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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142513

RESUMO

Habitat degradation and summer droughts severely restrict feeding options for the endangered southern hairy-nosed wombat (SHNW; Lasiorhinus latifrons). We reconstructed SHNW summer diets by DNA metabarcoding from feces. We initially validated rbcL and ndhJ diet reconstructions using autopsied and captive animals. Subsequent diet reconstructions of wild wombats broadly reflected vegetative ground cover, implying local rather than long-range foraging. Diets were all dominated by alien invasives. Chemical analysis of alien food revealed Carrichtera annua contains high levels of glucosinolates. Clinical examination (7 animals) and autopsy (12 animals) revealed that the most degraded site also contained most individuals showing signs of glucosinolate poisoning. We infer that dietary poisoning through the ingestion of alien invasives may have contributed to the recent population crashes in the region. In floristically diverse sites, individuals appear to be able to manage glucosinolate intake by avoidance or episodic feeding but this strategy is less tractable in the most degraded sites. We conclude that recovery of the most affected populations may require effective Carrichtera management and interim supplementary feeding. More generally, we argue that protection against population decline by poisoning in territorial herbivores requires knowledge of their diet and of those food plants containing toxic principles.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Marsupiais/fisiologia , Plantas Tóxicas/genética , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Animais , Ecossistema , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Marsupiais/genética
2.
Toxicon ; 176: 55-58, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103796

RESUMO

Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) is one of the most toxic plants to livestock and humans. Little is known regarding the amount of plant required to cause death. The objective of this study was to determine a lethal dose of water hemlock in a goat model. Plants were dosed to goats via oral gavage of freeze-dried ground plant material. The results from this study suggest that 1-2 fresh tubers would be lethal to goats.


Assuntos
Cicuta/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Animais , Cabras , Gado , Modelos Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade
3.
Toxicon ; 176: 21-29, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965970

RESUMO

Larkspurs, lupines, and death camas can be acutely toxic to livestock and are serious poisonous plant problems in western North America. The toxicity of these plants depends on the composition and concentrations of the toxic alkaloids in the plants. In this study, goats and cows were dosed sub-lethal doses of larkspur, lupine, and death camas. Rumen contents and ocular fluid samples were collected, and simple extraction, sample preparation, and analytical methods were developed for the detection of toxic alkaloids in the rumen contents and ocular fluid samples. Toxic alkaloids were detected in the rumen contents and ocular fluid samples from the goats and cows dosed larkspur, lupine, and death camas. In addition, results from a case report where rumen contents were analyzed from a steer that was suspected to have died due to larkspur are reported. This demonstrates the utility of the methods described for the diagnosis of acute plant poisonings.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/toxicidade , Delphinium , Lupinus , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Rúmen , Zigadenus , Animais , Bovinos , Olho/química , Cabras , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária
4.
Toxicon ; 173: 68-74, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785285

RESUMO

The genus Senecio is distributed worldwide, being responsible of poisoning in livestock and humans. Many species of Senecio have high invasion and expansion capacity, highly competitive with agricultural and native plant species, causing ecological damage. Particularly in Uruguay, poisoning by Senecio have grown exponentially to reach epidemic proportions. Herein we describe Seneciosis as a re-emerging and expanding epidemic disease affecting cattle, by describing clinico-pathological, epidemiological and genetic variation of species involved, as well as an experimental intoxication with Senecio oxyphyllus. For this, a study was carried out on 28 cattle farms in Eastern Uruguay, with history of seneciosis from 2010 to 2016. Plants of fifty populations of Senecio were sampled, in 2015 and 2016, for identification, analysis of alkaloids and study of genetic variation. In turn, post-mortem examination was performed in cattle of natural and an experimental case to confirm the intoxication, showing microscopic characteristic lesions (hepatomegalocytosis, diffuse fibrosis and ductal reaction). Four species of Senecio were identified: S. oxyphyllus, S. madagascariensis, S. selloi and S. brasiliensis. In the genetic study, 489 molecular markers of amplified sequence-related polymorphisms (SRAP), associated with species and pasture, were used for genetic variation analysis. There was no statistically significant association between genetic variation determined by molecular markers and population (specimens of same species collected from the same farm), botanically determined species, or geographical origin. The increase of seneciosis in cattle in the last years, the presence of species not identified to the moment with implication in the poisoning outbreaks and expansion of these plants shows that the disease is in an epidemic growing active stage. In turn, the experimental poisoning with S. oxyphyllus confirms its chronic hepatotoxic effect, being an emergent species for the region, of high distribution and toxic risk. This latter turned out the main Senecio species involved. This case of expansion of harmful plant for animal production and desirable plant species, can be useful as a model of ecopathological characterization, which is likely to occur with other toxic plants in different geographical ranges globally.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Senécio , Alcaloides , Animais , Bovinos , Nível de Saúde , Espécies Introduzidas , Fígado , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Plantas Tóxicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 978-982, Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056926

RESUMO

The study evaluate the frequency of poisoning by Brachiaria spp. at the rearing, growth and termination stages in various lamb breeds at increasing supplementation levels. Forty-five lambs were used in the growth phase in pastures of Brachiaria spp. with a history of having induced poisoning. The lambs were distributed in nutritional treatments: lambs receiving mineral supplementation (MS), energy/protein supplementation (EPS) at 0.8% of body weight (bw), EPS at 1.6% bw and EPS at 2.4% bw. The lambs were allotted two flocks (F1 and F2) of 21 and 24 lambs each. Clinical signs of poisoning were observed in all treatments. All MS lambs died. The frequency of poisoning were highest in the 0.8% EPS and 1.6% EPS treatments. All lambs in the 2.4% EPS treatment recovered. F1 lambs had a higher frequency of poisoning than F2 lambs regardless of nutritional treatment. Morbidity rates for the F1 and F2 lambs were 52.3 and 16.7%, respectively. Supplementation was not sufficient to decrease the frequency of poisoning in lambs at the termination stage, which was dependent on the genetic origin of the lambs. EPS of 2.4% bw treatment, was an efficient nutritional strategy to minimize the effects of poisoning in lambs fed on Brachiaria spp.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. nas fases de recria, crescimento e terminação em várias raças de cordeiros em níveis crescentes de suplementação. Quarenta e cinco cordeiros foram utilizados na fase de crescimento em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. com história de intoxicação, distribuídos em diferents tratamentos nutricionais: cordeiros recebendo suplementação mineral (SM), suplementação energética/protéica (SEP) a 0,8% do peso vivo (pv), SEP a 1,6% pv e SEP a 2,4% pv. Vinte e um cordeiros vieram do lote F1 e 24 cordeiros foram do lote F2. Sinais clínicos de intoxicação foram observados em todos os tratamentos. Todos os cordeiros com MS morreram. As frequências de intoxicação foram maiores nos tratamentos com 0,8% e 1,6% de SEP. Todos os cordeiros no tratamento com 2,4% de SEP se recuperaram. Cordeiros F1 apresentaram maior frequência de intoxicação que os cordeiros F2, independentemente do tratamento nutricional. As taxas de morbidade para os cordeiros F1 e F2 foram de 52,3 e 16,7%, respectivamente. A suplementação não foi suficiente para diminuir a freqüência de intoxicação em cordeiros na fase de terminação, dependente da origem genética dos cordeiros. O SEP de 2,4% pv, no entanto, foi eficiente para minimizar os efeitos da intoxicação em cordeiros alimentados com Brachiaria spp.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Ovinos , Brachiaria/toxicidade
6.
Se Pu ; 37(11): 1142-1156, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642266

RESUMO

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Qtrap MS) method was developed for the determination of 84 toxic plant constiuents in plasma and urine. Plasma was precipitated by acetonitrile to remove proteins and then passed through a Prime HLB SPE column to remove phospholipids, while urine was diluted with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) by gradient elution using the mobile phase of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid and 2 mmol/L ammonium formate both in 97% (v/v) acetonitrile aqueous solution and water. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was carried out in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion scan mode (MRM-IDA-EPI). The 84 analytes were quantified by the matrix working standard curve internal standard method, and a good linear relationship was observed, with correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.9911. The limits of detection (LODs) in plasma and urine were 0.01-1 µg/L and 0.03-2 µg/L, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions of these analytes were 0.7%-18.4% and 1.1%-18.5%, and the accuracy of all analytes ranged from 70.6% to 124.5%. This method is simple, sensitive, and accurate for the measurement of these analytes in plasma and urine for both clinical and forensic applications.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/sangue , Compostos Fitoquímicos/urina , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant poisoning in small children (from 0.5 to <6 years of age) is the third most frequent cause for phone contact with a poison center. For prevention of poisonings, a list of poisonous plants that should not be planted close to playgrounds or other places frequently visited by children was published in 2000 by the Bundesanzeiger. This list has been reevaluated and updated by the "Toxicity of Plants" working group of the Committee of the Assessment of Intoxications at the Federal Institute of Risk Assessment (BfR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant plants were taken from a recent publication. A literature search was conducted in PubMed concerning all plant poisonings in children and the toxic ingredients of plants. Also, monographs and the database POISINDEX were integrated in the evaluation. A classification was made for plants that after oral, dermal, or ocular contact of small quantities could cause severe, moderate, mild, or no intoxications in small children. RESULTS: Based on data of exposure and potentially toxic ingredients of the involved plants, a risk assessment was executed, which diverges from other publications because it concerns the actual basic risk of an intoxication. In total, 251 plants were reevaluated. For 11 plants, there was a high risk, for 32 a moderate, for 115 a mild, and for 93 plants no risk of intoxication could be determined. CONCLUSION: The new assessment of evaluating a toxicity risk for small children on the basis of exposure data and including the toxicity of ingredients allows for a more realistic assessment of the risk of poisoning with outdoor plants. In this way, infant exposure carrying a high risk of intoxication can be identified.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas , Envenenamento , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Plantas Tóxicas , Medição de Risco
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 710-714, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040745

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the methods of collecting Brachiaria spp. (Simulated Grazing vs. Total Collection) for the determination of protodioscin concentrations and to monitor the intoxication in sheep susceptible and resistant to poisoning by Brachiaria spp. The collection of Brachiaria spp. was done through two different methods. The first one consisted in throwing a metallic square at 10 random picket points. The second was performed simulating, with the hands, the grazing behavior of sheep. The leaf blades obtained by the two methods were conditioned in a forced ventilation oven. The extraction and quantification of protodioscin from the dry milled plant material was done by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The collections were carried out at three stages of the life of experimental lamb (suckling, rearing, and finishing). The lambs were divided into resistant and susceptible to intoxication by Brachiaria spp. The criterion for a lamb to be considered sensitive was to present some clinical signs at some stage of its life. No significant differences were observed between the general averages of the two collections when the evaluation was done in the whole period. However, a significant difference was found at the onset of the clinical signs. The concentrations of protodioscin in this period were higher in Brachiaria spp. collected by the simulating grazing method. Both methodologies were efficient to determine the level of protodioscin in the pastures of Brachiaria spp. However, during the periods when the outbreaks occurred, the simulated grazing method was more reliable.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de coleta de Brachiaria spp. (Pastejo Simulado vs Coleta Total) para determinação das concentrações de protodioscina e efetuar o monitoramento da intoxicação em rebanhos sensíveis e resistentes à intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. Foram realizadas coletas de Brachiaria spp. através de duas metodologias. A primeira consistiu em fazer o lançamento de um quadrado metálico em 10 pontos aleatórios do piquete. A segunda foi realizada simulando com as mãos o comportamento de pastejo dos ovinos. As lâminas foliares obtidas pelas duas metodologias foram acondicionadas em estufa de ventilação forçada. O material seco e moído foi encaminhado para extração e quantificação da protodioscina por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) de fase reversa. As coletas foram realizadas em três fases de vida dos cordeiros (cria, recria e terminação). Os cordeiros foram divididos em resistentes e sensíveis a intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. O critério para o ovino ser considerado sensível foi apresentar algum sinal clínico da intoxicação em alguma fase de sua vida. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a média geral das duas coletas quando a avaliação foi feita no período total. Porém, foi observada diferença significativa no período de aparecimento dos casos. As concentrações de protodioscina neste período foram superiores pelo método do pastejo simulado. Ambas as metodologias mostraram-se eficientes para determinação da concentração da protodioscina nas pastagens de Brachiaria spp. No entanto, nos períodos em que ocorreram os surtos, o método do pastejo simulado foi mais fidedigno.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Plantas Tóxicas , Saponinas/toxicidade , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Brachiaria/toxicidade
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 447-453, July 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040709

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Merremia macrocalyx in cattle in the Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil, and to experimentally replicate the poisoning by this plant. To determine the occurrence of poisonings, 30 farms were visited in six municipalities at the Forest Zone of Pernambuco. The plant was found in nine farms, in which history of plant poisoning in cattle, and occasionally in sheep were also reported. Three outbreaks of spontaneous poisonings in cattle were studied. To replicate the disease experimentally, two steers received a single dose of 60g/kg and two steers received 80g/kg of the fresh leaves of M. macrocalyx in the trough for spontaneous ingestion. Two steers were also used as a control group. The main clinical signs observed in spontaneous cases consisted of restlessness, bloat, polyuria, diarrhea, and death within 48 to 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs. Cattle experimentally poisoned presented similar clinical signs to those observed in spontaneous cases. Gross lesions consisted of dryness and impaction of the rumen, omasum and reticulum contents. Abomasal content was fluid, the mucosa was hyperemic, with swollen folds and multiple ulcers. Similar lesions were observed in duodenum mucosae. Histologically, lesions observed in the abomasum and duodenum mucosa consisted of necrosis, hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The wide distribution and palatability of this plant, associated with the high sensitivity of the bovine species verified in this experiment, highlight the importance of this plant in spontaneous cases of poisoning in cattle.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação espontânea por Merremia macrocalyx em bovinos de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil e reproduzir experimentalmente a intoxicação por esta planta. Para determinar a ocorrência das intoxicações, foram visitadas 30 propriedades em seis municípios na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. A planta foi encontrada em nove fazendas onde também haviam históricos de intoxicações em bovinos e ocasionalmente em ovinos. Três surtos de intoxicações espontâneas em bovinos foram estudados e para reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, dois novilhos receberam doses únicas de 60g/kg e dois novilhos receberam 80g/kg de folhas frescas de M. Macrocalyx para consumo espontâneo no cocho. Dois novilhos foram utilizados como grupo controle. Os principais sinais clínicos observados na intoxicação espontânea consistiram em agitação, timpanismo, poliúria, diarreia e morte dentro de 48 a 72 horas após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos. Os bovinos intoxicados experimentalmente apresentaram sinais clínicos semelhantes aos observados nos casos espontâneos. À necropsia as lesões consistiam em compactação e ressecamento dos conteúdos do rúmen, omaso e retículo. O conteúdo do abomaso estava fluido, notava-se hiperemia das mucosas, as pregas estavam edemaciadas e continham múltiplas úlceras. Lesões semelhantes também foram observadas na mucosa do duodeno. Histologicamente, as lesões observadas na mucosa do abomaso e do duodeno consistiam em necrose, hemorragia e infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico e linfocítico. A ampla distribuição de Merremia macrocalyx na região estudada e a boa palatabilidade associada à alta sensibilidade da espécie bovina verificada neste experimento, reforça a importância desta planta em casos espontâneos de intoxicação em bovinos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Convolvulaceae/toxicidade , Orelha Média/patologia , Plantas Tóxicas , Brasil/epidemiologia
11.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(5): 512-523, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mediterranean plants are characterised by a high content of bioactive secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant-plant interactions as plant growth regulators and could be useful for the development of new eco-friendly herbicides. OBJECTIVE: An NMR-based metabolomics approach was reported to seek selective phytotoxic plant extracts and putative plant-derived active molecules. METHODS: Plant extracts derived from five Mediterranean donor species (Pistacia lentiscus, Bellis sylvestris, Phleum subulatum, Petrohrhagia saxifraga and Melilotus neapolitana) were used to treat the hydroponic cultures of three receiving plants (Triticum durum, Triticum ovatum and Avena fatua). Morphological analyses of the treated receiving plants were carried out. NMR-based metabolomics was applied both to characterise the donor plant extracts and to study the effects of the treatments on the receiving plants. RESULTS: This study allowed the identification of Melilotus neapolitana and Bellis sylvestris as phytotoxic plant and good candidates for further studies. Specifically, the NMR-based metabolomics investigation showed that these species affect a specific set of metabolites (such as sugars, amino and organic acids) and therefore metabolic pathways [i.e. tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acid metabolism, etc.] that are crucial for the plant growth and development. Moreover, it was possible to identify the metabolite(s) probably responsible for the phytotoxicity of the active extracts. CONCLUSION: The NMR-based metabolomics approach employed in this study led to the identification of two phytotoxic plant extracts and their putative active principles. These new insights will be of paramount importance in the future to find plant derived molecules endowed with phytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20469-20474, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102213

RESUMO

The expansion of poisonous plants can change vegetation community structures and affect grassland ecosystem service values. Stellera chamaejasme is one of the most important poisonous plants and has rapidly expanded in the arid areas of Northwest China in recent decades. The objective of this study was to elucidate the expansion process and model of an S. chamaejasme population. Therefore, we classified the S. chamaejasme population into five classes based on coverage: 31-40%, 41-50%, 51-60%, 61-70% and 71-80%. We investigated the spatial distribution patterns and the size compositions of S. chamaejasme under different coverages. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of S. chamaejasme under low coverage (31-40%) at all study scales (0-100 cm) was random; the spatial distribution pattern translated to a clumped distribution from a random distribution at some scales, and the clumped distributions gradually became obvious, with coverage increasing from 41-50% to 61-70%; the spatial distribution tended to be random at all study scales when coverage was increased further (71-80%). However, the spatial distribution patterns were closely related to the size composition of the S. chamaejasme population. In particular, the quantity of older individuals had a significant impact on the variation of the spatial distribution patterns of S. chamaejasme. The spatial distribution pattern varied from a random distribution to a clumped distribution and then returned to a random distribution with increasing coverage (from 31-40% to 71-80%), and this may indicate that the S. chamaejasme patches experienced patch formation and extension and merged with each other.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae/fisiologia , China , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Plantas Tóxicas/fisiologia
13.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(2): 415-427, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987713

RESUMO

The unintentional ingestion of toxic compounds in herbs is not uncommon in many parts of the world. To provide timely and life-saving care in the emergency department, it is essential to develop a point-of-care analytical method that can rapidly identify these toxins in herbs. Since electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS) has been successfully used to characterize non-volatile chemical compounds without sample preparation, it was used to identify toxic herbal compounds in this study. The herbal toxins were collected either by sweeping a metallic probe across the surface of a freshly cut herb section or by directly sampling extracts of ground herbal powder. The analytes on the probe were then desorbed, ionized and detected using ELDI/MS, wherein analysis of the herbal toxins was completed within 30 s. This approach allows for the rapid morphological recognition of herbs and early point-of-care identification of herbal toxins for emergency management and is promising in providing important toxicological information to ensure appropriate medical treatment.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/análise , Flavanonas/análise , Humanos , Piridoxina/análogos & derivados , Piridoxina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
14.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(4): 1065-1073, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028469

RESUMO

The plant species Gloriosa superba and Colchicum autumnale produce extremely poisonous colchicine as a major toxic metabolite. Almost all previous studies on colchicine poisoning have focused on drug analysis and clinical and pathological aspects. In this study, we developed a rapid, highly sensitive method to identify G. superba and C. autumnale. This method, which can distinguish between G. superba and C. autumnale using even minute amounts of plant material, is based on duplex real-time PCR in combination with melting curve analysis. To discriminate between the two genera of colchicine-containing plants, we designed new primer pairs targeting the region of the ycf15 gene, which is present in C. autumnale but not G. superba. By producing PCR amplicons with easily distinguishable melting temperatures, we were able to rapidly and accurately distinguish G. superba from C. autumnale. The new primer pairs generated no PCR amplicons from commercially available human DNA or various plant DNAs except for G. superba and C. autumnale. Sensitivity testing indicated that this assay can accurately detect less than 0.031 ng of DNA. Using our method in conjunction with colchicine drug analysis, we successfully identified G. superba in the stomach contents of a suicide victim who ingested massive quantities of a colchicine-containing plant. According to these results, duplex real-time PCR analysis is very appropriate for testing forensic samples, such as stomach contents harboring a variety of vegetables, and enables discrimination between G. superba and C. autumnale in forensic and emergency medical fields.


Assuntos
Colchicina/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Suicídio , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
15.
Toxicon ; 163: 48-58, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880189

RESUMO

Indospicine is a natural toxin occurring only in Indigofera plant species, including the Australian native species I. linnaei. These perennial legumes are resistant to drought and palatable to grazing livestock including cattle. Indospicine accumulates in the tissues (including muscle) of animals grazing Indigofera and these residues persist for several months after exposure. Dogs are particularly sensitive to indospicine with reports in past decades of hepatotoxicosis and mortalities in dogs after dietary exposure to indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat. The risk for human consumption is not known, and the current study was undertaken to assess indospicine levels in cattle going to slaughter from divergent regions of Western Australia, and to predict the likelihood of significant residues being present. Muscle and corresponding liver samples from 776 cattle originating from the Kimberley and Pilbara Regions in the tropical north of the state, where I. linnaei is prevalent, and 640 cattle from the South West and South Coast Regions in the temperate south west of the state, where the plant is not known to occur, were collected at abattoirs over four seasons in 2015-2017. Indospicine levels were measured by LC-MS/MS and ranged from below detection to 3.63 mg/kg. No indospicine residues were detected in any of the animals originating from the South West and South Coast Regions. Prevalence of indospicine residues in cattle from the Kimberley Region was as high as 33% in spring and 91% in autumn, with positive animals being present in most consignments and on most properties. The average prevalence of indospicine residues from the Kimberley and Pilbara Regions throughout the survey period was 63%. @Risk best fit probability distributions showed ninety-fifth percentile (P95) indospicine concentrations of 0.54 mg/kg for muscle and 0.77 mg/kg for liver in cattle originating from the Kimberley and Pilbara Regions during the survey period. When considered with average Australian meat consumption data, the estimated consumer exposure from this P95 muscle was 0.32 µg indospicine/kg bw/day, which compared favourably with our calculated provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) of 1.3 µg indospicine/kg bw/day. However canine exposure is of potential concern, with active working dog exposure calculated to exceed this PTDI by a factor of 25, based on a P95 indospicine concentration of 0.54 mg/kg in muscle.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Fígado/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Norleucina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Indigofera , Norleucina/análise , Norleucina/toxicidade , Plantas Tóxicas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Austrália Ocidental
16.
Toxicon ; 161: 1-3, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825462

RESUMO

Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) is considered the most important toxic plant affecting livestock farming in Brazil. This study describes an outbreak of spontaneous poisoning by P. marcgravii in sheep. Forty-nine sheep died while showing clinical signs of sudden death after having access to the plant. During the necropsy, P. marcgravii leaves were observed in the rumens of the animals. Histopathological analysis demonstrated hydropic degeneration of the kidneys. Monofluoracetate concentration obtained in Palicourea samples was 0.53% (5.3 µg/mg). These findings collectively indicate that the affected animals died from poisoning due to P. marcgravii.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Rubiaceae/envenenamento , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Animais , Brasil , Nefropatias/etiologia , Gado , Folhas de Planta/envenenamento , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Ovinos
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 63: 7-10, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825772

RESUMO

Acute poisoning is a public health threat that leads to morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this retrospective study, we evaluated autopsies from deaths caused by acute poisoning from 2008 to 2017 at the School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University (SFMCMU) in the Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 140 poisoning deaths were investigated and the demographic characteristics, causes and manner of death, toxics category were analyzed. The number of poisoning deaths gradually increased during the study period. The majority of poisoning deaths were accidents (66.43%), followed by suicides (27.86%), and homicides (3.57%). Of the 140 cases, 47 (33.57%) were caused by drugs, 38 (27.14%) by agrochemicals (mainly organophosphate pesticides, n = 16), 37 (26.43%) by respiratory dysfunction toxics (mainly carbon monoxide, n = 21), and 9 (6.43%) by poisonous plants and animals. Alcohol/methanol (5, 3.57%) and other chemicals (4, 2.86%) accounted for the remaining cases. The present study provides poisoning distribution in the Liaoning province and highlights implications for public health policy and prevention efforts in northeast China.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/mortalidade , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Agroquímicos/envenenamento , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/mortalidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Toxicon ; 161: 33-39, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826472

RESUMO

Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are native perennial plants that have a serious toxic potential to cattle on foothill and mountain rangelands in the western United States. Livestock death due to larkspur toxicity is attributed to norditerpenoid alkaloids. Diagnosing plant poisonings in livestock is often challenging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of three matrices; earwax, oral fluid, and nasal mucus, as noninvasive specimens to determine livestock exposure to larkspurs. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze for norditerpene alkaloids, in all three matrices, in cattle administered a single dose of larkspur. Earwax, oral fluid, and nasal mucus were collected over 6 days post-dosing. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) and deltaline concentrations in earwax ranged from 0.4 ±â€¯0.1 to 0.2 ±â€¯0.06 and 0.6 ±â€¯0.5 to 0.11 ±â€¯0.08 ng/mg, respectively. MLA and deltaline concentrations in oral fluid ranged from 0.08 ±â€¯0.03 to 0.01 ±â€¯0.002 ng/mg and 0.07 ±â€¯0.03 ng/mg to not detected (ND), respectively. MLA and deltaline concentrations in nasal mucus ranged from 0.2 ±â€¯0.13 to 0.03 ±â€¯0.01 ng/mg and 0.2 ±â€¯0.12 ng/mg to ND, respectively. The ability to detect differing norditerpene alkaloid chemotypes from two different Delphinium spp. was also possible in the three matrices. This study demonstrates the potential of earwax, oral fluid, and nasal mucus as noninvasive specimens for chemical analyses to aid in the diagnosis of livestock that may have been exposed to and poisoned by larkspur plants.


Assuntos
Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Delphinium/envenenamento , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Aconitina/análise , Aconitina/química , Aconitina/toxicidade , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/análise , Diterpenos/química , Gado , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Plantas Tóxicas , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Estados Unidos
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 163-167, Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002803

RESUMO

Sudden deaths after colostrum ingestion in kids and lambs born to mothers grazing in areas with Amorimia septentrionalis have been reported in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region, in Paraíba state. This study aimed to determine whether the sodium monofluoracetate (MF) contained in A. septentrionalis is eliminated in milk, causing the death of kids. After confirming gestation on the 25th day after mating, 26 goats were randomly distributed into three groups. In Group 1, eight goats received fresh leaves of A. septentrionalis in daily doses of 1g/kg body weight, administered at three different periods during gestation: from days 91 to 100, 116 to 125, and from day 140 until delivery day. In Group 2, consisting of 10 females, eight goats received 1g/kg body weight of A. septentrionalis dried and milled leaves, fed daily from the 140th day of gestation until delivery. The other two goats of this group did not ingest the plant during gestation and after delivery the colostrum supplied to their kids was replaced by colostrum of goats from that same group that had ingested the plant. Eight goats from Group 3 (control) did not ingest A. septentrionalis. Seven goats from Group 1 showed signs of poisoning from 2nd to 8th days of plant administration, in all periods, and recovered within 7 to 12 days. Another goat presented severe clinical signs and was submitted to euthanasia in extremis. Two goats aborted. Four kids, from two goats, received colostrum and, after 15 minutes, presented depression, breathing wheezing, lateral recumbence, bleating, and death. Two goats gave birth at night; the two kids were found dead and, at necropsy, it was verified that they were born alive. The last goat in this group gave birth to two kids which showed no signs of poisoning after colostrum ingestion. In Group 2, the eight goats that ingested dry leaves of the plant presented tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular veins; six aborted, and the kids of the other two goats died immediately after delivery without ingesting colostrum. The three kids of the two goats that did not ingest the plant during gestation did not show signs of poisoning after ingesting colostrum from the goats that had ingested the plant. In Group 3, all females kidded normally and the kids showed no signs of poisoning. Ten leaf samples of A. septentrionalis contained 0.00074% ±0.00018 MF. These results demonstrate that the MF of A. septentrionalis is eliminated in colostrum and may cause the death of kids. As in previous reports, the plant also caused abortion.(AU)


Mortes súbitas, após a ingestão do colostro, em cabritos e cordeiros nascidos de mães que pastejam em áreas com Amorimia septentrionalis são relatadas no semiárido da Paraíba. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se o monofluoracetato de sódio (MF) contido em Amorimia septentrionalis é eliminado pelo leite, causando a morte dos cabritos. Após a confirmação da gestação no 25º dia após a cobertura, 26 cabras foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos. No Grupo 1, oito cabras receberam folhas frescas de A. septentrionalis em doses diárias de 1g/kg de peso vivo, administradas em três períodos diferentes durante a gestação: entre os dias 91 a 100, 116 a 125 e do 140º dia até o parto. No Grupo 2, composto por 10 fêmeas, oito cabras receberam 1g/kg de peso vivo de folhas secas e trituradas de A. septentrionalis, fornecida diariamente do 140º dia de gestação até o parto. As outras duas cabras desse grupo não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação e, ao parirem, o colostro fornecido aos seus cabritos foi substituído pelo colostro de cabras, desse mesmo grupo, que ingeriram a planta. Oito cabras do Grupo 3 (controle) não ingeriram A. septentrionalis. Sete cabras do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais de intoxicação entre o 2º e 8º dia de administração da planta, em todos os períodos, e se recuperavam em 7 a 12 dias. Outra apresentou sinais clínicos graves e foi eutanasiada in extremis. Duas cabras abortaram. Quatro cabritos, oriundos de duas cabras, receberam colostro e, após 15 minutos, apresentaram depressão, respiração ofegante, decúbito lateral, berros e morte. Dois cabritos, nascidos de duas cabras que pariram durante a noite, foram encontrados mortos e os achados de necropsia permitem afirmar que nasceram vivos. A outra cabra desse grupo pariu dois cabritos que, mesmo mamando o colostro, não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. No Grupo 2, as oito cabras que ingeriram a planta seca apresentaram taquicardia e ingurgitamento das veias jugulares; seis abortaram e os cabritos das outras duas morreram imediatamente após o parto, sem ingerir colostro. Os três filhotes das duas cabras que não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação após ter ingerido colostro das cabras que tinham ingerido a planta. No Grupo 3, todas as fêmeas pariram normalmente e os filhotes não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. Dez amostras de folhas de A. septentrionalis continham 0,00074% ± 0,00018 de MF. Estes resultados demonstram que o MF de A. septentrionalis, além de causar abortos, é eliminado pelo colostro podendo causar a morte dos cabritos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Cabras , Mortalidade Infantil , Colostro , Malpighiaceae/toxicidade , Leite/toxicidade , Fluoracetatos/envenenamento , Aborto Animal/mortalidade
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(3): 1415-1423, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772897

RESUMO

Cattle losses from larkspur (Delphinium spp.) toxicity are a long-term challenge on the rangelands of western North America. In addition to animal factors that affect livestock poisonings, plant alkaloid composition (chemotype) affects the intoxication of cattle because some chemotypes are significantly more toxic. Differences in larkspur chemotype toxicity are due to the ratios of N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids to non-MSAL-type alkaloids and the concentrations of those alkaloids in the plant material. The objective of this study was to compare the responses of 6 Angus heifers to 6 chemotypes of larkspur using a Latin square study design. These Angus heifers from the USDA-ARS, Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE, were chosen for this research because they are the most larkspur-susceptible cattle observed to date. The 6 heifers were given an oral dose of dried ground larkspur and tested for muscle weakness with an exercise test (i.e., walk time). The 6 chemotypes of larkspur had non-MSAL to MSAL-type alkaloid ratios ranging from 1.4:1 to 6:1 and were administered at an oral dose of 7.5 mg/kg MSAL-type alkaloids BW. There was a treatment effect due to larkspur chemotype (P < 0.0001), and period effects were not significant (P = 0.6). There were also significant correlations between the length of time walking on a dirt track at 5 to 6 km/h, and total alkaloid dose (r = -0.92, P = 0.0045) and alkaloid ratio (r = -0.81, P = 0.0258). Serum alkaloid concentrations at 24 h after dosing were representative of the relative abundance of the alkaloid in the plant material. Results from this work suggest that total alkaloid concentrations in combination with alkaloid ratios can be used together to accurately predict the plant risk component of larkspur poisoning to grazing cattle. Animal factors such as cattle age, breed, and sex must also be considered to comprehensively manage larkspur risk.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Delphinium/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Delphinium/toxicidade , Feminino , América do Norte , Plantas Tóxicas
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