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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4547, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917880

RESUMO

Biodiversity loss can alter ecosystem functioning; however, it remains unclear how it alters decomposition-a critical component of biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere. Here, we provide a global-scale meta-analysis to quantify how changes in the diversity of organic matter derived from plants (i.e. litter) affect rates of decomposition. We find that the after-life effects of diversity were significant, and of substantial magnitude, in forests, grasslands, and wetlands. Changes in plant diversity could alter decomposition rates by as much as climate change is projected to alter them. Specifically, diversifying plant litter from mono- to mixed-species increases decomposition rate by 34.7% in forests worldwide, which is comparable in magnitude to the 13.6-26.4% increase in decomposition rates that is projected to occur over the next 50 years in response to climate warming. Thus, biodiversity changes cannot be solely viewed as a response to human influence, such as climate change, but could also be a non-negligible driver of future changes in biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks on Earth.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aquecimento Global , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Plantas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Florestas , Pradaria , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4692, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943624

RESUMO

Hemicelluloses, a family of heterogeneous polysaccharides with complex molecular structures, constitute a fundamental component of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the contribution of each hemicellulose type to the mechanical properties of secondary plant cell walls remains elusive. Here we homogeneously incorporate different combinations of extracted and purified hemicelluloses (xylans and glucomannans) from softwood and hardwood species into self-assembled networks during cellulose biosynthesis in a bacterial model, without altering the morphology and the crystallinity of the cellulose bundles. These composite hydrogels can be therefore envisioned as models of secondary plant cell walls prior to lignification. The incorporated hemicelluloses exhibit both a rigid phase having close interactions with cellulose, together with a flexible phase contributing to the multiscale architecture of the bacterial cellulose hydrogels. The wood hemicelluloses exhibit distinct biomechanical contributions, with glucomannans increasing the elastic modulus in compression, and xylans contributing to a dramatic increase of the elongation at break under tension. These diverging effects cannot be explained solely from the nature of their direct interactions with cellulose, but can be related to the distinct molecular structure of wood xylans and mannans, the multiphase architecture of the hydrogels and the aggregative effects amongst hemicellulose-coated fibrils. Our study contributes to understanding the specific roles of wood xylans and glucomannans in the biomechanical integrity of secondary cell walls in tension and compression and has significance for the development of lignocellulosic materials with controlled assembly and tailored mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Celulose/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Madeira/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catárticos/química , Citoesqueleto/química , Hidrogéis/química , Mananas , Xilanos/química
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4720, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948753

RESUMO

Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is a versatile, energy rich material found in the cell walls of plants, bacteria, algae, and tunicates. It is well established that cellulose is crystalline, although the orientational order of cellulose crystallites normal to the plane of the cell wall has not been characterized. A preferred orientational alignment of cellulose crystals could be an important determinant of the mechanical properties of the cell wall and of cellulose-cellulose and cellulose-matrix interactions. Here, the crystalline structures of cellulose in primary cell walls of onion (Allium cepa), the model eudicot Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and moss (Physcomitrella patens) were examined through grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). We find that GIWAXS can decouple diffraction from cellulose and epicuticular wax crystals in cell walls. Pole figures constructed from a combination of GIWAXS and X-ray rocking scans reveal that cellulose crystals have a preferred crystallographic orientation with the (200) and (110)/([Formula: see text]) planes preferentially stacked parallel to the cell wall. This orientational ordering of cellulose crystals, termed texturing in materials science, represents a previously unreported measure of cellulose organization and contradicts the predominant hypothesis of twisting of microfibrils in plant primary cell walls.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Celulose/química , Plantas/química , Arabidopsis/química , Bryopsida/química , Cristalografia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Microfibrilas/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760138

RESUMO

Ecological stoichiometric should be incorporated into management and nutrient impacted ecosystems dynamic to understand the status of ecosystems and ecological interaction. The present study focused on ecological stoichiometric characteristics of soil, and leaves, stems, and roots of different macrophytes after the banning of seine fishing in Shengjin Lake. For C, N, and P analysis from leaves, stems, roots, and soil to explore their stoichiometric ratio and deriving environmental forces, four dominant plant communities (Vallisneria natans, Zizania latifolia, Trapa natans and Carex schmidtii) were collected. The concentration of C, N, P and C: N: P ratio in leaves, stems, roots, and soil among the plant communities varied significantly. Along the depth gradient high C: N was measured in C.schmidtii soil (7.08±1.504) but not vary significantly (P >0.05). High C: P result was found in T.natans (81.14±43.88) and in V.natans soil (81.40±42.57) respectively with no significant difference (p>0.05). Besides, N: P ratio measured high in V. natans (13.7±4.05) and showed significant variation (P<0.05). High leaf C: N and N: P ratio was measured in C. schmidtii and V. natans respectively. Nevertheless, high leaf C: P ratio was measured in Z. latifolia. From the three studied organs, leaf C: N and N: P ratio showed high values compared to root and stems. The correlation analysis result showed that at 0-10cm depth soil organic carbon (SOC) correlated negatively with stem total phosphorus (STP), and root total nitrogen (RTN) (P<0.05) but positively strongly with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) and leaf total nitrogen (LTN) (P<0.01) respectively. Soil total nitrogen (STN) at 0-10cm strongly positively correlated with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) (P<0.01) and positively with RN: P and leaf total carbon (LTC) (P<0.05). Soil basic properties such as soil moisture content (SMC), bulky density (BD) and pH positively correlated with soil ecological stoichiometric characteristics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) result showed available nitrogen (AN), soil total nitrogen (STN), and available phosphorus (AP) were the potential determinants variables on plants stoichiometric characteristics.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Carex (Planta) , China , Ecossistema , Eleocharis , Hydrocharitaceae , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Life Sci ; 259: 118173, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750437

RESUMO

The prevalence of various hepatic diseases increases dramatically worldwide and regarded as a serious health problem. Sirtuins are one of the main strategic controllers of different cellular processes, including cell cycle, mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin secretion, redox balance, inflammation, and apoptosis. SIRT1 is the most prominent and broadly studied member of sirtuins that implicated in health status and longevity. Therefore, targeting the SIRT1 signaling pathways may be a reasonable therapeutic approach to treat different diseases, including hepatic disorders. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widely present in different plants and possess beneficial effects against diverse diseases. In this review, we focused on the flavonoids, (-)-epicatechin, ampelopsin, baicalin, delphinidin, fisetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, luteolin, pinocembrin, quercetin, silibinin, trans-chalcone and xanthohumol, to verify whether their potential promising hepatoprotective effects are related to activation of SIRT1. Additionally, molecular modeling simulations were applied to explore the potential binding mode of these flavonoids to SIRT1. The complied information and molecular docking simulations suggested that SIRT1 signaling is involved in the beneficial pharmacologic activities of flavonoids in different hepatic diseases.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Plantas/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790731

RESUMO

Seventeen glass vessels and twenty glass beads recovered from the excavations at the ancient city of Malindi and the archaeological site of Mambrui in Kenya, east Africa were analysed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that all of the glass samples are soda-lime-silica glass. They belong to the high alumina -plant ash glass type, characterised by high alumina and relatively low calcium contents, widely distributed in eastern (10th- 16th centuries AD) and southern Africa (13th - 15th centuries AD), Central Asia (9th- 14th centuries AD) and southeast Asia (12th- 13th centuries AD), made with plant ashes and sands. This is an understudied glass type for which previous research has indicated there were three types. When compared with published research on such glasses using Zr, Ti, Ba, Cr, La, Li, Cs, Na2O, MgO and CaO we have identified at least four different compositional groups of v-Na-Al glass: Types A, B, C and D. By comparing the results with contemporary v-Na-Al glass vessels and beads from Central Asia, Africa, and southeast Asia we show that most of the Malindi and Mambrui glass share similar characteristics to the compositions of Mapungubwe Oblate and some of the Madagascar glass beads from southern Africa. They belong to Type A v-Na-Al glass which is characterised by an elevated level of Ti and Ba and a relatively high ratios of Cr/La, relatively low Zr concentrations and low ratios of Zr/Ti. Differences in Zr, Li, MgO and Na2O concentrations in Type A glass indicates that there are subgroups which might derive from different glass workshop(s) specialising in Type A v-Na-Al glass production. Comparison with the chemical compositions of glass from Ghazni, Afghanistan and Termez, Uzbekistan, and by using lead isotope analysis, we suggest v-Na-Al glass was manufactured in Central Asia and possibly worked into vessels and beads there.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Vidro/química , Óxidos/química , Plantas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/história , África Oriental , Óxido de Alumínio , Arqueologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Oceano Índico , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 750-757, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621255

RESUMO

Artemisia sieversiana is an annual herbaceous plant distributed throughout Central and East Eurasia and is regarded as an undesirable forage plant in Mongolia. It affects livestock, so information about its chemical composition is needed. We isolated three new sesquiterpenoids (1-3) and known compounds from A. sieversiana and investigated their activities. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, and its configuration differed from those of reported compounds with similar structures. Two additional new sesquiterpenoids (2 and 3) with similar structures were identified, and their configurations were determined. The trypanocidal activities of the isolated compounds (1-18) against Trypanosoma congolense and the pathogen responsible for fatal trypanosomosis in animals were estimated. Flavonoids and lignans were identified as active compounds with IC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 90.2 µM.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Flavonoides/química , Lignanas/química , Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mongólia
8.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 758-766, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648094

RESUMO

Since Notch signaling plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, aberrant activation of this signaling contributes to cancer progression. In neural stem cells, Notch signaling inhibits differentiation by activating HES1 expression. Therefore, Notch signaling inhibitors may be candidates for new anticancer drugs or have applications in neural regenerative medicine. In this study, six naturally occurring Notch inhibitors were isolated from the methanol (MeOH) extract of Lansium domesticum using our novel cell-based assay. Hongherin (2), a cardiac glycoside, demonstrated potent Notch inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.62 µM and was found to be cytotoxic in HPB-ALL human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Hongherin (2) also induced the differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells to neurons, causing a 65% increase in differentiation compared to the control. Mechanistically, hongherin (2) reduced the amount of Notch1 (full length) and mastermind-like protein (MAML). This indicates that hongherin (2) inhibits Notch signaling through a dual mechanism involving the reduction of both Notch1 and MAML protein levels.


Assuntos
Cardenolídeos/química , Plantas/química , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 811-818, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705519

RESUMO

Investigation of the dried whole plants of Artemisia annua led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenes, artemanins A (1) and B (2), along with twenty-nine known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730335

RESUMO

The use of natural products as feed additives in the poultry industry is increasing; however, most studies focus on performance and growth with little regard for determining mechanism. Our laboratory designed a chicken (Gallus gallus)-specific immunometabolic kinome peptide array. Using this tool to examine the active enzymes responsible for phosphorylation events (kinases) provides important information on host and cellular functions. The objective of this project was to determine if feeding a microencapsulated product comprised of a blend of organic acids and botanicals (AviPlus®P) impacts the intestinal kinome of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Day-of-hatch chicks were provided 0 or 500g/MT of the additive and jejunal and ileal segments collected for kinome analysis to determine the mode-of-action of the additive. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed by uploading the statistically significant peptides to the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database. As a whole, GO and KEGG analysis showed similar activities in the ileum and jejunum. However, there were a small number of KEGG pathways that were only activated in either the ileum or jejunum, but not both. Analysis of the adipocytokine and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways showed differences between ileal and jejunal activity that were controlled, in part, by AKT3. Additionally, cytokine/chemokine evaluation showed the ileum had higher IL1ß, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CXCL8, and CCL4 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). As a whole, the data showed the addition of microencapsulated organic acids and botanicals to a broiler diet activated many of the same signaling pathways in the ileum and jejunum; however, distinctions were observed. Taken together, the findings of this study begin to define the mode-of-action that microencapsulated organic acids and botanicals have on two important intestinal segments responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption in chickens.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Quinases/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673330

RESUMO

Understanding the determinants of range location and size is fundamental to our understanding of spatial patterns in species richness. Here, we aimed to test the role of 'climatic stability' in determining latitudinal trends in range size and as a consequence on species richness of tropical woody plants. Using primary data from 156 (0.06 ha) plots comprising 20,400 occurrences of more than 400 species of tropical woody plants, we built a biome-wide species database that covers the entire latitudinal extent of the wet-evergreen forests of the Western Ghats (8o to 20o N), India. We consolidated this database using secondary data from other published species inventories. We then calculated the range sizes and climatic niche width of woody plants to test the predictions of the climatic stability hypothesis and examined the relationship between range position and climatic tolerance of species. Our results show a significant latitudinal gradient in species richness and turnover where local and regional species richness increase monotonically from higher latitudes to lower latitudes of the Western Ghats. We found strong support for Rapoport's Rule with an increase in range size from lower to higher latitudes; our results are consistent with the predictions of the climatic stability hypothesis, where species at higher latitudes exhibited greater tolerance to temperature and rainfall seasonality. Contrary to earlier work, our findings suggest that Rapoport's Rule and the climatic stability hypothesis can operate over regional scales, and even at lower latitudes. We suggest that latitude associated climatic seasonality through its influence on species ranges, can influence latitudinal patterns in species turnover as well as species richness.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas/química , Madeira/fisiologia , Geografia , Índia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461296, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709339

RESUMO

Saponins constitute an important class of secondary metabolites of the plant kingdom. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based database for rapid and easy identification of saponins henceforth referred to as saponin mass spectrometry database (SMSD). With a total of 4196 saponins, 214 of which were obtained from commercial sources. Through liquid chromatography-tandem high-resolution/mass spectrometry (HR/MS) analysis under negative ion mode, the fragmentation behavior for all parent fragment ions almost conformed to successive losses of sugar moieties, α-dissociation and McLafferty rearrangement of aglycones in high-energy collision induced dissociation. The saccharide moieties produced sugar fragment ions from m/z (monosaccharide) to m/z (polysaccharides). The parent and sugar fragment ions of other saponins were predicted using the above mentioned fragmentation pattern. The SMSD is freely accessible at http://47.92.73.208:8082/ or http://cpu-smsd.com (preferrably using google). It provides three search modes ("CLASSIFY", "SEARCH" and "METABOLITE"). Under the "CLASSIFY" function, saponins are classified with high predictive accuracies from all metabolites by establishment of logistic regression model through their mass data from HR/MS input as a csv file, where the first column is ID and the second column is mass. For the "SEARCH" function, saponins are searched against parent ions with certain mass tolerance in "MS Ion Search". Then, daughter ions with certain mass tolerance are input into "MS/MS Ion Search". The optimal candidates were screened out according to the match count and match rate values in comparison with fragment data in database. Additionally, another logistic regression model completely differentiated between parent and sugar fragment ions. This function designed in front web is conducive to search and recheck. With the "METABOLITE" function, saponins are searched using their common names, where both full and partial name searches are supported. With these modes, saponins of diverse chemical composition can be explored, grouped and identified with a high degree of predictive accuracy. This specialized database would aid in the identification of saponins in complex matrices particular in the study of traditional Chinese medicines or plant metabolomics.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Plantas/química , Saponinas/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658188

RESUMO

The phosphate esters of myo-inositol, also termed inositol phosphates (InsPs), are a class of cellular regulators playing important roles in plant physiology. Due to their negative charge, low abundance and susceptibility to hydrolytic activities, the detection and quantification of these molecules is challenging. This is particularly the case for highly phosphorylated forms containing 'high-energy' diphospho bonds, also termed inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs). Due to its high sensitivity, strong anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) of plants labeled with [3H]-myo-inositol is currently the method of choice to analyze these molecules. By using [3H]-myo-inositol to radiolabel plant seedlings, various InsP species including several non-enantiomeric isomers can be detected and discriminated with high sensitivity. Here, the setup of a suitable SAX-HPLC system is described, as well as the complete workflow from plant cultivation, radiolabeling and InsP extraction to the SAX-HPLC run and subsequent data analysis. The protocol presented here allows the discrimination and quantification of various InsP species, including several non-enantiomeric isomers and of the PP-InsPs, InsP7 and InsP8, and can be easily adapted to other plant species. As examples, SAX-HPLC analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus seedlings are performed and complete InsP profiles are presented and discussed. The method described here represents a promising tool to better understand the biological roles of InsPs in plants.


Assuntos
Inositol/química , Plantas/química , Polifosfatos/química
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228758, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497052

RESUMO

Nutritional Programming (NP) has been studied as a means of mitigating the negative effects of dietary plant protein (PP), but the optimal timing and mechanism behind NP are still unknown. The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine whether zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be programmed to soybean meal (SBM) through early feeding and broodstock exposure to improve SBM utilization; 2) To determine if NP in zebrafish affects expression of genes associated with intestinal nutrient uptake; 3) To determine if early stage NP and/or broodstock affects gene expression associated with intestinal inflammation or any morphological changes in the intestinal tract that might improve dietary SBM utilization. Two broodstocks were used to form the six experimental groups. One broodstock group received fishmeal (FM) diet (FMBS), while the other was fed ("programmed with") SBM diet (PPBS). The first ((+) Control) and the second group ((-) Control) received FM and SBM diet for the entire study, respectively, and were progeny of FMBS. The last four groups consisted of a non-programmed (FMBS-X-PP and PPBS-X-PP) and a programmed group (FMBS-NP-PP and PPBS-NP-PP) from each of the broodstocks. The programming occurred through feeding with SBM diet during 13-23 dph. The non-control groups underwent a PP-Challenge, receiving SBM diet during 36-60 dph. During the PP-Challenge, both PPBS groups experienced significantly lower weight gains than the (+) Control group. NP in early life stages significantly increased the expression of PepT1 in PPBS-NP-PP, compared to PPBS-X-PP. NP also tended to increase the expression of fabp2 in the programmed vs. non-programmed groups of both broodstocks. The highest distal villus length-to-width ratio was observed in the dual-programmed group, suggesting an increase in surface area for nutrient absorption within the intestine. The results of this study suggest that NP during early life stages may increase intestinal absorption of nutrients from PP-based feeds.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Fatores de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(4): 335-345, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508160

RESUMO

For many years after the discovery of the two stable isotopes of boron (10B,11B) in 1920 they were not used as tracers in the soil-plant system due to analytical constraints. However, with the advent of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the early 1980s, it became possible to measure precisely the natural variations of the B isotopes in biological systems. Nevertheless, up to the present time there is very little information in the literature on δ 11B variations in soils, plants, fertilizers and foodstuffs. Therefore, information on the potential of δ 11B as a tracer of B dynamics in natural- and agro-ecosystems remains limited. The relative abundance of the boron isotope (δ 11B) in soils, plants and nutrient sources, and applications of variations in the natural abundance of 11B as a tracer of anthropogenic sources of nitrate contamination of water and the provenance of agricultural products are reviewed.


Assuntos
Boro/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Isótopos/análise , Nitratos/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Plantas/química , Solo/química
16.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(4): 346-357, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508164

RESUMO

Considering the increasing pet owner's concern about the food their pets are consuming, in this study we investigated the origin of the main ingredients in wet and dry foods produced in Brazil using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. We concluded that chicken and pork seem to be the dominant ingredients in most of the samples, with larger proportions in wet cat food. Even in pet foods showing 'beef' as the main ingredient on the label, we found a low proportion of bovine products in both wet and dry cat foods. Comparing the contribution of plant-derived products (C3 and C4 plants) and animal-derived products (chicken-pork, bovine and fish), approximately 21 % of cat foods had more than 30 % of ingredients with plant origin in their composition. The high amount of plant-derived products in cat foods found here raises the question whether this should be mentioned on package labels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes
17.
Science ; 368(6497): 1377-1381, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554595

RESUMO

Plants emit an extraordinary diversity of chemicals that provide information about their identity and mediate their interactions with insects. However, most studies of this have focused on a few model species in controlled environments, limiting our capacity to understand plant-insect chemical communication in ecological communities. Here, by integrating information theory with ecological and evolutionary theories, we show that a stable information structure of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can emerge from a conflicting information process between plants and herbivores. We corroborate this information "arms race" theory with field data recording plant-VOC associations and plant-herbivore interactions in a tropical dry forest. We reveal that plant VOC redundancy and herbivore specialization can be explained by a conflicting information transfer. Information-based communication approaches can increase our understanding of species interactions across trophic levels.


Assuntos
Biota , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Insetos/química , Plantas/química
18.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478742

RESUMO

Proximity labeling (PL) techniques using engineered ascorbate peroxidase (APEX) or Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA (known as BioID) have been successfully used for identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in mammalian cells. However, requirements of toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in APEX-based PL, longer incubation time with biotin (16-24 h), and higher incubation temperature (37 °C) in BioID-based PL severely limit their applications in plants. The recently described TurboID-based PL addresses many limitations of BioID and APEX. TurboID allows rapid proximity labeling of proteins in just 10 min under room temperature (RT) conditions. Although the utility of TurboID has been demonstrated in animal models, we recently showed that TurboID-based PL performs better in plants compared to BioID for labeling of proteins that are proximal to a protein of interest. Provided here is a step-by-step protocol for the identification of protein interaction partners using the N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein family as a model. The method describes vector construction, agroinfiltration of protein expression constructs, biotin treatment, protein extraction and desalting, quantification, and enrichment of the biotinylated proteins by affinity purification. The protocol described here can be easily adapted to study other proteins of interest in Nicotiana and other plant species.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Animais
19.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597846

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system is a molecular tool that can be used to introduce precise changes into the genomes of model and non-model species alike. This technology can be used for a variety of genome editing approaches, from gene knockouts and knockins to more specific changes like the introduction of a few nucleotides at a targeted location. Genome editing can be used for a multitude of applications, including the partial functional characterization of genes, the production of transgenic organisms and the development of diagnostic tools. Compared to previously available gene editing strategies, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been shown to be easy to establish in new species and boasts high efficiency and specificity. The primary reason for this is that the editing tool uses an RNA molecule to target the gene or sequence of interest, making target molecule design straightforward, given that standard base pairing rules can be exploited. Similar to other genome editing systems, CRISPR-Cas9-based methods also require efficient and effective transformation protocols as well as access to good quality sequence data for the design of the targeting RNA and DNA molecules. Since the introduction of this system in 2013, it has been used to genetically engineer a variety of model species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster and Mus musculus. Subsequently, researchers working on non-model species have taken advantage of the system and used it for the study of genes involved in processes as diverse as secondary metabolism in fungi, nematode growth and disease resistance in plants, among many others. This protocol detailed below describes the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing protocol for the truncation of a gene involved in the sexual cycle of Huntiella omanensis, a filamentous ascomycete fungus belonging to the Ceratocystidaceae family.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas/química , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster
20.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568237

RESUMO

The phyllosphere, the above ground portion of the plant that can be colonized by microbes, is a useful model system to identify processes of microbial community assembly. This protocol outlines a system for studying microbial community dynamics in the phyllosphere of Napa cabbage plants. It describes how to grow germ-free plants in test tubes with a calcined clay and nutrient broth substrate. Inoculation of germ-free plants with specific microbial cultures provides opportunities to measure microbial growth and community dynamics in the phyllosphere. Through the use of sterile vegetable extract produced from cabbages shifts in microbial communities that occur during fermentation can also be assessed. This system is relatively simple and inexpensive to set up in the lab and can be used to address key ecological questions in microbial community assembly. It also provides opportunities to understand how phyllosphere community composition can impact the microbial diversity and quality of vegetable fermentations. This approach for developing gnotobiotic cabbage phyllosphere communities could be applied to other wild and agricultural plant species.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Verduras/química
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