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1.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(7): 553-559, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478243

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides are very versatile molecules with a plethora of functions such as cytokinesis, chemotaxis, cell survival, and cell death. Their functions depend on the proteins with which they interact. Thus, when interacting with phospholipases, phosphatases, or kinases, they can be precursors of second messengers in different signalling pathways. They could be second messengers themselves and interact directly with other proteins to modulate their functions trough changing its localization and activity or enhancing its synthesis rate. Because they are more abundant in animal cells and their importance in diseases such as cancer has taken priority, the study of the phosphoinositides in plants has not evolved to the same extent. Nevertheless, several studies have shown the significance of these lipids in plant cells viability and environmental response. This review focuses on phosphoinositides response to abiotic and biotic stress, showing their implication in plant survival during different stages of development. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This review is focused on plant PIPs functions in stress, highlighting in the main differences between plant and mammal PIPs and the novel interactions that could be extrapolated to animal models to contribute in a better understanding of these pivotal molecules.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/química , Plantas/química , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Chem Rec ; 19(9): 2044-2057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483089

RESUMO

This review covers the characteristics of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils by focusing on the fundamental factors that determine bio-oil upgradability. The abundant works on the subject of bio-oil production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied to establish the essential attributes of the bio-oils for assessment of the oil stability and upgradability. Bio-oils from catalytic pyrolysis processes relating to catalysts of different compositions and structures are discussed. A general relationship between the higher heating value and the oxygen content in the catalytic pyrolysis oils exists, but this relationship does not apply to the thermal pyrolysis oil. Reporting bio-oil yield is meaningful only when the oxygen content of the oil is measured because the pyrolytic oil stability is mainly determined by the oxygen content. Isoenergy plot that associates bio-oil yield with oxygen content is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Catálise , Oxigênio/química , Plantas/química , Pirólise
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 444-458, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008263

RESUMO

This review work focuses on how the secondary chemistry could help in the survival of plants in high mountain habitats under extreme environmental conditions. The elevated levels of stress in high areas of the tropic and subtropic change dramatically not only by following the annual cycles of winter and summer but they also change in a single day. Some species, however, are able to successfully grow at heights more than 3000 m in the tropical mountains due, in part, to highly specialized physiological processes that affect their physical and chemical responses. In this study, it describes some strategies of how the secondary metabolites could help the plants to stand the high levels of stress in the high mountain ecosystems.


Este trabajo de revisión se centra en cómo la química secundaria podría ayudar en la supervivencia de plantas en hábitats de alta montaña en condiciones ambientales extremas. Los altos niveles de estrés en las zonas altas del trópico y subtrópico cambian dramáticamente no solo al seguir los ciclos anuales de invierno y verano, sino que también cambian en un solo día. Sin embargo, algunas especies pueden crecer con éxito a alturas superiores a 3000 m en las montañas tropicales debido, en parte, a procesos fisiológicos altamente especializados que afectan sus respuestas físicas y químicas. En esta revisión, se describen algunas estrategias de cómo los metabolitos secundarios podrían ayudan a las plantas a soportar los altos niveles de estrés en los ecosistemas de alta montaña.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Óleos Voláteis/química , Altitude , Floroglucinol/análise , Floroglucinol/química , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química
4.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 1079-1088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434185

RESUMO

Population growth, urbanization, environmental conditions and rapid development have caused particulate matter (PM) levels to rise above all national and international health standards during the last two decades in many South-East Asian countries. These PM levels needs to be reduced urgently as they increase the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory health problems for millions of people. Plants have shown to efficiently reduce PM in the air by accumulation on their leaves. In order to investigate which plant species accumulate most PM, we screened 49 common plant species for their PM accumulation capacity in one of the tropical cities with the highest PM concentrations of the world, Hanoi (Vietnam). Using this subset of plants, we tested if certain leaf characteristics (leaf hydrophilicity, stomatal densities and the specific leaf area) can predict the PM accumulation efficiency of plant species. Our results show that the PM accumulation capacity varies substantially among species and that Muntingia calabura accumulated most PM in our subset of plants. We observed that plants with hydrophilic leaves, a low specific leaf area and a high abaxial stomatal density accumulated significantly more PM. Plants with these characteristics should be preferred by urban architects to reduce PM levels in tropical environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Plantas/química , Cidades , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores , Urbanização , Vietnã
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109482, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398780

RESUMO

In Chinese Lake Taihu, the algal quantity was significantly larger in summer than late spring (p < 0.01). In summer, compared with the dredged area including neither zoobenthos nor submerged macrophytes, the algal biomass and density were significantly lower in the area filled with the submerged macrophytes. Interestingly, the minimum algal bloom was observed in the combined area containing submerged macrophytes and zoobenthos, which was due to the synergistic interaction between the zoobenthos and the macrophytes. The metabolite extracts from the numerically dominant zoobenthos Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri had significant algal inhibitory effects of Microcystis aeruginosa, and displayed stimulatory effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and peroxidase activity of the prevalent submerged macrophyte Potamogeton malaianus. 27 active compounds in the worm metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among these compounds three chemicals arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and linoleic acid with concentrations of 13.92 ±â€¯1.11, 10.57 ±â€¯2.52, 2.75 ±â€¯0.73 mg/kg dry weight, respectively, were confirmed as the typical allelochemicals with algal inhibition potential. In short, the metabolites allelopathy of L. hoffmeisteri can form and assist the synergistic effect between L. hoffmeisteri and P. malaianus on algal suppression. Thus, it is feasible to simultaneously restore submerged macrophytes and zoobenthos community in the disturbed eutrophic lakes for removing harmful algae.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Eutrofização , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Potamogetonaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Lagos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Plantas/química
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 715-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385154

RESUMO

Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles. Fifth instar larvae showed the highest number and hemocytes diversity. We characterized seven different types of hemocytes, of which granulocytes performed phagocytosis, oenocytoids showed melanization activity, and plasmatocytes along with granulocytes and oenocytoids were found to be involved in encapsulation. Among the six volatiles tested, exposure to (E)-ß-ocimene caused the highest increase in total hemocytes number (THC) followed by linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate exposure. Although THC did not differ between these three volatile treatments, circulating hemocytes diversity varied significantly. (E)-ß-ocimene exposure showed higher number of plasmatocytes and phenol oxidase activity. The interaction of the parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis with (E)-ß-ocimene exposed larvae was poor in terms of delayed paralysis and lower egg deposition. In choice assays, the wasp showed clear preference towards control larvae indicating (E)-ß-ocimene treatment renders the host unattractive. Hemocyte profiles post-parasitoid exposure and (E)-ß-ocimene treatment were similar indicating cue-based priming. When challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis, linalool exposure resulted in the highest survival as compared to other volatiles. Our results show that specific HIPVs can modulate cellular immunity of S. litura, revealing a new role for HIPVs in tri-trophic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vespas/imunologia
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456316

RESUMO

Phytotoxic natural products with either unique or various structures are one of the most abundant sources for the discovery of potential allelochemicals, natural herbicides, and plant growth regulators. Phytotoxic diterpenoids, a relatively large class of natural products, play an important role in the plant-plant or plant-microorganism interactions. This article argues that the phytotoxic diterpenoids isolated from the plants and microorganisms can either inhibit the seed germination and the growth of plant seedlings or lead to some disease symptoms on the tested plant tissues and plant seedlings.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/microbiologia
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6031-6037, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278551

RESUMO

Lignin is the most abundant natural resource of aromatic moieties and the second most abundant natural biopolymer. Analytical techniques that obtain as much information as possible on the exact structural content of lignin species are essential for developing efficient processes that transform highly complex lignin wastes into value chemicals and biofuels. For mass spectrometric analysis of lignin samples, usually electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, or atmospheric pressure photoionization are used as ionization techniques. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is less frequently applied but offers a much more rapid screening option for lignin mixtures. In this study, we compared several common MALDI matrices for analysis of alkali lignin and discovered that different chemical matrices exhibited very different ionization efficiencies and selectivity with respect to the structures of the lignin-related compounds as well as the presence of heteroatoms. Importantly, the results highlight that the choice of matrix strongly determines the analytical coverage of molecular species in the complex lignin degradation mixtures. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas/química , Enxofre/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1648-1658, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284207

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) deposited on canopy surfaces could be washed off and carried in throughfall to the ground. This would help plants recapture airborne PM on their canopy surfaces and then develop a PM purification capacity. Sixteen commonly greening plant species in north China (including 13 arbor species and 3 shrub species) were selected to investigate the washing process of plant-deposited PM during precipitation events. We measured the PM wash-off mass in throughfall under canopies of 16 plant species and in atmospheric precipitation during 14 precipitation events through field positioning experiments in 2015, compared the seasonal changes and species differences in PM wash-off mass, and discussed the predominant factors resulting in the variation. The results showed that plant-deposited PM was largely washed off by precipitation. The average wash-off mass of total suspended particulate (TSP) in throughfall was 1.3 times higher than that in precipitation, at 18.3 ±â€¯0.7 kg hm-2 and 7.9 ±â€¯0.9 kg hm-2, respectively. There were significant seasonal differences in TSP wash-off mass. The value was higher in summer at 22.3 ±â€¯1.0 kg hm-2, followed by that of winter (10.8 ±â€¯0.6 kg hm-2) and spring (8.9 ±â€¯1.0 kg hm-2). TSP wash-off mass in throughfall greatly varied among plant species (F = 9.542, n = 627, p < 0.001). Of the 16 selected species, Platanus acerifolia (38.0 ±â€¯5.8 kg hm-2) showed the largest difference from that of Liriodendron chinese (8.9 ±â€¯0.6 kg hm-2) (n = 80, p < 0.001). PM wash-off mass of different particle sizes in throughfall increased with the increase of event-based precipitation. This study enhanced the quantitative understanding of plant-deposited PM washed-off by natural precipitation among plant species and seasons. The results could provide significant guidelines for the selection and allocation of plant species to improve the PM retention capacity of urban greening plants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Plantas/química , Chuva/química , Pequim , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Urbanização
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 125-134, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358210

RESUMO

We synthesized three kinds of nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbon nanomaterials (represented by N-mC) through a cost-effective method, that is, pyrolysis of plant biomasses (grass, flower, and peanut shells). We further explored their potential as sensitive bioplatforms for electrochemical label-free aptasensors to facilitate the early detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Chemical structure characterizations revealed that rich functional groups coexisted in as-synthesized N-mC nanomaterials, such as C-C, C-O, C=O, C-N, and COOH. Among the three kinds of N-mC nanomaterials, the one derived from grass (N-mCg) exhibited the lowest carbon defect degree, the highest ID/IG ratio in the Raman spectra, and the largest specific surface area (186.2 m2 g-1). Consequently, N-mCg displayed excellent electrochemical activity and strong affinity toward aptamer strands, further endowing the corresponding aptasensor with sensitive detection ability for AFP. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to investigate the whole detection procedure for AFP. The EIS and DPV results showed that the fabricated N-mCg-based aptasensor possessed an extremely low limit of detection of 60.8 and 61.8 fg·mL-1 (s/n = 3), respectively, for detecting AFP within a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1. Moreover, the aptasensor displayed acceptable selectivity and applicability, high reproducibility, and excellent stability in serum samples of cancer patients. Therefore, the proposed cost-effective and label-free strategy based on the nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbon derived from plant biomass is a promising approach for the early detection of various tumor markers.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , DNA/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/química , Plantas/química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8740-8745, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334643

RESUMO

Just recently, the "horizontal natural product transfer" was unveiled: alkaloids, which have been leached out from decomposing alkaloidal donor plants, are taken up by the roots of acceptor plants. In the same manner, many other natural products, such as coumarins or stilbenes, are also taken up from the soil. Recent research outlined that alkaloids are transferred also from a living donor plant to plants growing in their vicinity. In the acceptor plants, the imported natural products might be modified by hydroxylation and glucosylation. These insights will strongly impact our understanding of contamination of plant-derived commodities as well as plant-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Transporte Biológico , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8715-8724, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339713

RESUMO

Natural plant fibers have been widely used in the agricultural and forest industries, and even in the automobile industry, especially for producing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. However, the low mechanical properties of composites remain the key problem in the applications. A hyperbranched polymer has lots of advantages such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and so on. Multireactive end groups of hyperbranched polymers are ideal for modifying natural plant fibers to achieve better interface bonding between a fiber and resin matrix. This manuscript reviews some research advances in hyperbranched-polymer-modified natural plant fibers and summarizes the applications of the modified fibers in polymer matrix composites with a particular focus on the chemical modification of fibers and interface bonding.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 654-665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257321

RESUMO

Quassinoids, one kind of triterpenoids with multiple bioactivities such as anti-cancer, anti-malarial, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects, have drawn much attention in recent years. Between 2004 and 2018, the structural characteristics and plant sources of 190 quassinoids were reported. Herein, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of quassinoids along with the anti-cancer mechanisms of four representative quassinoids, eurycomanone, bruceine D, dehydrobruceine B, and brusatol are discussed. This review might be useful for further research and development of quassinoids.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Quassinas/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Quassinas/isolamento & purificação , Quassinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(15): 4197-4202, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287701

RESUMO

A great deal of thermally instable cis form photoisomerization products will be formed from the thermally stable trans form of the plant sunscreens sinapate esters upon ultraviolet radiation. To reveal the photoisomerization mechanism of the cis-isomer, we explore the photodynamics of a model plant sunscreen methyl sinapate (MS) in the cis form in organic solution. The high photoisomerization quantum yield of the cis-isomer results in the relatively higher photostability of trans-MS. By utilizing femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculation, we propose that an adiabatic relaxation competes with nonadiabatic relaxation for the excited-state cis form of methyl sinapate. These results suggest that the photoprotection mechanism of the cis form of sinapate esters is significantly different from that of the trans form of sinapate esters and plays an important role in the overall photoprotection effect.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/química , Plantas/química , Protetores Solares/química , Cinética , Processos Fotoquímicos , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8074-8084, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299152

RESUMO

Consumers often malign conventional curing agents while concomitantly accepting the natural forms of the same constituents in numerous food products. This paradox ostensibly exceeds all other food-related controversies to date and likely contributes to the rapid expansion of meat products that utilize natural nitrate derivatives. While there is high demand for these products, a fundamental lack of understanding regarding the safety and chemical implications of curing agents, whether derived from synthetic or natural sources, continues to persist. This manuscript elucidates the variations among curing preparations with particular emphasis pertaining to the associated safety, chemical, and regulatory ramifications encompassing these product categories.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 1840-1846, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257754

RESUMO

We used two types of soil with different physicochemical properties (loam and sand), oven-dried them, and then added the known isotopic composition mineral water that was reference water to compose the soil-water mixture with different soil water contents (loam: 0.15, 0.20, 0.30 g·g-1; sand: 0.10 g·g-1). After that, we set up different equilibrium time (loam: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h; sand: 96 h) to ensure that the dry soil particles were well mixed with the added water. The soil water was extracted by mechanical centrifugation and cryogenic vacuum extraction after equilibrium, and their isotope composition was analyzed. Results showed that the isotopic values of soil water extracted by mechanical centrifugation method had no significant difference in same water content with different equilibration times, but were more enriched compared with the reference water isotopic value. The maximum enrichment for hydrogen and oxygen isotope was 7.38‰ and 1.24‰, respectively. In contrast, cryogenic vacuum extraction method resulted in more depleted soil water isotopes than reference water, with the maximum depletion for hydrogen and oxygen isotope being 6.27‰ and 1.03‰, respectively. Moreover, the degree of depletion increased with the increases of equilibrium time (less than 24 h) at low water content, and became stable after 24 h. With the increases of soil water content, the isotopic composition of the extracted soil water was less affected by the two extraction methods. The water isotope value of loam that had high clay content, was more sensitive to the extraction method than the sandy soil that had low clay content. The difference of isotopic composition caused by extraction methods did not affect the plant water source segmentation.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Plantas/química , Solo/química , Água , Deutério , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
17.
Plant Sci ; 286: 49-56, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300141

RESUMO

Progress in the functional biochemical analysis of plant glycosyltransferases (GTs) has been slow because plant GTs are generally membrane proteins, operate as part of larger, multimeric complexes, and utilize a vast complexity of substrate acceptors. Therefore, the field would benefit from development of adequate high throughput expression as well as product detection and characterization techniques. Here we review current approaches to tackle such obstacles and suggest a new path forward: nucleic acid programmable protein arrays (NAPPA) with liquid sample desorption ionization (LS-DESI-MS) mass spectrometry. NAPPA utilizes in vitro transcription and translation to produce epitope-tagged fusion proteins from cloned GT cDNAs. LS-DESI is a soft ionization technique that allows rapid and sensitive MS-based product characterization in situ. Coupling both approaches provides the opportunity to examine individual GT functions as well as protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, advances in automated oligosaccharide synthesis and lipid nanodisc technology should allow testing of plant GT activity in presence of numerous substrate acceptors and lipid environments in a high throughput fashion. Thus, NAPPA-DESI-MS has great potential to make headway in biochemical characterization of the large number of plant GTs.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Glicosiltransferases/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Plantas/enzimologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 78-88, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176250

RESUMO

Cultivation on selective media revealed that the oil-sorbents, wheat straw, corncobs and sugarcane bagasse harbor hydrocarbonoclastic, diazotrophic and heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. Nitrogen-free media containing 1.0% crude oil lost between 32.2 and 37.5% of this oil, after 8 months when they have been inoculated with such microorganism-loaded sorbents. The used wheat straw, corncobs and sugarcane bagasse samples, 1.0 g each, absorbed respectively, 1.9, 1.1 and 2.5 g oil samples, and lost 24.3-39.2% of these amounts, after they had been incubated for 8 months. Total genomic DNA's from culture media and sorbents revealed various nitrogenase-coding nifH-genes. Pure hydrocarbonoclastic microbial isolates tolerated certain concentrations of, Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, AsO43- and AsO33-. Some of those isolates even grew excellently with up to 1000 ppm of Pb2+ and 36,000 ppm of AsO43- also in the presence of oil. Tested strains removed the tested heavy metals, Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from the media and thus, reduced their toxicity against the hydrocarbon-degraders. It was concluded that plant-based sorbents, not only remove oil physically, but also harbor microbial communities effective in spilled oil-bioremediation under multiple stresses. Although each community consisted of one to three species only, the consortia which reached in numbers millions of CFU ml-1 enrich the oily media with fixed nitrogen, and remove heavy metals which otherwise inhibit the oil-degrading microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Plantas , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/microbiologia , Resíduos Sólidos
19.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104241, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201885

RESUMO

Synthetic polymers have been widely used in various biomedical applications like drug delivery, wound dressing, etc. They pose a question of bio-compatibility and bio-accumulation, limiting to a minimum class of synthetic polymers to be efficient and versatile. Hence, one cheap and reliant replacement is the use of natural adhesives over the synthetic adhesive polymeric system. The pluripotency of plant could be exploit, making it a perfect candidate for extraction of plant-derived adhesives component for wound dressing and drug delivery system in large-scale production. Current advancement use excipients which influence, the rate of drug release and absorption. Properties like matrix formation and environment responsive gelation can be exploited through these plant-derived components for controlled drug release according to specific therapeutic requirement. This review explores such plant-derived bioactive component: Mucilage and gums, their isolation, and characterization which can be exploited as excipients in the formulation of drug delivery system as well as a wound dressing.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Bandagens , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Plantas/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Polímeros
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5047-5062, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172238

RESUMO

Diferulic (DFA) and triferulic acids (TriFA) acylate and cross-link plant cell wall polysaccharides, thereby being important structural elements within the cell wall, also affecting physicochemical properties of the isolated polysaccharides. Due to the large number of potential regio- and configurational isomers and due to the fact that oligoferulic acids are not commercially available as standard compounds, analysis of oligoferulic acids after alkaline hydrolysis is challenging. Eighteen di- and triferulic acids were synthesized both non-labeled as well as 13C-labeled. By using these standard compounds, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization, negative mode)-based stable isotope dilution approach was developed, fully validated and applied to plant materials. Whereas this stable isotope dilution approach is most useful to analyze plant materials with complex matrices (especially lignified tissues), less complicated matrices may not require this approach. Therefore, an alternative LC-MS/MS-based method that is based on using a single internal standard compound only was developed, too, validated, and compared to the stable isotope dilution approach. Although the stable isotope dilution approach appears to be superior, plant samples with simple matrices can also be screened by using the single internal standard method developed here.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/análise , Parede Celular/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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