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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445697

RESUMO

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443474

RESUMO

Numerous plant compounds and their metal-ion complexes exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and other beneficial effects. This review highlights the different bioactivities of flavonoids, chromones, and coumarins and their metal-ions complexes due to different structural characteristics. In addition to insight into the most studied antioxidative properties of these compounds, the first part of the review provides a comprehensive overview of exogenous and endogenous sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress-mediated damages of lipids and proteins, and on protective roles of antioxidant defense systems, including plant-derived antioxidants. Additionally, the review covers the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of flavonoids, chromones, coumarins and their metal-ion complexes which support its application in medicine, pharmacy, and cosmetology.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Íons/química , Metais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plantas/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361731

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid plant hormones that play a role in the response of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses. When released into the rhizosphere, they are perceived by both beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants. Due to their multiple roles, SLs are potentially interesting agricultural targets. Indeed, the use of SLs as agrochemicals can favor sustainable agriculture via multiple mechanisms, including shaping root architecture, promoting ideal branching, stimulating nutrient assimilation, controlling parasitic weeds, mitigating drought and enhancing mycorrhization. Moreover, over the last few years, a number of studies have shed light onto the effects exerted by SLs on human cells and on their possible applications in medicine. For example, SLs have been demonstrated to play a key role in the control of pathways related to apoptosis and inflammation. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind their action has inspired further investigations into their effects on human cells and their possible uses as anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Agroquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Agroquímicos/metabolismo , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/biossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443421

RESUMO

Pests and diseases are responsible for most of the losses related to agricultural crops, either in the field or in storage. Moreover, due to indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides over the years, several issues have come along, such as pest resistance and contamination of important planet sources, such as water, air and soil. Therefore, in order to improve efficiency of crop production and reduce food crisis in a sustainable manner, while preserving consumer's health, plant-derived pesticides may be a green alternative to synthetic ones. They are cheap, biodegradable, ecofriendly and act by several mechanisms of action in a more specific way, suggesting that they are less of a hazard to humans and the environment. Natural plant products with bioactivity toward insects include several classes of molecules, for example: terpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glucosides, quinones, amides, aldehydes, thiophenes, amino acids, saccharides and polyketides (which is not an exhaustive list of insecticidal substances). In general, those compounds have important ecological activities in nature, such as: antifeedant, attractant, nematicide, fungicide, repellent, insecticide, insect growth regulator and allelopathic agents, acting as a promising source for novel pest control agents or biopesticides. However, several factors appear to limit their commercialization. In this critical review, a compilation of plant-derived metabolites, along with their corresponding toxicology and mechanisms of action, will be approached, as well as the different strategies developed in order to meet the required commercial standards through more efficient methods.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445138

RESUMO

A modern method of therapeutic use of natural compounds that would protect the body are jasmonates. The main representatives of jasmonate compounds include jasmonic acid and its derivatives, mainly methyl jasmonate. Extracts from plants rich in jasmonic compounds show a broad spectrum of activity, i.e., anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cosmetic. Studies of the biological activity of jasmonic acid and its derivatives in mammals are based on their structural similarity to prostaglandins and the compounds can be used as natural therapeutics for inflammation. Jasmonates also constitute a potential group of anti-cancer drugs that can be used alone or in combination with other known chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, due to their ability to stimulate exfoliation of the epidermis, remove discoloration, regulate the function of the sebaceous glands and reduce the visible signs of aging, they are considered for possible use in cosmetics and dermatology. The paper presents a review of literature data on the biological activity of jasmonates that may be helpful in treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas/química
6.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(5): 36, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389903

RESUMO

Catalysts are the jewel in the crown of the chemical industry, accelerating reaction kinetics and augmenting the efficiency of desired reaction paths. Natural feedstock is a renewable resource capable of providing valuable functional products; in addition, it confers an opportunity to create catalysts. As an alternative to stoichiometric reagents, and as a part of a sustainable approach, the implications of using natural feedstocks as a source of new catalysts has attracted considerable interest. Natural feedstock-derived catalysts can promote chemical transformations more efficiently. Recent reports have highlighted the significant role of these biogenic, cost-effective, innocuous, biodegradable materials as catalysts in many biologically and pharmacologically important protocols. This review outlines the decisive organic transformations for which feedstock-derived catalysts have been employed effectively and successfully, along with their economic and environmental benefits over traditional catalytic systems.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/química , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Catálise , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Bases de Schiff/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279439

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is potentially fatal for vulnerable individuals. Disease management represents a challenge for many countries, given the shortage of medicines and hospital resources. The objective of this work was to review the medicinal plants, foods and natural products showing scientific evidence for host protection against various types of coronaviruses, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Natural products that mitigate the symptoms caused by various coronaviruses are also presented. Particular attention was placed on natural products that stabilize the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), which has been associated with the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into human cells.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299001

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes have long been perceived as rare and physiologically unimportant nucleic acid structures. However, several studies have revealed their importance in molecular processes, suggesting their possible role in replication and gene expression regulation. Pathways involving G-quadruplexes are intensively studied, especially in the context of human diseases, while their involvement in gene expression regulation in plants remains largely unexplored. Here, we conducted a bioinformatic study and performed a complex circular dichroism measurement to identify a stable G-quadruplex in the gene RPB1, coding for the RNA polymerase II large subunit. We found that this G-quadruplex-forming locus is highly evolutionarily conserved amongst plants sensu lato (Archaeplastida) that share a common ancestor more than one billion years old. Finally, we discussed a new hypothesis regarding G-quadruplexes interacting with UV light in plants to potentially form an additional layer of the regulatory network.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas/química , RNA Polimerase II/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Dicroísmo Circular , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Quadruplex G/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Glaucófitas/química , Glaucófitas/genética , Glaucófitas/efeitos da radiação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/genética , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Rodófitas/química , Rodófitas/genética , Rodófitas/efeitos da radiação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299608

RESUMO

The wall is the last frontier of a plant cell involved in modulating growth, development and defense against biotic stresses. Cellulose and additional polysaccharides of plant cell walls are the most abundant biopolymers on earth, having increased in economic value and thereby attracted significant interest in biotechnology. Cellulose biosynthesis constitutes a highly complicated process relying on the formation of cellulose synthase complexes. Cellulose synthase (CesA) and Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes encode enzymes that synthesize cellulose and most hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Arabidopsis and rice are invaluable genetic models and reliable representatives of land plants to comprehend cell wall synthesis. During the past two decades, enormous research progress has been made to understand the mechanisms of cellulose synthesis and construction of the plant cell wall. A plethora of cesa and csl mutants have been characterized, providing functional insights into individual protein isoforms. Recent structural studies have uncovered the mode of CesA assembly and the dynamics of cellulose production. Genetics and structural biology have generated new knowledge and have accelerated the pace of discovery in this field, ultimately opening perspectives towards cellulose synthesis manipulation. This review provides an overview of the major breakthroughs gathering previous and recent genetic and structural advancements, focusing on the function of CesA and Csl catalytic domain in plants.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Glucosiltransferases/química , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/química , Plantas/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299610

RESUMO

Recently, significant advances in modern medicine and therapeutic agents have been achieved. However, the search for effective antidiabetic drugs is continuous and challenging. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing body of literature related to the effects of secondary metabolites from botanical sources on diabetes. Plants-derived metabolites including alkaloids, phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, stilbenoids, saponins, tannins, polysaccharides, coumarins, and terpenes can target cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, they can grant protection to pancreatic beta cells from damage, repairing abnormal insulin signaling, minimizing oxidative stress and inflammation, activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibiting carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Studies have highlighted many bioactive naturally occurring plants' secondary metabolites as candidates against diabetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge compiled from the latest studies published during the past decade on the mechanism-based action of plants-derived secondary metabolites that can target various metabolic pathways in humans against diabetes. It is worth mentioning that the compiled data in this review will provide a guide for researchers in the field, to develop candidates into environment-friendly effective, yet safe antidiabetics.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299599

RESUMO

Marine and terrestrial environments are rich sources of various bioactive substances, which have been used by humans since prehistoric times. Nowadays, due to advances in chemical sciences, new substances are still discovered, and their chemical structures and biological properties are constantly explored. Drugs obtained from natural sources are used commonly in medicine, particularly in cancer and infectious diseases treatment. Naphthyridines, isolated mainly from marine organisms and terrestrial plants, represent prominent examples of naturally derived agents. They are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a fused system of two pyridine rings, possessing six isomers depending on the nitrogen atom's location. In this review, biological activity of naphthyridines obtained from various natural sources was summarized. According to previous studies, the naphthyridine alkaloids displayed multiple activities, i.a., antiinfectious, anticancer, neurological, psychotropic, affecting cardiovascular system, and immune response. Their wide range of activity makes them a fascinating object of research with prospects for use in therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Naftiridinas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Naftiridinas/química , Naftiridinas/isolamento & purificação , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
12.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200139

RESUMO

Aminophenoxazinones are degradation products resulting from the metabolism of different plant species, which comprise a family of natural products well known for their pharmacological activities. This review provides an overview of the pharmacological properties and applications proved by these compounds and their structural derivatives during 2000-2021. The bibliography was selected according to our purpose from the references obtained in a SciFinder database search for the Phx-3 structure (the base molecule of the aminophenoxazinones). Compounds Phx-1 and Phx-3 are among the most studied, especially as anticancer drugs for the treatment of gastric and colon cancer, glioblastoma and melanoma, among others types of relevant cancers. The main information available in the literature about their mechanisms is also described. Similarly, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activities are presented, including species related directly or indirectly to significant diseases. Therefore, we present diverse compounds based on aminophenoxazinones with high potential as drugs, considering their levels of activity and few adverse effects.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206588

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are natural products that give color to plants. As natural plant pigments, anthocyanins also have a series of health-promoting benefits. Many researchers have proved that anthocyanins have therapeutic effects on diseases, such as circulatory, nervous, endocrine, digestive, sensory, urinary and immune systems. Additionally, a large number of studies have reported that anthocyanins have an anticancer effect through a wide range of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The anti-disease impact and mechanism of anthocyanins are diverse, so they have high research value. This review summarizes the research progress of anthocyanins on the pharmacological agents of different diseases to provide references for subsequent research.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Produtos Biológicos , Plantas/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos
14.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206657

RESUMO

Invasive plant species (IAS), with their numerous negative ecological, health, and economic impacts, represent one of the greatest conservation challenges in the world. Reducing the negative impacts and potentially exploiting the biomass of these plant species can significantly contribute to sustainable management, protect biodiversity, and create a healthy environment. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential, phytochemical status, and antioxidant capacity of nine alien invasive plant species: Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Datura stramonium, Erigeron annuus, Galinsoga ciliata, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago gigantea, and Sorghum halepense. Multivariate statistical methods such as cluster and PCA were performed to determine possible connections and correlations among selected IAS depending on the phytochemical content. According to the obtained results, R. japonica was notable with the highest content of vitamin C (38.46 mg/100 g FW); while E. annuus (1365.92 mg GAE/100 g FW) showed the highest values of total polyphenolic compounds. A. retroflexus was characterized by the highest content of total chlorophylls (0.26 mg/g) and antioxidant capacity (2221.97 µmol TE/kg). Therefore, it can be concluded that the selected IAS represent nutrient-rich plant material with significant potential for the recovering of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Espécies Introduzidas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202092

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lacks treatments; for this reason, the search for potential compounds against therapeutic targets is still necessary. Bioinformatics tools have allowed the rapid in silico screening of possible new metabolite candidates from natural resources or repurposing known ones. Thus, in this work, we aimed to select phytochemical candidates from Peruvian plants with antiviral potential against three therapeutical targets of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We applied in silico technics, such as virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and MM/GBSA estimation. (3) Results: Rutin, a compound present in Peruvian native plants, showed affinity against three targets of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated the high stability of receptor-ligand systems during the time of the simulation. Our results showed that the Mpro-Rutin system exhibited higher binding free energy than PLpro-Rutin and N-Rutin systems through MM/GBSA analysis. (4) Conclusions: Our study provides insight on natural metabolites from Peruvian plants with therapeutical potential. We found Rutin as a potential candidate with multiple pharmacological properties against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lepidium/química , Lepidium/metabolismo , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peru , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/química , Rutina/química , Rutina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204857

RESUMO

Phytochemicals belonging to the group of alkaloids are signature specialized metabolites endowed with countless biological activities. Plants are armored with these naturally produced nitrogenous compounds to combat numerous challenging environmental stress conditions. Traditional and modern healthcare systems have harnessed the potential of these organic compounds for the treatment of many ailments. Various chemical entities (functional groups) attached to the central moiety are responsible for their diverse range of biological properties. The development of the characterization of these plant metabolites and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis is of an utmost priority to deliver enhanced advantages in terms of biological properties and productivity. Further, the incorporation of whole/partial metabolic pathways in the heterologous system and/or the overexpression of biosynthetic steps in homologous systems have both become alternative and lucrative methods over chemical synthesis in recent times. Moreover, in-depth research on alkaloid biosynthetic pathways has revealed numerous chemical modifications that occur during alkaloidal conversions. These chemical reactions involve glycosylation, acylation, reduction, oxidation, and methylation steps, and they are usually responsible for conferring the biological activities possessed by alkaloids. In this review, we aim to discuss the alkaloidal group of plant specialized metabolites and their brief classification covering major categories. We also emphasize the diversity in the basic structures of plant alkaloids arising through enzymatically catalyzed structural modifications in certain plant species, as well as their emerging diverse biological activities. The role of alkaloids in plant defense and their mechanisms of action are also briefly discussed. Moreover, the commercial utilization of plant alkaloids in the marketplace displaying various applications has been enumerated.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/química , Acilação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Glicosilação , Metilação , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200501

RESUMO

Adequate dietary protein is important for many aspects of health with current evidence suggesting that exercising individuals need greater amounts of protein. When assessing protein quality, animal sources of protein routinely rank amongst the highest in quality, largely due to the higher levels of essential amino acids they possess in addition to exhibiting more favorable levels of digestibility and absorption patterns of the amino acids. In recent years, the inclusion of plant protein sources in the diet has grown and evidence continues to accumulate on the comparison of various plant protein sources and animal protein sources in their ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS), heighten exercise training adaptations, and facilitate recovery from exercise. Without question, the most robust changes in MPS come from efficacious doses of a whey protein isolate, but several studies have highlighted the successful ability of different plant sources to significantly elevate resting rates of MPS. In terms of facilitating prolonged adaptations to exercise training, multiple studies have indicated that a dose of plant protein that offers enough essential amino acids, especially leucine, consumed over 8-12 weeks can stimulate similar adaptations as seen with animal protein sources. More research is needed to see if longer supplementation periods maintain equivalence between the protein sources. Several practices exist whereby the anabolic potential of a plant protein source can be improved and generally, more research is needed to best understand which practice (if any) offers notable advantages. In conclusion, as one considers the favorable health implications of increasing plant intake as well as environmental sustainability, the interest in consuming more plant proteins will continue to be present. The evidence base for plant proteins in exercising individuals has seen impressive growth with many of these findings now indicating that consumption of a plant protein source in an efficacious dose (typically larger than an animal protein) can instigate similar and favorable changes in amino acid update, MPS rates, and exercise training adaptations such as strength and body composition as well as recovery.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Plantas/química
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208952

RESUMO

As sphingolipids are constituents of the cell and vacuole membranes of eukaryotic cells, they are a critical component acquired from our daily diets. In the present review, we highlight the knowledge regarding how dietary sphingolipids affect our health, particularly our intestinal health. Animal- and plant-derived foods contain, respectively, sphingomyelin (SM) and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) as their representative sphingolipids, and the sphingoid base as a specific structure of sphingolipids also differs depending upon the source and class. For example, sphingosine is predominant among animal sphingolipids, and tri-hydroxy bases are present in free ceramide (Cer) from plants and fungi. Dietary sphingolipids exhibit low absorption ratios; however, they possess various functions. GlcCer facilitates improvements in intestinal impairments, lipid metabolisms, and skin disorders, and SM can exert both similar and different effects compared to those elicited by GlcCer. We discuss the digestion, absorption, metabolism, and function of sphingolipids while focused on the structure. Additionally, we also review old and new classes in the context of current advancements in analytical instruments.


Assuntos
Intestinos/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Esfingolipídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingolipídeos/farmacocinética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4562, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315908

RESUMO

Plant and soil C:N:P ratios are of critical importance to productivity, food-web dynamics, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Plant diversity continues to decline globally; however, its influence on terrestrial C:N:P ratios remains uncertain. By conducting a global meta-analysis of 2049 paired observations in plant species mixtures and monocultures from 169 sites, we show that, on average across all observations, the C:N:P ratios of plants, soils, soil microbial biomass and enzymes did not respond to species mixture nor to the species richness in mixtures. However, the mixture effect on soil microbial biomass C:N changed from positive to negative, and those on soil enzyme C:N and C:P shifted from negative to positive with increasing functional diversity in mixtures. Importantly, species mixture increased the C:N, C:P, N:P ratios of plants and soils when background soil C:N, C:P, and N:P were low, but decreased them when the respective background ratios were high. Our results demonstrate that plant mixtures can balance terrestrial plant and soil C:N:P ratios dependent on background soil C:N:P. Our findings highlight that plant diversity conservation does not only increase plant productivity, but also optimizes ecosystem stoichiometry for the diversity and productivity of today's and future vegetation.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Plantas/química , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203435

RESUMO

Betacoronaviruses, responsible for the "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome" (SARS) and the "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome" (MERS), use the spikes protruding from the virion envelope to attach and subsequently infect the host cells. The coronavirus spike (S) proteins contain receptor binding domains (RBD), allowing the specific recognition of either the dipeptidyl peptidase CD23 (MERS-CoV) or the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 (SARS-Cov, SARS-CoV-2) host cell receptors. The heavily glycosylated S protein includes both complex and high-mannose type N-glycans that are well exposed at the surface of the spikes. A detailed analysis of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of mannose-binding lectins from plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, revealed that, depending on their origin, they preferentially recognize either complex type N-glycans, or high-mannose type N-glycans. Since both complex and high-mannose glycans substantially decorate the S proteins, mannose-specific lectins are potentially useful glycan probes for targeting the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 virions. Mannose-binding legume lectins, like pea lectin, and monocot mannose-binding lectins, like snowdrop lectin or the algal lectin griffithsin, which specifically recognize complex N-glycans and high-mannose glycans, respectively, are particularly adapted for targeting coronaviruses. The biomedical prospects of targeting coronaviruses with mannose-specific lectins are wide-ranging including detection, immobilization, prevention, and control of coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Lectinas/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Cianobactérias/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Fungos/química , Humanos , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Lectinas/uso terapêutico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Ligação Proteica , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
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