concomitantly with drugs may cause interactions compromising the expected pharmacological action or generating toxic effects. These interactions are complex processes that may occur with multiple medications targeting different metabolic pathways, and involving different compounds present in MP and HMP. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize the main MP- and HMP-drug interactions that involve specific transporters (P-glycoprotein and BCRP) and CYP450 enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), which play relevant roles in the mechanisms of interactions. Firstly, multiple databases were used to search studies describing in vitro or in vivo MP and HMP-drug interactions and, after that, a systematic note-taking and appraisal of the literature was conducted. It was observed that several MP and HMP, metabolic pathways and transcription factors are involved in the transporters and enzymes expression or in the modulation of their activity having the potential to provide such interactions. Thus, the knowledge of MP- and HMP-drug interaction mechanisms could contribute to prevent harmful interactions and can ensure the safe use of these products to help the establishment of the therapeutic planning in order to certify the best treatment strategy to be used.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Animais , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
10.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 316-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507198

RESUMO

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks and rapid spread in tropical Latin America since introduction to Brazil in 2014, and now appearing cases in the USA, are alarming. World Health Organization (WHO) has considered transmission of ZIKV, a serious public health problem because of the increasing number of outbreaks. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of ZIKV infection. Discovery of safe and effective drugs are hampered by the risk in treating pregnant woman and toxicity to the fetus. Sweet basil, known as Ocimum basilicum in the scientific community, is a very well-known medicinal herb. Numerous studies have documented its beneficial activity against a great variety of human pathogens ranging from bacteria and virus to fungus and protozoans. Although, basil extracts and oils have been tested successfully against other viruses, its application to tackle ZIKV infection has not been exploited at all. In this study, we report for the first time that highly diluted ethanol extracts prepared from basil leaves can effectively inhibit ZIKV replication in Vero E6 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 1:134. The diluted extract as well as the amount of ethanol that goes into its preparation have been found to be completely non-toxic to the above mentioned cell line. The extract seems to inhibit the virus at the step of attachment and entry into the host cell. The specific inhibition of ZIKV observed using the basil leaf extract suggests a new alternative mode of treatment against flavivirus. Keywords: Zika virus; basil extract; antiviral.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Extratos Vegetais , Internalização do Vírus , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cercopithecus aethiops , Etanol/química , Ocimum basilicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/fisiologia
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5303-5321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406461

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder which has become a public health challenge worldwide. There has been growing interest in medications including natural products as complementary or alternative choices for common chemical therapeutics regarding their limited side effects and ease of access. Nanosizing these compounds may help to increase their solubility, bioavailability, and promisingly enhance their efficacy. This study, for the first time, provides a comprehensive overview of the application of natural-products-based nanoformulations in the management of metabolic syndrome. Different phytochemicals including curcumin, berberine, Capsicum oleoresin, naringenin, emodin, gymnemic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, scutellarin, stevioside, silybin, baicalin, and others have been nanosized hitherto, and their nanosizing method and effect in treatment and alleviating metabolic syndrome have been reviewed and discussed in this study. It has been discovered that there are several pathways or molecular targets relevant to metabolic disorders which are affected by these compounds. Various natural-based nanoformulations have shown promising effect in treatment of metabolic syndrome, and therefore can be considered as future candidates instead of or in conjunction with pharmaceutical drugs if they pass clinical trials successfully.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
12.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(10): 996-1003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389311

RESUMO

Abstract:Throughout the last decade, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing a percutaneous catheter ablation and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator technique for patients suffering from ventricular arrhythmia. Antiarrhythmic drug efficacy for preventing arrhythmias remains disappointing because of adverse cardiovascular effects. Allocryptopine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely present in medicinal herbs. Studies have indicated that allocryptopine exhibits potential anti-arrhythmic actions in various animal models. The potential therapeutic benefit of allocryptopine in arrhythmia diseases is addressed in this study, focusing on multiple ion channel targets and reduced repolarization dispersion. The limitations of allocryptopine research are clear given a lack of parameters regarding toxicology and pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy in patients with ventricular arrhythmias. Much remains to be revealed about the properties of allocryptopine.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides de Berberina , Plantas Medicinais/química , Traqueófitas/química , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/química , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides de Berberina/química , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
13.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398447

RESUMO

Herbal medicines (HMs) have attracted widespread attention because of their significant contributions to the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. Recently, gut microbiota has become an important frontier to understand the therapeutic mechanisms of medicines. Gut microbiota-mediated transformation is a microbial metabolic form after oral administrations of HMs compounds. A great number of studies showed that gut microbiota could transform some HMs compounds by the variation of chemical structures into several active metabolites, which exerted better bioavailabilities and therapeutic activities than their parent compounds. Among these HMs compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids were the representative ones. However, there is no systemic review focusing on the potential improved therapeutic activities of these natural compounds caused by gut microbial transformation. Here, this review summarizes the therapeutic activities that are more potent in microbial transformed metabolites than in their parent compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids) from HMs. We hope this review will be conducive to deepening the understanding of the relationship between gut microbial transformation and therapeutic activities of HMs compounds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia
14.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104297, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404617

RESUMO

As a part of an ongoing bioprospective project, searching for potential medicinal plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Miconia willdenowii was selected for its potential leishmanicidal and antimicrobial activities. The crude ethanolic extract of M. willdenowii showed an inhibition of 99.7% of the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at the concentration of 80 µg/mL. Further investigation of its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic fungi and Gram positive and negative bacteria, revealed a significant antimicrobial activity. A bioguided study with its liquid-liquid partition fractions revealed the hexane fraction (Hex) as the most active against Leishmania, inhibiting 99.2% and 46.9% of the protozoan at concentrations of 40 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Hex also showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida krusei with IC50 of 15.6 and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively. Purification of Hex led to the isolation of 2-methoxy-6-pentyl-benzoquinone (1, also known as primin) as the active metabolite, probably responsible for the observed antimicrobial and anti-leishmania effects. Primin (1) disclosed leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 1.25 µM), showing higher potency than the standard drug amphotericin B (IC50 = 5.08 µM), with additional antifungal effects against all tested fungi species. Compound 1 also showed significant activity against S. aureus (IC50 = 8.94 µM), showing a comparable potency with the reference drug chloramphenicol (IC50 = 6.19 µM), but with a potential cytotoxicity towards peripheral human blood mononuclear cells (CC50 = 255.15 µM). Here in, the antimicrobial and anti-L. amazonensis effects of M. willdenowii are reported for the first time, as well as Primin (1) as its probable bioactive metabolite.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Benzoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470066

RESUMO

The biotransformation of huperzine A (hupA), one of the characteristic bioactive constituents of the medicinal plant Huperzia serrata, by a fungal endophyte of the host plant was studied. Two previously undescribed compounds 1-2, along with a known analog 8α,15α-epoxyhuperzine A (3), were isolated and identified. The structures of all the isolates were established by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra. In particular, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by CD spectra comparison and theoretic NOE strength calculation. In the LPS-induced neuro-inflammation injury assay, 1-3 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the viability of U251 cell lines with EC50 values of 35.3 ±â€¯0.9, 32.1 ±â€¯0.9, and 50.3 ±â€¯0.8 nM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Huperzia/microbiologia , Polyporales/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Huperzia/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6931-6936, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on plants are well known and have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to the production of large quantities of secondary metabolites, which are very beneficial for human health. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of exploiting UV-B radiation to induce metabolic changes in fruit, vegetables, and herbs. The role of UV-B rays in inducing secondary plant metabolites is enhanced by new plastic films, which, as a result of their optical properties, permit the necessary dosage of UV-B to be transmitted into the greenhouse to stimulate such metabolites without altering the harvest. RESULTS: The main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate that, by using a greenhouse plastic film with appropriate transmittance of UV-B for rocket salad cultivation, it is possible to increase the nutraceutical elements in comparison with the same species grown in absence of such radiation. Tests compared nutritional elements extracted from rocket salad grown under greenhouses covered with several plastic films differing in UV-B transmittance. We found that rocket salad grown under plastic with 27% UV-B transmittance exhibited very high luteolin and quercetin content in comparison with rocket salad cultivated under film blocking UV-B radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental results confirm the possibility of exploiting UV-B radiation in the correct amounts by appropriate greenhouse plastic covers, to produce natural 'medicines' using the plants and to satisfy increasing consumer demand for natural health-promoting food products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Luteolina/análise , Luteolina/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Plásticos/análise , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190208, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411242

RESUMO

The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for nutrition, medicines and beauty. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world, with a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of the Brazilian territory, we would like to highlight the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies and the importance of scientific programs to support the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Biológicos , Descoberta de Drogas , Farmacoeconomia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Brasil , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
18.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104285, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386897

RESUMO

Botanical-based natural products are an important resource for medicinal drug discovery and continue to provide diverse pharmacophores with therapeutic potential against cancer and other human diseases. A prototype Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plant extract library has been established at the US National Cancer Institute, which contains both the organic and aqueous extracts of 132 authenticated medicinal plant species that collectively represent the potential therapeutic contents of most commonly used TCM herbal prescriptions. This library is publicly available in 96- and 384- well plates for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets, as well as in larger quantities for isolation of active chemical ingredients. Herein, we present the methodology used to generate the library and the preliminary assessment of the anti-proliferative activity of this crude extract library in NCI-60 human cancer cell lines screen. Particularly, we report the chemical profiling and metabolome comparison analysis of four commonly used TCM plants, namely Brucea javanica, Dioscorea nipponica, Cynanchum atratum, and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in the identification of the active compounds, and different extraction methods were compared for their abilities to extract cytotoxic compounds and to concentrate biologically active natural products.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Brucea/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Cynanchum/química , Dioscorea/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Estados Unidos
19.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(6): 401-412, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262453

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AS is increasing in the last decades. So development of safe and effective therapeutics for treating AS has become prominently important. Although there are numerous chemical drugs available for treating AS, some drugs are not effective and some have serious side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history for the prevention and treatment of AS due to its less side effects and superior efficacy. This paper describes the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms for prevention and treatment of AS by TCM or its active components. Some TCM, e.g. XuemaiNing, Tongxinluo and Salvia miltiorrhiza have been reported to have cardio-protective effect. Some active components of TCM, e.g. saikosaponin-A, kuwanon G, luteolin and ß-elemene have been isolated from various TCM and demonstrated to have beneficial effects on prevention and treatment of AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Plantas Medicinais/química
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(6): 446-460, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262457

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of the Vitellaria paradoxa nutshell as a new medicinal resource for treating diabetes. A total of forty-one compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS and phytochemical methods in V. paradoxa nutshell methanol extract. Based on HPLC fingerprints, four characteristic constituents were quantified and the origin of twenty-eight V. paradoxa nutshells from seven sub-Saharan countries was compared, which were classified into three groups with chemometric method. Twenty-eight samples contained high total phenolic content, and exhibited moderate-higher antioxidant activity and strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Furthermore, all fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory action mechanism of four characteristic constituents including protocatechuic acid, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxycoumarin, (2R, 3R)-(+)-taxifolin and quercetin was investigated via molecular docking method, which were all stabilized by hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase. The study provided an effective approach to waste utilization of V. paradoxa nutshell, which would help to resolve waste environmental pollution and provide a basis for developing potential herbal resource for treating diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapotaceae/química , África ao Sul do Saara , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
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