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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 153-197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900073

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic metal for all living forms including plants. It enters plants through roots from soil or soil solution. It is considered as one of the most eminent examples of anthropogenic environmental pollutant added in environment through mining and smelting of lead ores, coal burning, waste from battery industries, leaded paints, metal plating, and automobile exhaust. Uptake of Pb in plants is a nonselective process and is driven by H+/ATPases. Translocation of Pb metal ions occurs by apoplastic movement resulting in deposition of metal ions in the endodermis and is further transported by symplastic movement. Plants exposed to high concentration of Pb show toxic symptoms due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Fenton-Haber-Weiss reaction. ROS include superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide, which reach to macro- and micro-cellular levels in the plant cells and cause oxidative damage. Plant growth and plethora of biochemical and physiological attributes including plant growth, water status, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidative defense system, phenolic compounds, metal chelators, osmolytes, and redox status are adversely influenced by Pb toxicity. Plants respond to toxic levels of Pb in varied ways such as restricted uptake of metal, chelation of metal ions to the root endodermis, enhancement in activity of antioxidative defense, alteration in metal transporters expression, and involvement of plant growth regulators.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 286-291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190164

RESUMO

Concentrations of heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Kenon in descending order are distributed as follows: Mn > Zn > Pb > Mo > Cd. Spatial distribution of metals in bottom sediments of Lake Kenon depends on composition of bottom deposits (sands in shallow water and sapropel silt in the deep part), location of contamination sources (thermal power station, residential area), as well as density and duration of growth of aquatic plants. The greatest pollution of bottom sediments was observed in the area of TPP-1. Due to the intense and all-year-round process of aquatic vegetation growth in the area of TPP-1 contaminants are being accumulated in the bottom sediments of this part of the lake. However, plants that absorb metals in excess amounts and are passively moved by currents through of the system become a source of contamination of bottom sediments in relatively clean parts of the water reservoirs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Federação Russa
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23571-23582, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203541

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of humic acid (HA) on the toxicity of selected herbicides and their binary mixtures to aquatic plants. The focus was on two auxin simulators (2,4-D and dicamba) and two photosynthetic inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon). The results suggested that the addition of HA to the standard synthetic medium does not affect Lemna minor growth nor the toxicity of atrazine, but increases the toxicity of 2,4-D and the binary mixture of atrazine and 2,4-D. The addition of HA to the standard synthetic medium reversibly decreased the growth (biomass) of Myriophyllum aquaticum and enhanced the toxicity of individually tested herbicides (isoproturon and dicamba) as well as their binary mixture. The results showed delayed toxic effects of auxin simulators, especially 2,4-D in the Lemna test. The recovery after the exposure to individual photosystem II inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon) is fast in both plant species, regardless of the presence of HA. In the case of selected mixtures (atrazine + 2,4-D and isoproturon + dicamba), recovery of both plant species was noted, while the efficiency depended on the herbicide concentration in the mixture rather than the presence or absence of HA.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/toxicidade , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrazina/toxicidade , Dicamba , Compostos de Fenilureia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 737-748, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150894

RESUMO

The presence of plastic bags on coastal dunes worldwide is well documented. Plastic bags contain additives that during rainfall events can leach out from bags into sand dune and be absorbed by seeds and roots of plants. Dune plants play a fundamental role in dune system formation, yet the possible impact of bag leaching on their establishment and development has been neglected. We assessed in laboratory whether (i) not biodegradable bags (high-density polyethylene, PE) and new generation of compostable bags (Mater-bi®, MB) would influence via leaching water chemical/physical properties and (ii) leachates would affect germination and seedling growth using Thinopyrum junceum and Glaucium flavum as models. Leachates were obtained from different amounts of not-exposed and bags exposed to beach or marine conditions simulating various pollution degrees (none, low, intermediate and high pollution). All water variables were affected by leaching. The magnitude of these alterations depended on bag type and environmental exposure. Seeds of T. junceum treated with the high concentration of marine-exposed MB bag leachate germinated later than controls while those of G. flavum treated with the remaining leachates germinated earlier. For both species, leachates from the low concentration of PE and MB marine-exposed bags increased seed germinability. A short radicle was observed in T. junceum seedlings treated with not-exposed MB bag leachates. Glaucium flavum seedlings treated with beach- and marine-exposed PE bags and not-exposed MB bags leachates showed a greater below-aboveground length ratio and those grown with the low concentration of not-exposed PE bag leachate had a longer hypocotyl compared to controls. Leachates from the high concentration of PE and MB bag caused seedling anomalies in both species. These findings indicate that not biodegradable and compostable bags may interact with abiotic/biotic factors and affect via leaching germination phenology, seedling establishment and plant interactions with consequences on dune community structure.


Assuntos
Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas , Plásticos/análise , Plântula , Sementes
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 419-427, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220782

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) and its detrimental effects on the environment, humans, wildlife, fish and birds is an increasingly important global research focus. The number of investigations on the toxicity and metabolic fate of NP in plants is however limited. This paper reviews the prevalence and source of NP in plants and the effect it has on its morphological, physiological and ultrastructural status. Fruit and vegetables have been found to contain levels of NP that is twenty-fold exceeding the no observable effect level (NOEL) of freshwater algae. Apart from the potential risk this poses to the health of consumers, it can overburden the plant's natural defence system, leading to growth disorders. Plants exposed to NP show signs of overall growth reduction, changes in organelle structure and oxidative damage. These adverse effects may exacerbate the food security dilemma faced by many countries and impede their progress towards attaining the sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 22069-22081, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147998

RESUMO

The importance of studies on photoactive zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increases with increasing environmental pollution. Since the ZnO NPs (and NPs in general) also pose an environmental risk, and since an understanding of the risk is still not sufficient, it is important to prevent their spread into the environment. Anchoring on phyllosilicate particles of micrometric size is considered to be a useful way to address this problem, however, so far mainly on the basis of leaching tests in pure water. In the present study, the phytotoxicity of kaolinite/ZnO NP (10, 30, and 50 wt.%) nanocomposites in concentrations 10, 100, and 1000 mg/dm3 tested on white mustard (Sinapis alba) seedlings was found to be higher (relative lengths of roots are ~ 1.4 times lower) compared with seedlings treated with pristine ZnO NPs. The amount of Zn accumulated from the nanocomposites in white mustard tissues was ~ 2 times higher than can be expected based on the ZnO content in the nanocomposites compared with the ZnO content (100 wt.%) in pristine ZnO NPs. For the false fox-sedge (Carex otrubae) plants, the amount of Zn accumulated in roots and leaves was ~ 2.25 times higher and ~ 2.85 times higher, respectively, compared with that of the pristine ZnO NPs (with respect to the ZnO content). Increased phytotoxicity of the nanocomposites and higher uptake of Zn by plants from the nanocomposites in comparison with pristine ZnO NPs suggest that the immobilization of ZnO NPs on the kaolinite does not reduce the environmental risk.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Caulim , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18003-18016, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054057

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is one of the micronutrients needed by living organisms. In plants, Cu plays key roles in chlorophyll formation, photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport chains, oxidative stress protection as well as protein, carbohydrate, and cell wall metabolism. Therefore, deficiency of Cu can alter various functions of plant metabolism. However, Cu-based agrochemicals have traditionally been used in agriculture and being excessively released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. Continuous and extensive release of Cu is an imperative issue with various documented cases of phytotoxicity by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage to carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The mobility of Cu from soil to plant tissues has several concerns including its adverse effects on humans. In this review, we have described about importance and occurrence of Cu in environment, Cu homeostasis and toxicity in plants as well as remediation and progress in research so far done worldwide in the light of previous findings. Furthermore, present review provides a comprehensive ecological risk assessment on Cu in soils and thus provides insights for agricultural soil management and protection.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Ecotoxicologia/tendências , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 229: 409-417, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082708

RESUMO

Antibiotics represent a novel type of environment pollutants which modify chlorophyll content in plants. Spectroscopic methods were employed to investigate the effect of tetracycline on chlorophyll degradation. Changes in absorbance and fluorescence demonstrated that tetracycline reaction with chlorophyll results in the formation of pheophytin, which was confirmed by new bands typical of pheophytin which appeared in the absorbance spectrum. The rate of pheophytin formation depended on ratio tetracycline to chlorophyll concentration in solution. In solutions with chlorophyll concentration of C = 1 × 10-5 M and tetracycline concentrations of C = 1 × 10-3 M and C = 1 × 10-2 M, pheophytin was formed after 28 h and 25 min, respectively. The obtained lifetime for pheophytin formed during chlorophyll reaction - with tetracycline hydrochloride was τ = 5.71 ±â€¯0.02 ns and its value coincides, within the error limits, with the value obtained for pure pheophytin purchased from ChromaDex. The experiment demonstrated two mechanisms of chlorophyll degradation to pheophytin by tetracycline hydrochloride, i.e. 1) loss of Mg2+ ions from the chlorophyll molecule as a result of the presence of H+ ions in solution (i.e. as a result of medium acidification), and 2) removal of Mg2+ ions directly from chlorophyll by tetracycline which binds Mg2+ ions from the chlorophyll. We demonstrated that magnesium occurring in low concentrations attached to a tetracycline molecule in the BCD ring, and that the second ion of Mg2+ may attach to the A ring of tetracycline at higher Mg2+ concentrations. Two fluorescence bands appeared which indicated such magnesium attachments indeed occurred.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Feofitinas/química , Tetraciclina/química , Antibacterianos , Cinética , Magnésio/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Tetraciclina/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 761-767, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085492

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that accumulates in living systems. Exposure can occur occupationally or environmentally. Workers within the electroplating, battery production, and pigment industries are at the highest risk for exposure and have been reported to have increased levels of Cd in their blood and urine. Environmental exposure can be the result of anthropogenic activities or smoking. Cd has a long half-life and bio accumulates in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The toxic effects following exposure include growth retardation and organ system toxicity, with kidney and liver toxicity most reported with in higher organisms. At the molecular level, Cd leads to the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and inhibition of DNA repair. This article gives a brief overview of the correlations between exposure to cadmium occupationally and environmentally and levels measured in blood and urine. It also examines the bioaccumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates indicating that accumulation varies not only by location but also within and between various species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Mamíferos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 175: 215-233, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082765

RESUMO

α-Santonin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia Santonica, possesses diverse bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, immunosuppressive, anti-roundworm, anti-malaria, etc. However, its bioactivities are not satisfactory and need to be further optimized. Thus, many α-santonin derivatives were synthesized on the basis of rings A, B and C for the discovery of new analogues with prominent bioactivities. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the related synthetic methodologies, diverse bioactivities and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of α-santonin derivatives.


Assuntos
Santonina/química , Santonina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Santonina/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 691-696, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054471

RESUMO

Industrialization and inevitable mining has resulted in the release of some metals in environments, which have numerous industrial roles on one hand and also showed environmental toxicity on other hand. Beryllium is one of them, it has been used in number of industries however its excess use or inappropriate disposal of beryllium resulted in high beryllium accumulation in soil and ground water. This subsequently is affecting our environment and more potentially arable crop production. Beryllium has been extensively studied in humans and reported as toxic metal. In plants, only few studies have been documented toxic effects of beryllium in plants. Moreover, plant products (fruits, grains or other plant parts) could be major source of beryllium toxicity in our food chain therefore it is more imperative to understand how plant can be developed more tolerant to beryllium toxicity. In this short mini-review article, we primarily highlighted and speculated different beryllium uptake, translocation and beryllium storage mechanism in plants. This article provides considerable information for people who are working in identifying and developing heavy metal hyper accumulators plants.


Assuntos
Berílio/metabolismo , Berílio/toxicidade , Plantas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(1): 23-29, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964033

RESUMO

The stress conditions imposed by the impact of metal and non-metal oxide nanoparticles over plant systems enhances the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage at cellular level. The objective of this study was to synthesise the gold nanoparticles (GNps) from the leaves protein of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. xanthi, its characterisation, and response on plant physiology and ROS scavenging activity on plants after exposure to different stresses. The authors have treated N. tabacum L. cv. xanthi plants with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm biochemically synthesised GNps and examined physiological as well as biochemical changes. Results showed that biochemically synthesised GNps exposure significantly increased the seed germination (P < 0.001), root (P < 0.001), shoot growth (P < 0.001), and antioxidant ability (P < 0.05) of plants depending on bioengineered GNPs concentrations. Low concentrations (200-300 ppm) of GNps boosted growth by ∼50% and significantly increase in photosynthetic parameters such as total chlorophyll content (P < 0.05), membrane ion leakage (P < 0.05) as well as malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) content with respect to untreated plants under stress conditions. The high concentration (400-500 ppm) of GNps affected these parameters in a negative manner. The total antioxidant activity was also elevated in the exposed plants in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/metabolismo , Química Verde , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tabaco/química
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5072-5084, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986354

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS), the process of removing introns from pre-mRNA and the rearrangement of exons to produce several types of mature transcripts, is a remarkable step preceding protein synthesis. In particular, it has now been conclusively shown that up to ∼95% of genes are alternatively spliced to generate a complex and diverse proteome in eukaryotic organisms. Consequently, AS is one of the determinants of the functional repertoire of cells. Many studies have revealed that AS in plants can be regulated by cell type, developmental stage, environmental stress, and the circadian clock. Moreover, increasing amounts of evidence reveal that chemical compounds can affect various steps during splicing to induce major effects on plant physiology. Hence, the chemical modulation of AS can serve as a good strategy for molecular-target identification in attempts to potentially control plant genetics. However, the kind of mechanisms involved in the chemical modulation of AS that can be used in agrochemical research remain largely unknown. This review introduces recent studies describing the specific roles AS plays in plant adaptation to environmental stressors and in the regulation of development. We also discuss recent advances in small molecules that induce alterations of AS and the possibility of using this strategy in agrochemical-target identification, giving a new direction for potential genetic control in agrochemical research.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Processamento Alternativo , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/genética , Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética
14.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 137-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991282

RESUMO

Fly ash generated from coal-fired power plants is a source of potential pollutants, but can be used as a soil ameliorant to increase plant biomass and yield in agriculture. However, the effects of fly ash soil application on plant biomass and the accumulation of both nutrient and toxic elements in plants remain unclear. Based on 85 articles, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate changes in plant biomass and concentrations of 21 elements in plants in response to fly ash application. These elements included macro-nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, and S), micro-nutrients (B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn), and metal(loid)s (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Se). Overall, fly ash application decreased plant biomass by 15.2%. However, plant biomass was enhanced by fly ash application by 11.6-29.2% at lower application rates (i.e. <25% of soil mass), and decreased by 45.8% at higher application rates (i.e. 50-100%). Belowground biomass was significantly reduced while yield was enhanced by fly ash application. Most of the element concentrations in plants were enhanced by fly ash application, and followed a descending order with metal(loid)s > micro-nutrients > macro-nutrients. Concentrations of elements tended to increase with an increase in fly ash application rate. Our syntheses indicated that fly ash should be applied at less than 25% in order to enhance plant biomass and yield but avoid high accumulations of metal(loid)s.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cinza de Carvão/farmacologia , Metais/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Biomassa , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(4): 656-667, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975932

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of wastewater treated with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) and activated sludge (AS) system using disinfection treatment such chlorination and ultraviolet (UV) system. To assess the impact of the reuse of different effluents (HSSF-Cl, HSSF-UV, AS-Cl and AS-UV), bioassays using seeds of Raphanus sativus (R. sativus) and Triticum aestivum (T. aestivum), were performed on both Petri dishes and soil. Different treated wastewater concentrations were varied (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100%) and the percentage of germination inhibition (PGI), percentage of epicotyl elongation (PEE) and germination index (GI) were determined. Positive effects (PGI and PEE <0% and GI >80%) of HSSF-Cl, HSSF-UV, AS-Cl and AS-UV effluents on germination and epicotyl elongation of R. sativus and T. aestivum were observed in Petri dishes bioassays. However, toxic effects of HSSF-Cl, HSSF-UV and AS-Cl on seeds germination and epicotyl elongation of both plant species were detected in soil samples (PGI and PEE >0% and GI <80%). Only R. sativus seeds to be irrigated with AS-UV achieved GI values above 86% for all concentrations evaluated. These results indicated that AS-UV effluent had a positive effect on seeds germination and can be recommended for treated wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation.


Assuntos
Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas , Sementes , Esgotos , Solo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 958-964, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861418

RESUMO

This study was initiated after the appearance of chlorotic and necrotic lesions on vegetation in the vicinity of a glassworks. The aim was to establish whether the cause was an uncontrolled release of gaseous fluorides. Five different plant species (Norway spruce, peach, common hornbeam, common bean, common grape vine) were collected in the influenced area, and the fluorine (F) content was determined by a fluoride ion selective electrode after prior total sample decomposition by alkaline carbonate fusion. The measurement results were reported together with their measurement uncertainties (MUs), which were evaluated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The F contents at comparable distances from the emitter and in a clean area, free from natural or anthropogenic fluoride emissions, were 87-676 and 10 µg g-1, respectively, thereby confirming the release of gaseous fluorides from the glassworks. The F contents in samples of Norway spruce taken at various radial distances from the emitter suggest that the emitted gaseous fluorides were spread about evenly in all directions from the source following an inverse-power function. Estimated distances at which the F content would decrease to 50 µg g-1 (allowed maximum content of F in feeding stuffs) and 21 µg g-1 (maximum fluoride content in vegetables and fruits in relation to the upper limit of fluoride intake for humans) were 378 m and 571 m, respectively, from the emitter. Evaluation of our results for compliance with specification revealed a lack of regulation on fluoride content in the diet of humans and animals as well as a lack of guidelines on how to take into account MU.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Gases/análise , Regulamentação Governamental , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Vidro , Humanos , Indústrias , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Plantas/química , Eslovênia , Incerteza
17.
Chemosphere ; 223: 738-747, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822635

RESUMO

Until recently, chemical derivatives of platinum group metals have not been in a systematic direct contact with living organisms. The situation has changed dramatically due to anthropogenic activity, which has led to significant redistribution of these metals in the biosphere. Millions of modern cars are equipped with automotive catalytic converters, which contain rhodium, palladium and platinum as active elements. Everyday usage of catalytic technologies promotes the propagation of catalyst components in the environment. Nevertheless, we still have not accumulated profound information on possible ecotoxic effects of these metal pollutants. In this study, we report a case of an extraordinarily rapid development of lethal toxicity of a rhodium (III) salt in the terrestrial plants Pisum sativum, Lupinus angustifolius and Cucumis sativus. The growth stage, at which the exposure occurred, had a crucial impact on the toxicity manifestation: at earlier stages, RhCl3 killed the plants within 24 h. In contrast, the salt was relatively low-toxic in human fibroblasts. We also address phytotoxicity of other common metal pollutants, such as palladium, iron, nickel and copper, together with their cytotoxicity. None of the tested compounds exhibited phytotoxic effects comparable with that of RhCl3. These results evidence the crucial deficiency in our knowledge on environmental dangers of newly widespread metal pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ródio/toxicidade , Catálise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
19.
Chemosphere ; 225: 270-281, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877921

RESUMO

Over the last decades, global warming has increasingly stimulated the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, in which toxic cyanobacteria produce various congeners of cyanotoxins, mainly dominated by microcystins (MCs). MCs introduced into agricultural soils have deleterious effects on the germination, growth and development of plants and their associated microbiota, leading to remarkable yield losses. Phytotoxicity of MCs may refer to the inhibition of phosphatases activity, generating deleterious reactive oxygen species, altering gene functioning and phytohormones translocation within the plant. It is also known that MCs can pass through the root membrane barrier, translocate within plant tissues and accumulate into different organs, including edible ones. Also, MCs impact the microbial activity in soil via altering plant-bacterial symbioses and decreasing bacterial growth rate of rhizospheric microbiota. Moreover, MCs can persist in agricultural soils through adsorption to clay-humic acid particles and results in a long-term contact with the plant-microflora complex. However, their bioavailability to plants and half-life in soil seem to be influenced by biodegradation process and soil physicochemical properties. This review reports the latest and most relevant information regarding MCs-phytotoxicity and impact on soil microbiota, the persistence in soil, the degradation by native microflora and the bioaccumulation within plant tissues.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Agricultura , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813508

RESUMO

Nanotechnology was well developed during past decades and implemented in a broad range of industrial applications, which led to an inevitable release of nanomaterials into the environment and ecosystem. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials in various fields, especially in the agricultural sector. Plants are the basic component of the ecosystem and the most important source of food for mankind; therefore, understanding the impacts of AgNPs on plant growth and development is crucial for the evaluation of potential environmental risks on food safety and human health imposed by AgNPs. The present review summarizes uptake, translocation, and accumulation of AgNPs in plants, and exemplifies the phytotoxicity of AgNPs on plants at morphological, physiological, cellular, and molecular levels. It also focuses on the current understanding of phytotoxicity mechanisms via which AgNPs exert their toxicity on plants. In addition, the tolerance mechanisms underlying survival strategy that plants adopt to cope with adverse effects of AgNPs are discussed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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