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Int J Legal Med ; 133(4): 1065-1073, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028469


The plant species Gloriosa superba and Colchicum autumnale produce extremely poisonous colchicine as a major toxic metabolite. Almost all previous studies on colchicine poisoning have focused on drug analysis and clinical and pathological aspects. In this study, we developed a rapid, highly sensitive method to identify G. superba and C. autumnale. This method, which can distinguish between G. superba and C. autumnale using even minute amounts of plant material, is based on duplex real-time PCR in combination with melting curve analysis. To discriminate between the two genera of colchicine-containing plants, we designed new primer pairs targeting the region of the ycf15 gene, which is present in C. autumnale but not G. superba. By producing PCR amplicons with easily distinguishable melting temperatures, we were able to rapidly and accurately distinguish G. superba from C. autumnale. The new primer pairs generated no PCR amplicons from commercially available human DNA or various plant DNAs except for G. superba and C. autumnale. Sensitivity testing indicated that this assay can accurately detect less than 0.031 ng of DNA. Using our method in conjunction with colchicine drug analysis, we successfully identified G. superba in the stomach contents of a suicide victim who ingested massive quantities of a colchicine-containing plant. According to these results, duplex real-time PCR analysis is very appropriate for testing forensic samples, such as stomach contents harboring a variety of vegetables, and enables discrimination between G. superba and C. autumnale in forensic and emergency medical fields.

Colchicina/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Suicídio , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
Toxicon ; 161: 1-3, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825462


Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) is considered the most important toxic plant affecting livestock farming in Brazil. This study describes an outbreak of spontaneous poisoning by P. marcgravii in sheep. Forty-nine sheep died while showing clinical signs of sudden death after having access to the plant. During the necropsy, P. marcgravii leaves were observed in the rumens of the animals. Histopathological analysis demonstrated hydropic degeneration of the kidneys. Monofluoracetate concentration obtained in Palicourea samples was 0.53% (5.3 µg/mg). These findings collectively indicate that the affected animals died from poisoning due to P. marcgravii.

Nefropatias/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Rubiaceae/envenenamento , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Animais , Brasil , Nefropatias/etiologia , Gado , Folhas de Planta/envenenamento , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Ovinos
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 163-167, Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002803


Sudden deaths after colostrum ingestion in kids and lambs born to mothers grazing in areas with Amorimia septentrionalis have been reported in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region, in Paraíba state. This study aimed to determine whether the sodium monofluoracetate (MF) contained in A. septentrionalis is eliminated in milk, causing the death of kids. After confirming gestation on the 25th day after mating, 26 goats were randomly distributed into three groups. In Group 1, eight goats received fresh leaves of A. septentrionalis in daily doses of 1g/kg body weight, administered at three different periods during gestation: from days 91 to 100, 116 to 125, and from day 140 until delivery day. In Group 2, consisting of 10 females, eight goats received 1g/kg body weight of A. septentrionalis dried and milled leaves, fed daily from the 140th day of gestation until delivery. The other two goats of this group did not ingest the plant during gestation and after delivery the colostrum supplied to their kids was replaced by colostrum of goats from that same group that had ingested the plant. Eight goats from Group 3 (control) did not ingest A. septentrionalis. Seven goats from Group 1 showed signs of poisoning from 2nd to 8th days of plant administration, in all periods, and recovered within 7 to 12 days. Another goat presented severe clinical signs and was submitted to euthanasia in extremis. Two goats aborted. Four kids, from two goats, received colostrum and, after 15 minutes, presented depression, breathing wheezing, lateral recumbence, bleating, and death. Two goats gave birth at night; the two kids were found dead and, at necropsy, it was verified that they were born alive. The last goat in this group gave birth to two kids which showed no signs of poisoning after colostrum ingestion. In Group 2, the eight goats that ingested dry leaves of the plant presented tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular veins; six aborted, and the kids of the other two goats died immediately after delivery without ingesting colostrum. The three kids of the two goats that did not ingest the plant during gestation did not show signs of poisoning after ingesting colostrum from the goats that had ingested the plant. In Group 3, all females kidded normally and the kids showed no signs of poisoning. Ten leaf samples of A. septentrionalis contained 0.00074% ±0.00018 MF. These results demonstrate that the MF of A. septentrionalis is eliminated in colostrum and may cause the death of kids. As in previous reports, the plant also caused abortion.(AU)

Mortes súbitas, após a ingestão do colostro, em cabritos e cordeiros nascidos de mães que pastejam em áreas com Amorimia septentrionalis são relatadas no semiárido da Paraíba. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se o monofluoracetato de sódio (MF) contido em Amorimia septentrionalis é eliminado pelo leite, causando a morte dos cabritos. Após a confirmação da gestação no 25º dia após a cobertura, 26 cabras foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos. No Grupo 1, oito cabras receberam folhas frescas de A. septentrionalis em doses diárias de 1g/kg de peso vivo, administradas em três períodos diferentes durante a gestação: entre os dias 91 a 100, 116 a 125 e do 140º dia até o parto. No Grupo 2, composto por 10 fêmeas, oito cabras receberam 1g/kg de peso vivo de folhas secas e trituradas de A. septentrionalis, fornecida diariamente do 140º dia de gestação até o parto. As outras duas cabras desse grupo não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação e, ao parirem, o colostro fornecido aos seus cabritos foi substituído pelo colostro de cabras, desse mesmo grupo, que ingeriram a planta. Oito cabras do Grupo 3 (controle) não ingeriram A. septentrionalis. Sete cabras do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais de intoxicação entre o 2º e 8º dia de administração da planta, em todos os períodos, e se recuperavam em 7 a 12 dias. Outra apresentou sinais clínicos graves e foi eutanasiada in extremis. Duas cabras abortaram. Quatro cabritos, oriundos de duas cabras, receberam colostro e, após 15 minutos, apresentaram depressão, respiração ofegante, decúbito lateral, berros e morte. Dois cabritos, nascidos de duas cabras que pariram durante a noite, foram encontrados mortos e os achados de necropsia permitem afirmar que nasceram vivos. A outra cabra desse grupo pariu dois cabritos que, mesmo mamando o colostro, não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. No Grupo 2, as oito cabras que ingeriram a planta seca apresentaram taquicardia e ingurgitamento das veias jugulares; seis abortaram e os cabritos das outras duas morreram imediatamente após o parto, sem ingerir colostro. Os três filhotes das duas cabras que não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação após ter ingerido colostro das cabras que tinham ingerido a planta. No Grupo 3, todas as fêmeas pariram normalmente e os filhotes não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. Dez amostras de folhas de A. septentrionalis continham 0,00074% ± 0,00018 de MF. Estes resultados demonstram que o MF de A. septentrionalis, além de causar abortos, é eliminado pelo colostro podendo causar a morte dos cabritos.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Cabras , Mortalidade Infantil , Colostro , Malpighiaceae/toxicidade , Leite/toxicidade , Fluoracetatos/envenenamento , Aborto Animal/mortalidade
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 55: e33-e35, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388279


Anisocoria is a significant finding in several ocular and potentially life-threatening neurological disorders. The angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens), widely used as a garden plant, is a natural alkaloid with anticholinergic effects containing high levels of scopolamine. The authors present a pediatric case of acute anisocoria secondary to contact with the angel's trumpet plant. This case report emphasizes the importance of considering herbal mydriatics in patients with acute, isolated, unilateral mydriasis. It is also important to raise public awareness about the potential risks of the angel's trumpet plant, particularly in areas close to schools and playgrounds. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55:e33-e35.].

Anisocoria/etiologia , Datura stramonium/envenenamento , Midríase/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/complicações , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Doença Aguda , Anisocoria/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Midríase/fisiopatologia , Doenças Raras
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2044-2051, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976409


Numerous plant species worldwide including some Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) and Sida (Malvaceae) species in Brazil cause lysosomal storage disease in herbivores and are known to contain swainsonine and calystegines as the main toxic compounds. The aim of this work was to determine swainsonine and calystegines concentrations in species of Convolvulaceae from the semiarid region of Pernambuco. Seven municipalities in the Moxotó region were visited and nine species were collected and screened for the presence of swainsonine and calystegines using an HPLC-APCI-MS method. The presence and concentration of these alkaloids within the same and in different species were very variable. Seven species are newly reported here containing swainsonine and/or calystegines. Ipomoea subincana contained just swainsonine. Ipomoea megapotamica, I. rosea and Jacquemontia corymbulosa contained swainsonine and calystegines. Ipomoea sericosepala, I. brasiliana, I. nil, I. bahiensis and I. incarnata contained just calystegines. The discovery of six Ipomoea species and one Jacquemontia species containing toxic polyhydroxy alkaloids reinforces the importance of this group of poisonous plants to ruminants and horses in the semiarid region of Pernambuco. Epidemiological surveys should be conducted to investigate the occurrence of lysosomal storage disease associated to these new species.(AU)

Numerosas espécies de plantas em todo o mundo, incluindo algumas espécies de Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) e Sida (Malvaceae) no Brasil, causam doença de armazenamento lisossomal em herbívoros e são conhecidas por conterem swainsonina e calisteginas como princípios tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração de swainsonina e calisteginas em espécies de Convolvulaceae da região semiárida de Pernambuco. Sete municípios na região do Sertão do Moxotó foram visitados, onde foram coletadas amostras das folhas de nove espécies de Convolvulaceae para avaliação da presença de swainsonina e calisteginas utilizando-se cromatografia líquida com espectrometria de massa. A presença e concentração destes alcaloides nas folhas de plantas da mesma espécie e dentre as espécies foram muito variáveis. Seis novas espécies de Ipomoea e uma espécie de Jacquemontia contendo swainsonina e/ou calisteginas são relatadas neste estudo. Ipomoea subincana continha apenas swainsonina. Ipomoea megapotamica, I. rosea e Jacquemontia corymbulosa continham swainsonina e calisteginas. Ipomoea sericosepala, I. brasiliana, I. nil, I. bahiensis e I. incarnata continham apenas calisteginas. A descoberta de novas espécies de Ipomoea e Jacquemontia contendo alcaloides polihidroxílicos tóxicos reforçam a importância deste grupo de plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equinos na região semiárida de Pernambuco. Pesquisas epidemiológicas devem ser realizadas para investigar a ocorrência de doença de depósito lisossomal associada a essas novas espécies.(AU)

Animais , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Swainsonina/envenenamento , Convolvulaceae/envenenamento , Ipomoea/toxicidade , Ruminantes , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/veterinária , Cavalos
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 519, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669556


BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are a worldwide public health problem. However, data regarding epidemiological characteristics are still lacking in China. We aimed to analyze the characteristics of foodborne diseases outbreak from 2010 to 2016 in Guangxi, South China. METHODS: A foodborne disease outbreak is the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar foodborne disease resulting from the ingestion of a common food. All data are obtained from reports in the Public Health Emergency Report and Management Information System of the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, and also from special investigation reports from Guangxi province. RESULTS: A total of 138 foodborne diseases outbreak occurred in Guangxi in the past 7 years, leading to 3348 cases and 46 deaths. Foodborne disease outbreaks mainly occurred in the second and fourth quarters, and schools and private homes were the most common sites. Ingesting toxic food by mistake, improper cooking and cross contamination were the main routes of poisoning which caused 2169 (64.78%) cases and 37 (80.43%) deaths. Bacteria (62 outbreaks, 44.93%) and poisonous plants (46 outbreaks, 33.33%) were the main etiologies of foodborne diseases in our study. In particular, poisonous plants were the main cause of deaths involved in the foodborne disease outbreaks (26 outbreaks, 56.52%). CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria and poisonous plants were the primary causative hazard of foodborne diseases. Some specific measures are needed for ongoing prevention and control against the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

Bactérias , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos
Toxicon ; 146: 61-68, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621527


Rayless goldenrod (RG; Isocoma pluriflora) poisons livestock in the southwestern U.S., west Texas, and northern Mexico. The putative toxin(s) have historically been thought to be benzofuran ketones. Goats have been used successfully as a model of RG poisoning. The transmammary transfer of toxicity to offspring from lactating goats has not been studied, thus the objective of this study was to determine if nursing kids would become poisoned via mother's milk when the dams were dosed with RG. Twelve lactating goats (6 controls and 6 treated; all with twin kids) were dosed via oral gavage with alfalfa or rayless goldenrod at 2% of BW per day for 14 days. Two kids showed overt clinical signs near the end of the study; however, no dams showed clinical signs, and none developed exercise intolerance or muscle weakness. After day 11 of treatment, the RG kids showed increased (P < 0.05) serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine kinase (CK) activities until exposure to the plant via mothers' milk ended. Serum CK activity of kids declined rapidly over 7 days after transmammary exposure ended. Histopathology revealed that one kid had extensive myonecrosis that involved both myocardium and skeletal muscles. The other kids from RG-treated does had minimal myocyte degeneration and necrosis characterized by individual myofiber swelling, hypereosinophilia and loss of striation. Benzofuran ketones were not detected in the milk of lactating goats; further, dosing with RG did not alter milk composition. In summary, milk ingestion from does dosed with >300 mg/kg BW of benzofuran ketones from RG over 14 days increased mean CK concentrations in treated kids compared to controls; however kids rapidly recovered when exposure ended. Additional work is needed to better define benzofuran ketone metabolism, toxicity, and animal susceptibility.

Asteraceae/envenenamento , Doenças das Cabras/induzido quimicamente , Leite/química , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/toxicidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Cabras , Cetonas/análise , Cetonas/toxicidade , Lactação , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 34(1): 127-139, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397222


Because most poisonings occur by toxin ingestion, the gastrointestinal system is the first exposed and, in most cases, it is exposed to the highest toxin concentrations. Consequently, enterocyte damage is common. However, because many toxins produce organ-specific damage, and enterocyte necrosis is easily confused with autolysis, many gastrointestinal lesions are overlooked or overshadowed by other clinical and pathologic changes. The objective of this work is to review several common toxins and poisonous plants that produce primarily gastrointestinal disease.

Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Microcistinas/envenenamento , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 29-36, Jan. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895543


Com o objetivo de testar diferentes formas de controle de Senecio madagascariensis foram realizados três experimentos. No primeiro, 40 ovinos foram colocados em uma área de quatro hectares por 90 dias, com infestação média e alta por S. madagascariensis. A área após este período foi dessecada com glifosato (Roundup®) e semeada com Lotus corniculatus L. (cornichão), Trifolium repens (trevo branco), Medicago sativa (alfafa) e Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (festuca) por plantio direto. Os ovinos, após oito meses, retornaram a área por mais 90 dias. O segundo experimento foi realizado com 10 ovinos em pastejo por 30 dias com 60 dias de descanso em três áreas de 0,5 hectares cada uma, com infestação baixa, média e alta por S. madagascariensis. O terceiro experimento foi realizado utilizando-se dessecação, aração e plantio de pastagens (leguminosas e gramíneas) por três vezes consecutivas, sem utilização de ovinos em uma área invadida pela planta. Para o controle de S. brasiliensis e outras espécies do gênero, um quarto experimento foi realizado em uma propriedade rural com histórico de intoxicação por Senecio spp. em bovinos. Foram utilizados 86 ovinos, que permaneceram em uma área de 90 hectares durante um ano. Os resultados destes experimentos demonstraram que os ovinos consomem S. madagascariensis e diminuem a quantidade de planta em áreas infestadas. Por outro lado, evidenciou-se também que S. madagascariensis para ser controlado de forma eficiente necessita de pastejo contínuo com pelo menos quatro ovinos por ha. As práticas como dessecação com herbicidas, aração e plantio de pastagem podem auxiliar na eliminação da planta a longo prazo. Em áreas de infestação por S. brasiliensis a roçagem pode ser uma prática eficiente, principalmente pelo porte alto da planta, pois facilita o consumo pelos ovinos.(AU)

In order to test different technics to control Senecio madagascariensis, three experiments were carried out. In the first, 40 sheep were placed in an area of four hectares for 90 days, with medium/high levels of infestation by the plant. The area after this period was desiccated with glyphosate (Roundup®) and seeded with Lotus corniculatus L., Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. by direct seeding. After eight months, sheep returned to the area for another 90 days. The second experiment was conducted with 10 sheep grazing for 30 days and 60 days' rest, in three areas of 0.5 hectares each, with low, medium and high levels of S. madagascariensis infestation. The third experiment was carried out using drying, plowing and cultivated pasture (legumes and grasses) for three consecutive times without the use of sheep in an area infested by the plant. For the control of S. brasiliensis and other species of the genus, a fourth experiment was performed on a farm with history of intoxication by Senecio spp. in cattle. Eighty-six sheep were used in an area of 90 hectares for a year. The results of these experiments demonstrated that sheep consume and decrease the amount of S. madagascariensis in infested areas. Furthermore, it also indicated that S. madagascariensis to be efficiently controlled requires continuous grazing with at least four sheep per hectare. Practices as drying the pastures with herbicides, tillage and pasture planting can help eliminate the plant in long-term plan. In areas with S. brasiliensis infestation mowing can be an effective practice, mainly due to the high size of the plant, since it facilitates consumption by sheep.(AU)

Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Senécio/toxicidade , Ovinos , Pastagens , Asteraceae/toxicidade
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 30(2): 286-289, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202673


Solanum glaucophyllum, a toxic plant known for its calcinogenic effects, causes enzootic calcinosis in ruminant and monogastric animals. We describe an outbreak of enzootic calcinosis that occurred in a herd of 110 horses grazing pastureland heavily contaminated with S. glaucophyllum in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ten horses developed clinical signs, and 6 horses died. Clinical signs included abnormal gait (stiff-legged action, short strides), stiffness, thoracolumbar kyphosis, reluctance to move, wide stance, chronic weight loss, weakness, recumbency, and difficulty standing. Autopsy of 2 horses revealed severe mineralization of the aorta, pulmonary arteries, heart, and lungs, consistent with enzootic calcinosis. Although horses usually have very selective grazing behavior, under food restriction conditions, they can ingest the toxic plants and can develop the disease. Enzootic calcinosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses grazing S. glaucophyllum-invaded pasturelands with compatible clinical signs and lesions.

Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Solanum glaucophyllum/envenenamento , Animais , Argentina , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/veterinária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária
J Postgrad Med ; 64(2): 123-126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862240


Self-harm by consuming yellow oleander seeds has become more frequent in South Asian countries, especially Sri Lanka and in southern parts of India. Yellow oleander poisoning usually presents with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological manifestations as well as electrolyte abnormalities. Cardiac effects can manifest as nearly any type of dysrhythmia and sudden death with very few premonitory signs. To our knowledge yellow oleander poisoning related acute myocardial infarction has not yet been reported. We report a 37-year-old man with yellow oleander poisoning who had normal sinus rhythm at presentation but within few hours developed acute ST-segment myocardial infarction.

Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Intoxicação por Plantas , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Thevetia/envenenamento , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Stents Farmacológicos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Nerium , Sementes/envenenamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
J Forensic Leg Med ; 52: 56-61, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865388


BACKGROUND: The yew (Taxus baccata) is a common evergreen tree containing the toxin taxine B. Between 42 and 91 g of yew leaf is lethal to a 70-kg adult. The objective of this article is to present an overview of findings in fatal yew intoxications. METHODS: A search using MeSH terms was performed in PubMed for yew intoxications in the period between January 1960 and August of 2016. RESULTS: We describe a total of 22 cases. Fatal intoxications can be divided into intoxications by leaves, by pulp, by bark and by yew tea. Recognizing yew tea intoxication is difficult since tea no longer contains any botanically recognisable parts. In autopsy and external examination no characteristic findings are reported, regarding the presence of parts of plants. CONCLUSIONS: Indications for yew tree intoxications at a post-mortem examination and autopsy are limited to finding parts of yew tree. The absence of recognisable parts can result in yew intoxications being overlooked. Therefore toxicological screening is recommended in unexplained deaths.

Toxicologia Forense , Taxus/envenenamento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Casca de Planta/envenenamento , Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento , Folhas de Planta/envenenamento , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Suicídio , Chá/química , Raios Ultravioleta
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(5): 389-396, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-787590


An outbreak of Brachiaria decumbens poisoning in goats in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, is described. Out of a herd of about 1,000 goats, seven goats died after showing photosensitivity (3 out 7 goats) and icterus (4/7). Other clinical signs included lethargy, dehydration and weight loss (7/7). At necropsy there was either hepatomegaly or liver atrophy; orange, yellow or gray discoloration - were observed in the liver of six goats. Two had accentuation of lobular pattern and punctate, linear or stellar fibrous depressions were randomly distributedover the capsular surface. Macroscopic changesattributedto liver failure consisting of hydropericardium (2/7) and ascites (2/7) were observed. Histologically, there was accumulation of refringent crystals in the bile ducts and infiltration of foamy macrophages in the liver of all goats. Foamy macrophages were also present in the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes of two goats. The diagnosis of B. decumbens poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathology.

Relata-se um surto de intoxicação por Brachiaria decumbens em caprinos no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. De um rebanho de aproximadamente 1.000 caprinos, sete cabras morreram após apresentar fotossensibilização (3 de 7 cabras) e icterícia (4/7). Outros sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, desidratação e emagrecimento (7/7). Todas as cabras tinham alteração no tamanho do fígado - cinco estavam aumentados de volume e dois, diminuídos; o fígado de 6 cabras tinha alteração na cor - dois eram alaranjados, dois amarelados e dois, acinzentados; o fígado de duas cabras tinha acentuação do padrão lobular e outros dois apresentavam depressões fibrosas puntiformes, lineares ou estreladas, brancacentas distribuídas aleatoriamente pela superfície capsular. Adicionalmente, foram observadas alterações macroscópicas atribuídas à insuficiência hepática como hidropericárdio (2/7) e ascite (2/7). Alterações histopatológicas incluíam cristais refringentes nos ductos biliares e infiltrado de macrófagos espumosos no parênquima hepático de todas as cabras. Macrófagos espumosos também foram observados nos linfonodos mesentéricos e hepáticos em duas cabras. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por braquiária foi baseado na epidemiologia, achados clínicos, de necropsia e histopatológicos.

Animais , Brachiaria/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ruminantes , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/toxicidade , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Poaceae/toxicidade
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(2): 67-72, fev. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-777387


Ao que tudo indica, o monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF) é o princípio tóxico das numerosas plantas que causam "morte súbita" no Brasil. Eventualmente, observam-se, nos animais intoxicados por MF, grupos de cardiomiócitos com aumento da eosinofilia citoplasmática. Essas alterações cardíacas, no entanto, na maioria dos casos, ainda são incipientes, de difícil interpretação, não há reação inflamatória e devem ser diferenciadas de artefato. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo detectar a presença de alterações regressivas precoces no miocárdio de bovinos e ovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por MF, através da imuno-histoquímica com troponina C (cTnC). Fragmentos de coração de seis bovinos (três que receberam, por via oral, doses únicas de 0,5mg/kg e, os demais, 1,0mg/kg de MF) e cinco ovinos (um recebeu, por via oral, dose única de 0,5mg/kg, outros dois receberam doses de 1,0mg/kg; um ovino recebeu, por via oral, doses subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e outro, 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias) foram submetidos à técnica de imuno-histoquímica com anticorpo anti-cTnC. Nos cardiomiócitos dos bovinos e ovinos verificou-se redução dos níveis de expressão da cTnC no citoplasma de grupos de fibras musculares. Diminuição significativa na imunorreatividade ocorreu, sobretudo, em cardiomiócitos que apresentavam, no exame histopatológico, aumento da eosinofilia citoplasmática. A diminuição ou ausência da expressão da cTnC nos animais intoxicados por MF permitiu estabelecer a diferença entre necrose coagulativa de cardiomiócitos e artefato ocasionado pelo fixador. Isso indica que este método pode ser utilizado com segurança para identificação de lesões regressivas precoces, ou não, no miocárdio, independentemente da causa. Adicionalmente, é possível afirmar que, dependendo do tempo de evolução, a toxicose por MF, bem como por plantas causadoras de "morte súbita" em bovinos e ovinos, podem cursar com lesões necrotizantes no miocárdio.

Sodium monofluoroacetate (MF) is the toxic principle of several plants that cause "sudden death" of cattle in Brazil. Groups of cardiomyocites with high cytoplasmic eosinophilia are sometimes observed in animals poisoned by MF. However, this cardiac alteration is difficult to interpret, as there is no inflammatory reaction and it must be differentiated from artifacts. The present study had the objective to detect the presence of early regressive lesions in the myocardium of sheep and cattle experimentally poisoned by MF through immunohistochemistry with troponin C (cTnC). Fragments of the heart muscle from six cattle (three received, orally, single doses of 0.5mg/kg and the others, single doses of 1.0mg/kg) and five sheep (one received, orally, single dose of 0.5mg/kg, the other two received single doses of 1.0mg/kg, one received sublethal daily doses of 0.1mg/kg for four days, and another received daily sublethal doses of 0.2mg/kg for six days) were submitted to immunohistochemistry with antibody anti-cTnC. In the cardiomyocites of cattle and sheep, it was possible to observe reduction of the expression levels for cTnC in the cytoplasm of groups of cardiac muscle fibers. Significant reduction of immunoreactivity ocurred overall in cardiomyocites that presented high cytoplasmic eosinophilia. The decrease or absence of expression for cTnC in animals poisoned by MF allowed to estabilish the difference between coagulative necrosis of cardiomyocites and artifacts caused by fixation. This indicates that this method can be used safely to identify any lesions, early regressive or not, in the myocardium independently of the cause. It is also possible to affirm that poisoning by MF as well as the one caused by "sudden death" causing plants can progress with necrotizing myocardial lesions.

Animais , Bovinos , Eosinofilia/complicações , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ovinos , Troponina , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Morte Súbita/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Traumatismos Cardíacos/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(2): 83-89, fev. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-777396


Amaranthus spp. são plantas nefrotóxicas popularmente conhecidas como "caruru". Em casos de intoxicação por estas plantas, a principal alteração histopatológica está presente no rim, sob forma de nefrose tubular tóxica, porém em alguns casos pode haver alterações cardíacas. Alterações no eletrocardiograma, compatíveis com quadros de hipercalemia, foram descritas em suínos intoxicados por Amaranthus retroflexus e lesões como degeneração e necrose de miócitos cardíacos descritas em suínos intoxicados por A. caudatus e ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus. Há dúvidas com relação às alterações cardíacas, que, na maioria dos casos, são incipientes, o que pode levar a erros de interpretação. Para a realização do trabalho foram utilizados blocos parafinados oriundos de um surto natural de intoxicação por A. spinosus no sudeste do Brasil. Esse estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de alterações regressivas incipientes no miocárdio de ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus, através da utilização imuno-histoquímica do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Foram utilizados fragmentos de coração de 8 ovinos adultos e 2 fetos, intoxicados naturalmente por A. spinosus. Estes fragmentos foram submetidos à técnica de imuno-histoquímica com a utilização do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Pela avaliação imuno-histoquímica do coração dos oito ovinos adultos observaram-se diversos grupos de miócitos com diminuição significativa ou ausência de imunorreatividade para o anticorpo anti-troponina C; essas áreas correspondiam, em grande parte, aos mesmos grupos de miócitos que apresentavam, pela coloração de Hematoxilina e Eosina (H.E.) alterações que variavam de leve tumefação celular a aumento da eosinofilia, perda de estriação, lise celular e cariólise, ou mais raramente, acompanhadas de infiltrado inflamatório...

Amaranthus spp. are nephrotoxic plants popularly known as "pigweed". In cases of poisoning by these plants, the main histopathological alteration is found in the kidneys as toxic tubular nephrosis; however, in some cases, there may be cardiac changes. ECG changes associated with hyperkalemia have been described in pigs poisoned by Amaranthus retroflexus. Degeneration and necrosis of myocytes have been described in pigs poisoned by A. caudatus and sheep poisoned by A. spinosus. There are doubts regarding cardiac changes, since in most cases they are incipient and don't exhibit inflammatory reaction, which can lead to misinterpretation. For this study, paraffin blocks with tissues from a poisoning outbreak by A. spinosus in southeastern Brazil were used. The objective of the study was to detect the presence of incipient regressive changes in the myocardium of sheep poisoned by A. spinosus using anti-troponin C antibody-based immunohistochemistry. Fragments of hearts from 8 adult sheep and 2 fetuses naturally poisoned by A. spinosus were used. In the immunohistochemistry evaluation of the 8 hearts from the adult sheep there were several groups of myocytes with significant decrease or absence of immunoreactivity for anti-troponin C antibody. In most cases, these same areas on Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining exhibited changes that varied from mild cellular tumefaction to increased eosinophilia, as well as loss of striation, cell lysis and karyolysis, sometimes accompanied by inflammatory infiltrate...

Animais , Amaranthus/toxicidade , Hiperpotassemia/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ovinos , Troponina , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Insuficiência Renal/veterinária , Morte Súbita/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Traumatismos Cardíacos/veterinária
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 248(2): 195-200, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26720086


OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical signs associated with oral exposure to black walnut tree (Juglans nigra) wood, nuts, or nut hulls in dogs and to compare clinical syndromes between dogs that ingested wood and dogs that ingested the walnuts or nut hulls. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 93 dogs. PROCEDURES: Records of dogs with oral exposure to black walnut wood, nuts, or nut hulls between November 2001 and December 2012 were retrieved from the Animal Poison Control Center database. Records were reviewed, and data regarding signalment; exposure; time of onset, type, and duration of clinical signs; serum biochemical abnormalities; treatment; and response to treatment were collected. Results were compared statistically between dogs that ingested wood and those that ingested nut components. RESULTS: 28 cases involved exposure to wood, and 65 involved exposure to nuts or hulls. Spontaneous vomiting was commonly observed (13/28 [46%] and 31/65 [48%] dogs that ingested wood and nut components, respectively). Neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were significantly more common in dogs that ingested wood (26/28 [93%]) than in those that ingested nuts or hulls (15/65 [23%]). Relative risk of developing neurologic signs after ingestion of wood was approximately 4 times that after ingestion of nuts or hulls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ingestion of black walnut wood by dogs resulted in a clinical syndrome in which neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were most frequently reported, whereas ingestion of black walnuts or their hulls was most commonly associated with vomiting. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing 2 different clinical syndromes associated with exposure to black walnut tree components in dogs.

Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Juglans , Nozes/envenenamento , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(1): 211-4, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415955


Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis.

Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico
BMJ Case Rep ; 20152015 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26543025


There is an increasing use of herbal remedies and medicines, with a commonly held belief that natural substances are safe. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was a trained herbalist and had purchased an 'Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) preparation'. Attempting to combat her insomnia, late one evening she deliberately ingested a small portion of this, approximately 50 mL. Unintentionally, this was equivalent to a very large (15 mg) dose of atropine and she presented in an acute anticholinergic syndrome (confused, tachycardic and hypertensive) to our accident and emergency department. She received supportive management in our intensive treatment unit including mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, there were no long-term sequelae from this episode. However, this dramatic clinical presentation does highlight the potential dangers posed by herbal remedies. Furthermore, this case provides clinicians with an important insight into potentially dangerous products available legally within the UK. To help clinicians' understanding of this our discussion explains the manufacture and 'dosing' of the A. belladonna preparation.

Atropa belladonna/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Preparações de Plantas/envenenamento , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Atropina/envenenamento , Confusão/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Plantas/terapia , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento