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2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264330

RESUMO

Our recent study showed high rate of HBsAg seroconversion achieved in inactive HBsAg carriers (IHCs) treated with peginterferon (PEG-IFN). To better understand the immune-mediated component to the HBsAg seroconversion, we investigated the role of B cells in this study. A total of 44 IHCs were given 48 weeks of PEG-IFN. Fifteen cases achieve HBsAg seroconversion (R group), whereas 29 failed (NR group). The proportion of total B cells and plasma B cells were measured before and during treatment. We found that the proportion of total B cells and plasma B cells was no significant between R group and NR group at baseline, but significantly higher in R group than NR group during PEG-IFN treatment, even when the exact age-, sex-, and treatment period-match was made. In conclusion, we demonstrated the increase of total B cell and plasma B cells during PEG-IFN treatment favored HBsAg seroconversion for IHC, and B cells may play a role in HBV seroconversion.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Soroconversão , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Plasmócitos/imunologia
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008968, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075105

RESUMO

Despite 25 years of research, the basic virology of Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesviruses (KSHV) in B lymphocytes remains poorly understood. This study seeks to fill critical gaps in our understanding by characterizing the B lymphocyte lineage-specific tropism of KSHV. Here, we use lymphocytes derived from 40 human tonsil specimens to determine the B lymphocyte lineages targeted by KSHV early during de novo infection in our ex vivo model system. We characterize the immunological diversity of our tonsil specimens and determine that overall susceptibility of tonsil lymphocytes to KSHV infection varies substantially between donors. We demonstrate that a variety of B lymphocyte subtypes are susceptible to KSHV infection and identify CD138+ plasma cells as a highly targeted cell type for de novo KSHV infection. We determine that infection of tonsil B cell lineages is primarily latent with few lineages contributing to lytic replication. We explore the use of CD138 and heparin sulfate proteoglycans as attachment factors for the infection of B lymphocytes and conclude that they do not play a substantial role. Finally, we determine that the host T cell microenvironment influences the course of de novo infection in B lymphocytes. These results improve our understanding of KSHV transmission and the biology of early KSHV infection in a naïve human host, and lay a foundation for further characterization of KSHV molecular virology in B lymphocyte lineages.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 8/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Plasmócitos/virologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Tropismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/imunologia , Latência Viral , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stringent complete response (sCR) is used as a deeper response category than complete response (CR) in multiple myeloma (MM) but may be of limited value in the era of minimal residual disease (MRD) testing. METHODS: Here, we used 4-colour multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin genes to analyse and compare the prognostic impact of sCR and MRD monitoring. We included 193 treated patients in two institutions achieving CR, for which both bone marrow aspirates and biopsies were available. RESULTS: We found that neither the serum free light chain ratio, clonality by immunohistochemistry (IHC) nor plasma cell bone marrow infiltration identified CR patients at distinct risk. Patients with sCR had slightly longer progression-free survival. Nevertheless, persistent clonal bone marrow disease was detectable using MFC or NGS and was associated with significantly inferior outcomes compared with MRD-negative cases. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that sCR does not predict a different outcome and indicate that more sensitive techniques are able to identify patients with differing prognoses. We suggest that MRD categories should be implemented over sCR for the future classification of MM responses.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Seguimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24957-24963, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963096

RESUMO

B lymphocytes acquire self-reactivity as an unavoidable byproduct of antibody gene diversification in the bone marrow and in germinal centers (GCs). Autoreactive B cells emerging from the bone marrow are silenced in a series of well-defined checkpoints, but less is known about how self-reactivity that develops by somatic mutation in GCs is controlled. Here, we report the existence of an apoptosis-dependent tolerance checkpoint in post-GC B cells. Whereas defective GC B cell apoptosis has no measurable effect on autoantibody development, disruption of post-GC apoptosis results in accumulation of autoreactive memory B cells and plasma cells, antinuclear antibody production, and autoimmunity. The data presented shed light on mechanisms that regulate immune tolerance and the development of autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Genes de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Apoptose/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Genes de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/genética , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Camundongos , Plasmócitos/imunologia
6.
Nature ; 584(7820): 274-278, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760003

RESUMO

Colonization by the microbiota causes a marked stimulation of B cells and induction of immunoglobulin, but mammals colonized with many taxa have highly complex and individualized immunoglobulin repertoires1,2. Here we use a simplified model of defined transient exposures to different microbial taxa in germ-free mice3 to deconstruct how the microbiota shapes the B cell pool and its functional responsiveness. We followed the development of the immunoglobulin repertoire in B cell populations, as well as single cells by deep sequencing. Microbial exposures at the intestinal mucosa generated oligoclonal responses that differed from those of germ-free mice, and from the diverse repertoire that was generated after intravenous systemic exposure to microbiota. The IgA repertoire-predominantly to cell-surface antigens-did not expand after dose escalation, whereas increased systemic exposure broadened the IgG repertoire to both microbial cytoplasmic and cell-surface antigens. These microbial exposures induced characteristic immunoglobulin heavy-chain repertoires in B cells, mainly at memory and plasma cell stages. Whereas sequential systemic exposure to different microbial taxa diversified the IgG repertoire and facilitated alternative specific responses, sequential mucosal exposure produced limited overlapping repertoires and the attrition of initial IgA binding specificities. This shows a contrast between a flexible response to systemic exposure with the need to avoid fatal sepsis, and a restricted response to mucosal exposure that reflects the generic nature of host-microbial mutualism in the mucosa.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Clostridiales/imunologia , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Imunoglobulina A/química , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Priming de Repetição
7.
Science ; 370(6513): 237-241, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792465

RESUMO

A universal vaccine against influenza would ideally generate protective immune responses that are not only broadly reactive against multiple influenza strains but also long-lasting. Because long-term serum antibody levels are maintained by bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs), we investigated the production and maintenance of these cells after influenza vaccination. We found increased numbers of influenza-specific BMPCs 4 weeks after immunization with the seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine, but numbers returned to near their prevaccination levels after 1 year. This decline was driven by the loss of BMPCs induced by the vaccine, whereas preexisting BMPCs were maintained. Our results suggest that most BMPCs generated by influenza vaccination in adults are short-lived. Designing strategies to enhance their persistence will be a key challenge for the next generation of influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Vacinação
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849623

RESUMO

Elderly individuals are the most susceptible to an aggressive form of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2. The remodeling of immune response that is observed among the elderly could explain, at least in part, the age gradient in lethality of COVID-19. In this review, we will discuss the phenomenon of immunosenescence, which entails changes that occur in both innate and adaptive immunity with aging. Furthermore, we will discuss inflamm-aging, a low-grade inflammatory state triggered by continuous antigenic stimulation, which may ultimately increase all-cause mortality. In general, the elderly are less capable of responding to neo-antigens, because of lower naïve T cell frequency. Furthermore, they have an expansion of memory T cells with a shrinkage of the T cell diversity repertoire. When infected by SARS-CoV-2, young people present with a milder disease as they frequently clear the virus through an efficient adaptive immune response. Indeed, antibody-secreting cells and follicular helper T cells are thought to be effectively activated in young patients that present a favorable prognosis. In contrast, the elderly are more prone to an uncontrolled activation of innate immune response that leads to cytokine release syndrome and tissue damage. The failure to trigger an effective adaptive immune response in combination with a higher pro-inflammatory tonus may explain why the elderly do not appropriately control viral replication and the potential clinical consequences triggered by a cytokine storm, endothelial injury, and disseminated organ injury. Enhancing the efficacy of the adaptive immune response may be an important issue both for infection resolution as well as for the appropriate generation of immunity upon vaccination, while inhibiting inflamm-aging will likely emerge as a potential complementary therapeutic approach in the management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunossenescência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1959, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849655

RESUMO

The lung is the vital target organ of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the majority of patients the most active virus replication seems to be found in the upper respiratory tract, severe cases however suffer from SARS-like disease associated with virus replication in lung tissues. Due to the current lack of suitable anti-viral drugs the induction of protective immunity such as neutralizing antibodies in the lung is the key aim of the only alternative approach-the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, past experience from experimental animals, livestock, and humans showed that induction of immunity in the lung is limited following application of vaccines at peripheral sides such as skin or muscles. Based on several considerations we therefore propose here to consider the application of a Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine to mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract as a favorable approach to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Brônquios/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17957-17964, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661157

RESUMO

There is a need for improved influenza vaccines. In this study we compared the antibody responses in humans after vaccination with an AS03-adjuvanted versus nonadjuvanted H5N1 avian influenza virus inactivated vaccine. Healthy young adults received two doses of either formulation 3 wk apart. We found that AS03 significantly enhanced H5 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific plasmablast and antibody responses compared to the nonadjuvanted vaccine. Plasmablast response after the first immunization was exclusively directed to the conserved HA stem region and came from memory B cells. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from these plasmablasts had high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and recognized the HA stem region of multiple influenza virus subtypes. Second immunization induced a plasmablast response to the highly variable HA head region. mAbs derived from these plasmablasts exhibited minimal SHM (naive B cell origin) and largely recognized the HA head region of the immunizing H5N1 strain. Interestingly, the antibody response to H5 HA stem region was much lower after the second immunization, and this suppression was most likely due to blocking of these epitopes by stem-specific antibodies induced by the first immunization. Taken together, these findings show that an adjuvanted influenza vaccine can substantially increase antibody responses in humans by effectively recruiting preexisting memory B cells as well as naive B cells into the response. In addition, we show that high levels of preexisting antibody can have a negative effect on boosting. These findings have implications toward the development of a universal influenza vaccine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Masculino , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo
12.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669297

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008358, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589656

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated parasite killing is considered the most effective host immune response against extracellular trypanosome parasites. However, due to host-parasite co-evolution pressure, these parasites have "learned" how to hijack the host immune system via the development of immune evasion strategies. Hereby they prevent elimination and promote transmission. In the past, our group has shown that African trypanosome parasites are able to "shut down" the host B cell compartment, via the abolishment of the homeostatic B cell compartment. In line with this, we have reported that trypanosome infections result in detrimental outcomes on auto-reactive and cancer B cells. To unravel the immune mechanisms involved in these processes we adopted here a well-defined B cell vaccine model, i.e. the thymo-dependent hapten-carrier NP-CGG (4-Hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl-Chicken Gamma Globulin) emulsified in Alum adjuvant. Results show that T. brucei infections abrogate the circulating titres of vaccine-induced CGG-specific as well as NP-specific IgG1+ antibodies, a hallmark of memory B cell responses in this model. This happens independently of their affinity and IFNÉ£ signalling. Next, we demonstrate that T. brucei infections also induce a decrease of anti-NP IgG3+ antibodies induced by the administration of NP coupled to Ficoll, a thymo-independent antigen. Confirming the non-specificity of the infection-associated immunopathology, this report also shows that trypanosome infections abolish vaccine-induced memory response against malaria parasite in BALB/c mice. Together, these data indicates that T. brucei infections impair every stages of B cell development, including effector plasma B cells, independently of their specificity and affinity as well as the host genetic background.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Patrimônio Genético , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei
14.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 790-801, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424361

RESUMO

Plasmodium parasite-specific antibodies are critical for protection against malaria, yet the development of long-lived and effective humoral immunity against Plasmodium takes many years and multiple rounds of infection and cure. Here, we report that the rapid development of short-lived plasmablasts during experimental malaria unexpectedly hindered parasite control by impeding germinal center responses. Metabolic hyperactivity of plasmablasts resulted in nutrient deprivation of the germinal center reaction, limiting the generation of memory B cell and long-lived plasma cell responses. Therapeutic administration of a single amino acid to experimentally infected mice was sufficient to overcome the metabolic constraints imposed by plasmablasts and enhanced parasite clearance and the formation of protective humoral immune memory responses. Thus, our studies not only challenge the current model describing the role and function of blood-stage Plasmodium-induced plasmablasts but they also reveal new targets and strategies to improve anti-Plasmodium humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral , Malária/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Malária/sangue , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008438, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353066

RESUMO

One of the defining characteristics of the B cell receptor (BCR) is the extensive diversity in the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes that make up the BCR, resulting in broad range of specificity. Gammaherpesviruses are B lymphotropic viruses that establish life-long infection in B cells, and although the B cell receptor plays a central role in B cell biology, very little is known about the immunoglobulin repertoire of gammaherpesvirus infected cells. To begin to characterize the Ig genes expressed by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infected cells, we utilized single cell sorting to sequence and clone the Ig variable regions of infected germinal center (GC) B cells and plasma cells. We show that MHV68 infection is biased towards cells that express the Igλ light chain along with a single heavy chain variable gene, IGHV10-1*01. This population arises through clonal expansion but is not viral antigen specific. Furthermore, we show that class-switching in MHV68 infected cells differs from that of uninfected cells. Fewer infected GC B cells are class-switched compared to uninfected GC B cells, while more infected plasma cells are class-switched compared to uninfected plasma cells. Additionally, although they are germinal center derived, the majority of class switched plasma cells display no somatic hypermutation regardless of infection status. Taken together, these data indicate that selection of infected B cells with a specific BCR, as well as virus mediated manipulation of class switching and somatic hypermutation, are critical aspects in establishing life-long gammaherpesvirus infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/virologia , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/virologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia
16.
Nature ; 581(7807): 204-208, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405000

RESUMO

It has been speculated that brain activities might directly control adaptive immune responses in lymphoid organs, although there is little evidence for this. Here we show that splenic denervation in mice specifically compromises the formation of plasma cells during a T cell-dependent but not T cell-independent immune response. Splenic nerve activity enhances plasma cell production in a manner that requires B-cell responsiveness to acetylcholine mediated by the α9 nicotinic receptor, and T cells that express choline acetyl transferase1,2 probably act as a relay between the noradrenergic nerve and acetylcholine-responding B cells. We show that neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that express corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are connected to the splenic nerve; ablation or pharmacogenetic inhibition of these neurons reduces plasma cell formation, whereas pharmacogenetic activation of these neurons increases plasma cell abundance after immunization. In a newly developed behaviour regimen, mice are made to stand on an elevated platform, leading to activation of CeA and PVN CRH neurons and increased plasma cell formation. In immunized mice, the elevated platform regimen induces an increase in antigen-specific IgG antibodies in a manner that depends on CRH neurons in the CeA and PVN, an intact splenic nerve, and B cell expression of the α9 acetylcholine receptor. By identifying a specific brain-spleen neural connection that autonomically enhances humoral responses and demonstrating immune stimulation by a bodily behaviour, our study reveals brain control of adaptive immunity and suggests the possibility to enhance immunocompetency by behavioural intervention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/inervação , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Neurônios Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Hemocianinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/deficiência , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
Am J Pathol ; 190(7): 1438-1448, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251643

RESUMO

The immunologic mechanisms promoting eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are unclear. To characterize the mechanisms underlying pulmonary EGPA, we examined and compared EGPA paraffin-embedded lung biopsies with normal lung biopsies, using immunostaining, RNA sequencing, and RT-PCR. The results revealed novel type 2 as well as immuneregulatory features. These features included basophils and increased mast cell contents; increased immunostaining for tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14; sparse mast cell degranulation; numerous forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T cells and IgG4 plasma cells; and abundant arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α hydroxylase, mitochondrial. Significantly decreased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], which degrades eicosanoids, was observed in EGPA samples. In addition, there was significantly increased mRNA for chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 18 and 13 and major collagen genes, IgG4-rich immune complexes coating alveolar macrophages, and increased immunostaining for phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/SMAD2, suggesting transforming growth factor-ß activation. These findings suggest a novel self-promoting mechanism of activation of alveolar macrophages by arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids to express chemokines that recruit a combined type 2/immunoregulatory immune response, which produces these eicosanoids. These results suggest that the pulmonary EGPA immune response resembles the immune response to a tissue-invasive parasite infection.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/imunologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/patologia , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1254: 63-74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323270

RESUMO

Humoral immunity provides protection from pathogen infection, and this is mediated by antibodies that are produced by plasma cells. Plasma cells are terminally differentiated from activated B cells and are specialized for secreting antibodies. Plasma cells are generated during extrafollicular or germinal center (GC) responses, but GC-derived plasma cells are thought to be the major precursors of long-lived plasma cells, which confer long-term protection. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis for plasma cell differentiation from GC B cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Plasmócitos/citologia , Animais , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Plasmócitos/imunologia
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