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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4663, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938914

RESUMO

Scientific understanding of biodiversity dynamics, resulting from past climate oscillations and projections of future changes in biodiversity, has advanced over the past decade. Little is known about how these responses, past or future, are spatially connected. Analyzing the spatial variability in biodiversity provides insight into how climate change affects the accumulation of diversity across space. Here, we evaluate the spatial variation of phylogenetic diversity of European seed plants among neighboring sites and assess the effects of past rapid climate changes during the Quaternary on these patterns. Our work shows a marked homogenization in phylogenetic diversity across Central and Northern Europe linked to high climate change velocity and large distances to refugia. Our results suggest that the future projected loss in evolutionary heritage may be even more dramatic, as homogenization in response to rapid climate change has occurred among sites across large landscapes, leaving a legacy that has lasted for millennia.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Europa (Continente) , Plantas/genética , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Sementes
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4519, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908150

RESUMO

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes consistent correlations among a variety of leaf traits that reflect a gradient from conservative to acquisitive plant strategies. So far, whether the LES holds in wetland plants at a global scale has been unclear. Using data on 365 wetland species from 151 studies, we find that wetland plants in general show a shift within trait space along the same common slope as observed in non-wetland plants, with lower leaf mass per area, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorus, faster photosynthetic rates, and shorter leaf life span compared to non-wetland plants. We conclude that wetland plants tend to cluster at the acquisitive end of the LES. The presented global quantifications of the LES in wetland plants enhance our understanding of wetland plant strategies in terms of resources acquisition and allocation, and provide a stepping-stone to developing trait-based approaches for wetland ecology.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201397, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962543

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional regulation has far-reaching implications on the fate of RNAs. It is gaining increasing momentum as a critical component in adjusting global cellular transcript levels during development and in response to environmental stresses. In this process, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are indispensable chaperones that naturally bind RNA via one or multiple globular RNA-binding domains (RBDs) changing the function or fate of the bound RNAs. Despite the technical challenges faced in plants in large-scale studies, several hundreds of these RBPs have been discovered and elucidated globally over the past few years. Recent discoveries have more than doubled the number of proteins implicated in RNA interaction, including identification of RBPs lacking classical RBDs. This review will discuss these new emerging classes of RBPs, focusing on the current state of the RBP repertoire in Arabidopsis thaliana, including the diverse functional roles derived from quantitative studies implicating RBPs in abiotic stress responses. Notably, this review highlights that 836 RBPs are enriched as Arabidopsis RBPs while 1865 can be classified as candidate RBPs. The review will also outline outstanding areas within this field that require addressing to advance our understanding and potential biotechnological applications of RBPs.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760115

RESUMO

LEA3 proteins, a family of abiotic stress proteins, are defined by the presence of a tryptophan-containing motif, which we name the W-motif. We use Pfam LEA3 sequences to search the Phytozome database to create a W-motif definition and a LEA3 sequence dataset. A comprehensive analysis of these sequences revealed four N-terminal motifs, as well as two previously undiscovered C-terminal motifs that contain conserved acidic and hydrophobic residues. The general architecture of the LEA3 sequences consisted of an N-terminal motif with a potential mitochondrial transport signal and the twin-arginine motif cut-site, followed by a W-motif and often a C-terminal motif. Analysis of species distribution of the motifs showed that one architecture was found exclusively in Commelinids, while two were distributed fairly evenly over all species. The physiochemical properties of the different architectures showed clustering in a relatively narrow range compared to the previously studied dehydrins. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the different sequences grouped into clades based on architecture, and that there appear to be at least two distinct groups of LEA3 proteins based on their architectures and physiochemical properties. The presence of LEA3 proteins in non-vascular plants but their absence in algae suggests that LEA3 may have arisen in the evolution of land plants.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3346, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620761

RESUMO

Tropical ecosystems adapted to high water availability may be highly impacted by climatic changes that increase soil and atmospheric moisture deficits. Many tropical regions are experiencing significant changes in climatic conditions, which may induce strong shifts in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest communities. However, it remains unclear if and to what extent tropical forests are shifting in these facets of diversity along climatic gradients in response to climate change. Here, we show that changes in climate affected all three facets of diversity in West Africa in recent decades. Taxonomic and functional diversity increased in wetter forests but tended to decrease in forests with drier climate. Phylogenetic diversity showed a large decrease along a wet-dry climatic gradient. Notably, we find that all three facets of diversity tended to be higher in wetter forests. Drier forests showed functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic homogenization. Understanding how different facets of diversity respond to a changing environment across climatic gradients is essential for effective long-term conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Secas , Florestas , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas/genética , África Ocidental , Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Filogenia , Chuva , Solo/química , Clima Tropical , Água
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008872, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673310

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic parasites that selfishly replicate at the expense of host fitness. Fifty years of evolutionary studies of TEs have concentrated on the deleterious genetic effects of TEs, such as their effects on disrupting genes and regulatory sequences. However, a flurry of recent work suggests that there is another important source of TEs' harmful effects-epigenetic silencing. Host genomes typically silence TEs by the deposition of repressive epigenetic marks. While this silencing reduces the selfish replication of TEs and should benefit hosts, a picture is emerging that the epigenetic silencing of TEs triggers inadvertent spreading of repressive marks to otherwise expressed neighboring genes, ultimately jeopardizing host fitness. In this Review, we provide a long-overdue overview of the recent genome-wide evidence for the presence and prevalence of TEs' epigenetic effects, highlighting both the similarities and differences across mammals, insects, and plants. We lay out the current understanding of the functional and fitness consequences of TEs' epigenetic effects, and propose possible influences of such effects on the evolution of both hosts and TEs themselves. These unique evolutionary consequences indicate that TEs' epigenetic effect is not only a crucial component of TE biology but could also be a significant contributor to genome function and evolution.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Inativação Gênica , Animais , Repressão Epigenética/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Insetos/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Plantas/genética
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008918, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730246

RESUMO

Holocentric chromosomes possess multiple kinetochores along their length rather than the single centromere typical of other chromosomes [1]. They have been described for the first time in cytogenetic experiments dating from 1935 and, since this first observation, the term holocentric chromosome has referred to chromosomes that: i. lack the primary constriction corresponding to centromere observed in monocentric chromosomes [2]; ii. possess multiple kinetochores dispersed along the chromosomal axis so that microtubules bind to chromosomes along their entire length and move broadside to the pole from the metaphase plate [3]. These chromosomes are also termed holokinetic, because, during cell division, chromatids move apart in parallel and do not form the classical V-shaped figures typical of monocentric chromosomes [4-6]. Holocentric chromosomes evolved several times during both animal and plant evolution and are currently reported in about eight hundred diverse species, including plants, insects, arachnids and nematodes [7,8]. As a consequence of their diffuse kinetochores, holocentric chromosomes may stabilize chromosomal fragments favouring karyotype rearrangements [9,10]. However, holocentric chromosome may also present limitations to crossing over causing a restriction of the number of chiasma in bivalents [11] and may cause a restructuring of meiotic divisions resulting in an inverted meiosis [12].


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Cinetocoros/ultraestrutura , Meiose/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/ultraestrutura , Cromátides/genética , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cariótipo , Plantas/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16537-16545, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601191

RESUMO

Engineering biological nitrogen fixation in eukaryotic cells by direct introduction of nif genes requires elegant synthetic biology approaches to ensure that components required for the biosynthesis of active nitrogenase are stable and expressed in the appropriate stoichiometry. Previously, the NifD subunits of nitrogenase MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella oxytoca were found to be unstable in yeast and plant mitochondria, respectively, presenting a bottleneck to the assembly of active MoFe protein in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have delineated the region and subsequently a key residue, NifD-R98, from K. oxytoca that confers susceptibility to protease-mediated degradation in mitochondria. The effect observed is pervasive, as R98 is conserved among all NifD proteins analyzed. NifD proteins from four representative diazotrophs, but not their R98 variants, were observed to be unstable in yeast mitochondria. Furthermore, by reconstituting mitochondrial-processing peptidases (MPPs) from yeast, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana in Escherichia coli, we demonstrated that MPPs are responsible for cleavage of NifD. These results indicate a pervasive effect on the stability of NifD proteins in mitochondria resulting from cleavage by MPPs. NifD-R98 variants that retained high levels of nitrogenase activity were obtained, with the potential to stably target active MoFe protein to mitochondria. This reconstitution approach could help preevaluate the stability of Nif proteins for plant expression and paves the way for engineering active nitrogenase in plant organelles.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Expressão Gênica , Klebsiella oxytoca/enzimologia , Nitrogenase/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Klebsiella oxytoca/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
9.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 56: 135-146, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615401

RESUMO

To recognize diverse threats, plants monitor extracellular molecular patterns and transduce intracellular immune signaling through receptor complexes at the plasma membrane. Pattern recognition occurs through a prototypical network of interacting proteins, comprising A) receptors that recognize inputs associated with a growing number of pest and pathogen classes (bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, caterpillars), B) co-receptor kinases that participate in binding and signaling, and C) cytoplasmic kinases that mediate first stages of immune output. While this framework has been elucidated in reference accessions of model organisms, network components are part of gene families with widespread variation, potentially tuning immunocompetence for specific contexts. Most dramatically, variation in receptor repertoires determines the range of ligands acting as immunogenic inputs for a given plant. Diversification of receptor kinase (RK) and related receptor-like protein (RLP) repertoires may tune responses even within a species. Comparative genomics at pangenome scale will reveal patterns and features of immune network variation.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Plantas , Membrana Celular , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574172

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedback studies attempt to understand the interplay between composition of plant and soil microbial communities. A growing body of literature suggests that plant species can coexist when they interact with a subset of the soil microbial community that impacts plant performance. Most studies focus on the microbial community in the soil rhizosphere; therefore, the degree to which the bacterial community within plant roots (root-endophytic compartment) influences plant-microbe interactions remains relatively unknown. To determine if there is an interaction between conspecific vs heterospecific soil microbes and plant performance, we sequenced root-endophytic bacterial communities of five tallgrass-prairie plant species, each reciprocally grown with soil microbes from each hosts' soil rhizosphere. We found evidence of plant-soil feedbacks for some pairs of plant hosts; however, the strength and direction of feedbacks varied substantially across plant species pairs-from positive to negative feedbacks. Additionally, each plant species harbored a unique subset of root-endophytic bacteria. Conspecifics that hosted similar bacterial communities were more similar in biomass than individuals that hosted different bacterial communities, suggesting an important functional link between root-endophytic bacterial community composition and plant fitness. Our findings suggest a connection between an understudied component of the root-endophytic microbiome and plant performance, which may have important implications in understanding plant community composition and coexistence.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 838-848, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567267

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that forms an important regulation mechanism of gene expression in organisms across kingdoms. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation can lead to plant developmental abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss DNA methylation in plants and summarize its functions and biological roles in regulating gene expression and maintaining genomic stability, plant development, as well as plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. We intended to provide a concise reference for further understanding of the mechanism of DNA methylation and potential applications of epigenetic manipulation for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Instabilidade Genômica , Plantas/genética , Pesquisa/tendências , Estresse Fisiológico
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2770, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488006

RESUMO

Large-scale changes in global climate at the end of the Pleistocene significantly impacted ecosystems across North America. However, the pace and scale of biotic turnover in response to both the Younger Dryas cold period and subsequent Holocene rapid warming have been challenging to assess because of the scarcity of well dated fossil and pollen records that covers this period. Here we present an ancient DNA record from Hall's Cave, Texas, that documents 100 vertebrate and 45 plant taxa from bulk fossils and sediment. We show that local plant and animal diversity dropped markedly during Younger Dryas cooling, but while plant diversity recovered in the early Holocene, animal diversity did not. Instead, five extant and nine extinct large bodied animals disappeared from the region at the end of the Pleistocene. Our findings suggest that climate change affected the local ecosystem in Texas over the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, but climate change on its own may not explain the disappearance of the megafauna at the end of the Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Biodiversidade , Fósseis , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Paleontologia , Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência , Texas
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7066-7078, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484558

RESUMO

During nuclear maturation of most eukaryotic pre-messenger RNAs and long non-coding RNAs, introns are removed through the process of RNA splicing. Different classes of introns are excised by the U2-type or the U12-type spliceosomes, large complexes of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and associated proteins. We created intronIC, a program for assigning intron class to all introns in a given genome, and used it on 24 eukaryotic genomes to create the Intron Annotation and Orthology Database (IAOD). We then used the data in the IAOD to revisit several hypotheses concerning the evolution of the two classes of spliceosomal introns, finding support for the class conversion model explaining the low abundance of U12-type introns in modern genomes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Íntrons/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Spliceossomos/genética , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Leveduras/genética
14.
Gene ; 756: 144915, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580009

RESUMO

Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) are key enzymes in the process of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and have essential functions in growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses responses in plants. However, the evolutionary history and patterns of PIP5K genes in plants have not been examined systematically. Here, we use whole-genome sequences from eight plant species of land plants and algae to define the evolutionary relationships between these proteins in plants. 85 PIP5K genes were identified and divided into two subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. PIP5K members in subfamily II underwent several duplication events in land plants, resulting in multiple gene copies in angiosperms, while PIP5K members in subfamily I displayed low-copy numbers and lost in eudicots. Furthermore, PIP5K genes within the same subfamily had similar motifs and intron/exon features. Nine duplicated soybean gene pairs, four duplicated Arabidopsis gene pairs and two rice duplicated gene pairs were identified and many of them localized in synteny genomic regions. These duplicate events were formed by Whole-genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplications. In addition, the ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks) showed that the PIP5K family had undergone purifying selection in higher plants. Expression analysis showed that PIP5K genes had complex and variable expression patterns in different developmental stages. The specificity of these genes is utilized to provide evidence for selective expression in the evolutionary process.


Assuntos
Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Plantas/enzimologia , Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Especiação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética
15.
Ann Bot ; 126(3): 363-376, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whole-genome duplication is known to influence ecological interactions and plant physiology; however, despite abundant case studies, much is still unknown about the typical impact of genome duplication on plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). In this study, we assessed the impact of polyploidy events on PSM characteristics in non-cultivated plants. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare composition and concentration of PSMs among closely related plant species or species complexes differing in ploidy level. KEY RESULTS: We assessed 53 studies that focus on PSMs among multiple cytotypes, of which only 14 studies compared concentration quantitatively among cytotypes. We found that whole-genome duplication can have a significant effect on PSM concentration; however, these effects are highly inconsistent. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was no consistent effect of whole-genome duplication on PSM concentrations or profiles.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Ploidias , Poliploidia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13580-13587, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482870

RESUMO

Thermal macrophysiology is an established research field that has led to well-described patterns in the global structuring of climate adaptation and risk. However, since it was developed primarily in animals, we lack information on how general these patterns are across organisms. This is alarming if we are to understand how thermal tolerances are distributed globally, improve predictions of climate change, and mitigate effects. We approached this knowledge gap by compiling a geographically and taxonomically extensive database on plant heat and cold tolerances and used this dataset to test for thermal macrophysiological patterns and processes in plants. We found support for several expected patterns: Cold tolerances are more variable and exhibit steeper latitudinal clines and stronger relationships with local environmental temperatures than heat tolerances overall. Next, we disentangled the importance of local environments and evolutionary and biogeographic histories in generating these patterns. We found that all three processes have significantly contributed to variation in both heat and cold tolerances but that their relative importance differs. We also show that failure to simultaneously account for all three effects overestimates the importance of the included variable, challenging previous conclusions drawn from less comprehensive models. Our results are consistent with rare evolutionary innovations in cold acclimation ability structuring plant distributions across biomes. In contrast, plant heat tolerances vary mainly as a result of biogeographical processes and drift. Our results further highlight that all plants, particularly at mid-to-high latitudes and in their nonhardened state, will become increasingly vulnerable to ongoing climate change.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética
17.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 56: 65-73, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480355

RESUMO

Plant pathogens can rapidly overcome resistance of their hosts by mutating key pathogenicity genes encoding for effectors. Pathogen adaptation is fuelled by extensive genetic variability in populations and different strains may not share the same set of genes. Recently, such an intra-specific variation in gene content became formalized as pangenomes distinguishing core genes (i.e. shared) and accessory genes (i.e. lineage or strain-specific). Across pathogens species, key effectors tend to be part of the rapidly evolving accessory genome. Here, we show how the construction and analysis of pathogen pangenomes provide deep insights into the dynamic host adaptation process. We also discuss how pangenomes should ideally be built and how geography, niche and lifestyle likely determine pangenome sizes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Virulência
18.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 56: 74-80, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492572

RESUMO

Plant fungal pathogens can be classified according to their lifestyles. Biotrophs feed on living tissue and constitute an economically significant group of pathogens historically. Necrotrophs, which feed on dead tissue, have become economically significant over recent decades, especially those of the Dothideomycetes, which produce necrotrophic effectors (NEs) to modulate the host response. Some of these pathogens interact with their hosts in an inverse gene-for-gene manner, where NEs are recognized by specific dominant genes in the host leading to host-mediated programmed cell death allowing the pathogen to cause disease. Whereas the NE genes tend to be unique, several of the plant 'susceptibility' genes belong to the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat class of disease 'resistance' genes, and one is a wall-associated kinase. These susceptible interactions exhibit hallmarks of defense responses to biotrophic pathogens. Therefore, there is now accumulating evidence that many necrotrophic specialists hijack the resistance mechanisms that are effective against biotrophic pathogens.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética
19.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 56: 81-88, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505091

RESUMO

Living organisms respond to their immediate environment by modulating their genetic programme to perform adapted functions. Eukaryotic organisms that associate with plants (fungi, oomycetes, insects, …) alter their transcriptome in a host-specific manner. Recent comparative transcriptomic studies revealed that host-specialized transcriptomes consist of a limited set of genes. Such a set typically encodes proteins that modulate host structures and functions (predicted effectors and other secreted proteins), control nutrient assimilation (proteases, transporters), and maintain cellular homeostasis (oxidoreductases, detoxification enzymes). We conclude by discussing open mechanistic and evolutionary questions and integrated approaches to move beyond descriptive studies.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fungos , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 300-313, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116300

RESUMO

Every 3 to 7 year angiosperms species of the flowering desert appear in the Atacama Region of Chile, as a result of the climatic phenomenon "El Niño". Our objective was to evaluate the universality of matK and rbcL barcode markers of these species, and validate their taxon through phylogenetic relationships. Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii and Adesmia eremophila, almost all classified as endemic to Chile, were collected in Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Park (Atacama Region, Chile) at the end of October 2017. The phylogeny of these ten angiosperm species from the flowering desert was analyzed using rbcL and matK markers with the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The results showed that 70% of the species can be distinguished with the matK or rbcL locus, however, 100% were distinguished using both loci. The phylogenetic results showed that the species formed clades with high reliability and high support with both the matK and rbcL genes, when comparing our results with sequences obtained from GenBank. The matK and rbcL genes are efficient markers for analyzing phylogenetic relationships and validating the taxonomy of flowering species.


Las especies de angiospermas del Desierto Florido de la Región de Atacama de Chile aparecen cada 3 a 7 años, influenciado por el fenómeno climático "El Niño". Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la universalidad de los marcadores de código de barra matK y rbcL de estas especies, y validar su taxón por medio de relaciones filogenéticas. Las especies Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii y Adesmia eremophila son clasificadas la mayoría endémicas de Chile. Estas especies fueron colectadas en el Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar y Llanos de Challe, Región de Atacama, Chile. La colecta se realizó a fines de octubre de 2017. Con los marcadores rbcL y matK se analizó la filogenia con los métodos máxima verosimilitud e inferencia bayesiana en diez especies de angiosperma del Desierto Florido. Los resultados mostraron que el 70% de las especies pueden ser distinguidas con un locus matK o rbcL, sin embargo, el 100% se distinguió usando ambos locus. Los resultados filogenéticos mostraron que las especies formaron clados con alta fiabilidad y alto soporte tanto con los genes matK y rbcL, al comparar con accesos de secuencias obtenidas de GenBank. Lo genes matK y rbcL son marcadores eficientes para analizar relaciones filogenéticas y validar el taxón de las especies de flor.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Deserto , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Chile , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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