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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753544

RESUMO

Liquid porcine plasma is an animal origin raw material for the manufacturing process of spray-dried porcine plasma that is used in pig nutrition worldwide. In previous studies we found that the application of ultraviolet light C (UV-C) in liquid plasma that was inoculated with a variety of bacteria or viruses of importance in the swine industry can be considered as redundant safety steps because in general achieve around 4 logs reduction for most of these pathogens. However, the final validation of the UV-C light as safety feature should be conducted with commercial liquid plasma and using the pig bioassay model. As a first objective, the potential infectivity of a raw liquid plasma product collected from an abattoir was tested by means of a swine bioassay. We used Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), a ubiquitous virus that has been systematically detected by PCR in porcine plasma at abattoirs as selection criteria for commercial liquid plasma lot. As a second aim of the study, the effects of different doses of UV-C irradiation on the selected raw liquid plasma were assayed in the animal bioassay. Moreover, other swine infecting agents, including Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), were also determined in the original plasma and monitored in the inoculated animals. Pigs negative for PCV-2 and PRRSV genome and antibodies were allotted to one of five groups (6 to 8 pigs/ group) and injected intra-peritoneally with 10 mL of their assigned inoculum at 50 d of age. Negative control pigs (group 1) were injected with PBS. Positive control pigs (group 5) were injected with a PCV-2 inoculum. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were injected with liquid porcine plasma that had been subjected to 0 (raw plasma), 3000 or 9000 J/L UV-C irradiation, respectively. Group 2 pigs (0 J/L UV-C) got infection by PRRSV but no PCV-2 infection or seroconversion. However, one pig from group 2 seroconverted to Rotavirus A (RVA) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and three group 2 pigs seroconverted to Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Groups 1, 3 and 4 pigs showed no evidence of infection or seroconversion associated with the tested viruses or any other pathogens found in the liquid plasma before UV-C irradiation. Group 5 pigs developed PCV-2 infectivity as expected. UV-C irradiation of liquid plasma at 3000 and 9000 J/L was effective in preventing PRRSV and other pathogens transmission. Moreover, raw liquid plasma was non-infectious for PCV-2 in naïve pigs.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Circovirus/efeitos da radiação , Plasma/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Circovirus/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007886, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many regions of sub-Saharan Africa experience a high prevalence of both schistosomiasis and HIV-1, leading to frequent coinfection. Higher plasma HIV-1 viral loads are associated with faster disease progression and genital HIV-1 loads are a primary determinant of HIV-1 transmission risk. We hypothesized that schistosome infection would be associated with higher HIV-1 viral loads in plasma and genital samples. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized data from individuals who HIV-1 seroconverted while enrolled in one of four prospective cohort studies. Plasma and genital viral loads collected 4-24 months after the estimated date of HIV-1 acquisition, but prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation, were included. Detection of circulating anodic antigen in archived blood samples, collected prior to HIV-1 seroconversion, identified participants with active schistosomiasis; immunoblots determined the schistosome species causing infection. Our analysis included 370 HIV-1 seroconverters with plasma viral load results, of whom 82 (22%) had schistosomiasis. We did not find a statistically significant association between schistosomiasis and higher HIV-1 set point plasma viral loads (-0.17 log10 copies/ml, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.03); S. mansoni infection was associated with a lower set point (-0.34 log10 copies/ml, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.09). We found no association between schistosomiasis and cervical (+0.07 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.34) or vaginal (+0.11 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.39) set point viral loads; S. haematobium infection was associated with lower cervical viral loads (-0.59 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.06). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results do not support the hypotheses that schistosome coinfection increases plasma or genital HIV-1 viral loads.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/complicações , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genitália/virologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 18(1): 27, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of all possible HIV reservoirs is an important aspect in HIV eradication efforts. The urinary tract has however not been well studied as a potential HIV reservoir. In this pilot study we molecularly characterized HIV-1 viruses in urine and plasma samples to investigate HIV-1 replication, compartmentalization and persistence in the urinary tract. METHODS: Prospectively collected urine and blood samples collected over 12-36 months from 20 HIV-1 infected individuals were analysed including sampling points from prior to and after ART initiation. HIV-1 pol gene RNA and DNA from urine supernatant and urine pellets respectively were analysed and compared to plasma RNA viruses from the same individual. RESULTS: HIV-1 nucleic acid was detected in urine samples from at least one time point in 8/20 (40%) treatment-naïve subjects compared to 1/13 (7.7%) individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) during periods of plasma viral suppression and 1/7 (14.3%) individuals with virological failure. HIV-1 RNA was undetectable in urine samples after ART initiation but HIV-1 DNA was detectable in one patient more than 6 months after treatment initiation. There was co-clustering of urine-derived pol sequences but some urine-derived sequences were interspersed among the plasma-derived sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Suppressive ART reduces HIV-1 replication in the urinary tract but HIV-1 DNA may persist in these cells despite treatment. A larger number of sequences would be required to confirm HIV compartmentalization in the urinary tract.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urinário/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Plasma/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Carga Viral , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
5.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2493-2504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346769

RESUMO

One of the pathological forms of chronic hepatitis C is occult HCV infection (OCI), in which there is no detectable HCV RNA in plasma specimens but HCV RNA is present in PBMCs and liver biopsy specimens. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of OCI in HIV-positive people who are injection drug users (IDUs). From April 2015 to August 2018, 161 Iranian IDUs with HIV infection enrolled in the study. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and PBMC samples of participants, and the presence of HCV RNA was examined using RT nested PCR with primers from two conserved regions (5´-UTR and NS5B). HCV genotyping was performed using RFLP and sequencing methods. Of the 161 patients, 134 (83.2%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. All 27 patients who were negative for anti-HCV were also negative for HCV RNA in plasma, but five of them (18.5%) were positive for HCV RNA in PBMCs. Importantly, 9 out of 50 patients (18.0%) who apparently had recovered from HCV infection (i.e., were anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA negative) were positive for HCV RNA in PBMCs. Overall, 18.1% of the patients who had no signs of previous HCV infection or had apparently recovered from the disease had OCI. The HCV genotypes of the cases with OCI were as follows: five patients (35.7%) were infected with subtype 1a, eight patients (57.1%) were infected with subtype 3a, and one patient (7.1%) was infected with genotype 4. Thus, it seems that the prevalence of OCI in HIV-positive IDUs is extremely significant in Iran and is likely to delay the global eradication of HCV infection until 2030.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
6.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) are closely related members of the Semliki Forest complex within the genus alphavirus and are transmitted by arthropods, causing acute febrile illness in humans. CHIKV has spread to almost all continents, whereas autochthonous MAYV infections have been reported in South America and in the Caribbean. Nevertheless, there was concern about potential spread of MAYV to other regions similar to CHIKV in the past. The risk for transmission of emerging viruses by blood transfusion and the safety of plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) are constant concerns. The manufacturing processes of PDMPs include procedures to inactivate/remove viruses. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the reduction of MAYV and CHIKV by heat inactivation in various matrices, solvent/detergent treatment and nanofiltration. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, MAYV was significantly more resistant to heat and solvent/detergent treatment compared to CHIKV. However, being similar in size, both MAYV and CHIKV were removed below the detection limit by 35 nm virus filters. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivation profiles of different alphavirus members vary considerably, even within the Semliki Forest Complex. However, robust dedicated viral inactivation/removal procedures commonly used in the plasma product industry are effective in inactivating or removing MAYV and CHIKV.


Assuntos
Alphavirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Plasma/virologia , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Detergentes/farmacologia , Filtração/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Solventes/farmacologia , Células Vero
8.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 208(2): 253-258, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852649

RESUMO

Torque teno virus (TTV) plasma DNA load has been consistently shown to be a surrogate biomarker of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients. It is uncertain whether it may behave similarly in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (allo-HSCT). Here, we characterized the dynamics of TTV DNAemia in patients undergoing T-cell replete allo-SCT at late times after transplantation (> day + 100). This retrospective single-center observational study included 33 allo-HSCT patients. Plasma TTV DNA loads were quantified by real-time PCR before initiating the conditioning regimen and at different time points after transplant. Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) were measured by flow cytometry. Overall, TTV DNA load increased steadily after engraftment, reaching a peak by day + 90; afterwards, it remained relatively constant until day + 210. TTV DNA loads measured within days + 120 and + 210 correlated inversely with paired ALC, while both parameters did correlate directly within days + 20 and + 60. The median TTV DNA area under a curve between days + 90 and + 210 [(AUC)90-210] was significantly higher in patients who received corticosteroids within this time frame for treatment of graft versus host disease (either acute, chronic or both) than in controls (P = 0.025). In summary, TTV DNA load may mirror the degree of immunosuppression at late times after allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Plasma/virologia , Torque teno virus/isolamento & purificação , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(6): 617-619, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722753

RESUMO

We present the case of a 52-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis resulting from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape, to illustrate therapeutic challenges in patients with emergent CSF genotypic HIV drug resistance. This case report highlights the usefulness of CSF HIV-resistance testing to guide antiretroviral therapy and treatment optimizing decisions.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Plasma/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo AIDS Demência/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789926

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SurePure Turbulator ultraviolet-C (UV-C, 254 nm wavelength) irradiation equipment on inactivation of different enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in commercially collected liquid animal plasma. Specifically, Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Swine influenza virus (SIV) as enveloped viruses and Porcine parvovirus (PPV), Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and Senecavirus A (SVA) as non-enveloped viruses, were inoculated in bovine or porcine plasma and subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (0, 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using an UV-C device developed for opaque liquid working under turbulent flow. The enveloped viruses tested were inactivated at < 3000 J/L of UV-C, being the dose needed to inactivate 4 log TCID50 (4D) of 1612 J/L for PRV,1004 J/L for PRRSV, 1953 J/L for PEDV, 1639 J/L for SIV, 1641 J/L for CSFV and 1943 J/L for BVDV. The non-enveloped viruses tended to have higher 4D values: 2161 J/L for PPV, 3223 J/L for SVA and 3708 J/L for SVDV. Because the initial viral concentration was <4.0 Log for PCV-2, it was not possible to calculate the 4D value for this virus. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the SurePure Turbulator UV-C treatment system is capable of inactivating significant levels of swine viruses inoculated in commercially collected porcine or bovine plasma. It was concluded that irradiation with UV-C can provide an additional redundant biosafety feature in the manufacturing process of spray-dried animal plasma.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Plasma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Bovinos , Plasma/virologia , Suínos , Viroses/radioterapia , Viroses/virologia
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(6): 1931-1943, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803120

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluation of the thermal and physical conditions for inactivation of adenovirus (AdV), porcine sapelovirus 1 (PSV1) and the economically important viruses porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in the production of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). METHODS AND RESULTS: Citrate-treated porcine plasma of pH 7·5, 9·8 and 10·2 (8·5% dry-matter) was spiked with PEDV, PSV1, PCV2 and AdV and incubated at 3°C for maximum 24 h, and at 44 or 48°C for maximum 10 min (Experiment 1). Spiked citrate-treated concentrated plasma of pH 7·5 and 9·8 (24% dry-matter) was spray dried in a laboratory scale apparatus (Experiment 2). Aliquots of SDPP were stored over a period of 0-10 weeks at 11 and 20°C (Experiment 3). Reverse transcription(RT)-quantitative PCR detected no notable reduction in viral genomes in treated plasma and SDPP samples. No infectious PSV1 was re-isolated from plasma and SDPP samples in cell culture. At pH 10·2 and 3°C, infectivity of PEDV in plasma was reduced with a reduction factor of 4·2 log 10 (LRF) at 10 h contact time, whereas heating to 44°C for at least 1 min at alkali pH was needed to achieve a LRF of 4·2 for AdV. Spray drying at an outlet temperature of 80°C reduced AdV infectivity effectively (LRF = 5·2) and PEDV infectivity for 95% (LRF = 1·4). After storage at 20°C for 2 weeks no infectious PEDV was re-isolated from SDPP anymore (LRF ≥4·0). Due to growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from plasma in cell cultures used for PCV2 isolation, no data regarding inactivation of PCV2 were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Five percent of PEDV stayed infectious after our spray drying conditions. Spray drying in combination with storage for ≥2 weeks at 20°C eliminated infectivity of PEDV effectively. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The conditions for inactivation of virus in plasma and SDPP determined are important for producers to inactivate PEDV during production of SDPP.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Inativação de Vírus , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Circovirus/fisiologia , Dessecação , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Plasma/virologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Infection ; 47(3): 441-446, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate HIV-1 compartmentalization between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma and investigate as to which extent HIV-1 strains in CSF differ from those in blood and whether a correlation with either plasma viral load (pVL) or an altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) does exist. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated paired CSF/blood samples collected from 86 HIV+ patients. HIV-RNA quantification, pol (PR/RT), and V3 sequencing were performed. HIV coreceptor tropism (CRT) was inferred (g2p, false-positive rate 10%, FPR). Data of standard CSF analysis were also reviewed; an altered CSF/plasma albumin ratio signified BBB damage. Neurological abnormalities (NA) were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 32% of patients had a CSF/plasma HIV-RNA ratio > 1 (discordance); 3% of patients had detectable CSF HIV-RNA despite suppressed pVL (escape). Discordance was more frequent in ART-treated patients (p < 0.001) and in patients with NA (p = 0.016), but was independent of BBB damage (p = 0.65) and AIDS diagnosis (p = 0.96). Finally, CSF/plasma discordance was significantly more frequent (p < 0.0001) in patients with lower pVL values (< 10.000 copies/ml). Env divergence > 10% was found in 44% of sequences and was associated with ART (p = 0.008) and NA (p = 0.037). Overall, 24% of patients had a discordant CSF/blood CRT. A 100% nucleotide identity was observed in only 7.3% of pol sequences; notably, 10% of patients had resistance-associated mutations in CSF, but not in blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm an independent replication and evolution of HIV within the CSF. A number of factors either hinder or contribute to the compartmentalization of HIV.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/líquido cefalorraquidiano , HIV-1/fisiologia , Plasma/virologia , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Adulto , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94(2): 129-134, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651176

RESUMO

BK virus (BKV) nephropathy is a serious complication in renal transplant recipients due to the need for immunosuppression. Nearly 50% of renal transplant patients with BKV nephropathy experience a significant loss of function of the transplanted kidney. It is routine practice to screen renal transplant recipients regularly for BK viremia. In this study, we compared the performance of BKV quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyte specific reagents by ELITech and Luminex for measuring BKV viral load in plasma using the Roche Cobas® z480 instrument and the Luminex ARIES® platform, respectively. A total of 34 patients previously tested on the z480, with results spanning the test's linear range, were analyzed on the ARIES®. The BKV DNA copy number correlation between the 2 methods was very good, with an R2 value of 0.96. The average difference in log copy number between the 2 methods was -0.3, indicating that the ARIES® method may have slightly greater analytical sensitivity. BKV quantification results were closely matched between the 2 different methods. The workflow with the ARIES® System is greatly simplified by elimination of DNA extraction and most hands-on steps. The high degree of automation allows samples to be tested as they arrive into the laboratory, resulting in enhanced patient care due to more rapid turnaround time for results back to the ordering physician.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/sangue , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Plasma/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Carga Viral/métodos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transplantados
14.
J Med Virol ; 91(1): 107-114, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091793

RESUMO

Beta (ß) thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder with a deficiency in the hemoglobin beta chain, requiring blood transfusion therapy. Multiple blood transfusions increase the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Iranian individuals with ß-thalassemia major. A total of 164 patients with ß-thalassemia major were recruited for this study. HCV RNA testing was done on plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the HCV seropositive samples (with reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] method using primers from the 5'-untranslated region [UTR]), and all HCV RNA positive samples were genotyped by the restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. For confirmation of the HCV genotyping in PBMCs of occult HCV infection [OCI]-positive patients, the PCR products of two different regions of HCV (5'-UTR and nonstructural protein 5B [NS5B]) were sequenced. Of 164 patients, 29.3% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, and HCV RNA was detected in the plasma specimens of 13.4% patients and in the PBMC samples of 15.2% participants. The genomic HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC samples in 3 (6.3%) of the total 48 individuals who were HCV seropositive, and plasma HCV-RNA negative (occult HCV infection). The subtypes of HCV in the plasma and PBMC samples of three participants were not identical. This study shows that among this group of Iranian patients with ß-thalassemia major, 13.4% had active HCV infection and 6.3% had occult HCV infection as evidenced by HCV RNA detected in PBMC specimens. Therefore, the design of a prospective study that focuses on the diagnosis of OCI can be very valuable and provide more information.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Talassemia beta/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS ; 33(2): 185-197, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are few data on the frequency of virological remission in African individuals after treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary HIV infection (PHI). METHODS: We studied participants (n = 82) from South Africa and Uganda in Short Pulse Antiretroviral Treatment at HIV-1 Seroconversion, the first trial of treatment interruption in African individuals with PHI randomized to deferred ART or 48 weeks of immediate ART. All were female and infected with non-B HIV subtypes, mainly C. We measured HIV DNA in CD4+ T cells, CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load (pVL), cell-associated HIV RNA and T-cell activation and exhaustion. We explored associations with clinical progression and time to pVL rebound after treatment interruption (n = 22). Data were compared with non-African Short Pulse Antiretroviral Treatment at HIV-1 Seroconversion participants. RESULTS: Pretherapy pVL and integrated HIV DNA were lower in Africans compared with non-Africans (median 4.16 vs. 4.72 log10 copies/ml and 3.07 vs. 3.61 log10 copies/million CD4+ T cells, respectively; P < 0.001). Pre-ART HIV DNA in Africans was associated with clinical progression (P = 0.001, HR per log10 copies/million CD4+ T cells increase (95% CI) 5.38 (1.95-14.79)) and time to pVL rebound (P = 0.034, HR per log10 copies/ml increase 4.33 (1.12-16.84)). After treatment interruption, Africans experienced longer duration of viral remission than non-Africans (P < 0.001; HR 3.90 (1.75-8.71). Five of 22 African participants (22.7%) maintained VL less than 400 copies/ml over a median of 188 weeks following treatment interruption. CONCLUSION: We find evidence of greater probability of virological remission following treatment interruption among African participants, although we are unable to differentiate between sex, ethnicity and viral subtype. The finding warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Plasma/virologia , África do Sul , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(5): 759-765, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267627

RESUMO

Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load monitoring in blood is essential for the diagnosis of EBV-associated diseases. However, the best-suited blood compartment for detection is still under discussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of EBV-DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and whole blood (WB) samples. Methods A total of 156 patients, including 45 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), 57 patients with EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and 54 patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), were enrolled in this study. The EBV-DNA load in PBMC, plasma and WB samples were measured with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results EBV-DNA load of patients with HLH showed no statistical difference in PBMC, plasma and WB samples, while patients with IM and PTLD showed a higher viral load in PBMC samples. The strongest correlation of EBV-DNA level was found between PBMC and WB samples among patients with IM, HLH and PTLD. The follow-up of EBV-DNA showed that the viral load became negative along with the recovery from the disease, while that in WB and PBMC would remain positive for a long time. Conclusions For the diagnosis and monitoring of EBV-DNA, the type of specimen should be chosen reasonably according to the disease. As for IM and HLH, plasma is recommended to quantify the EBV-DNA load, while PBMC and plasma are preferred in PTLD.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Plasma/virologia , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/virologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/virologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
J Gen Virol ; 100(1): 26-34, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480508

RESUMO

For an effective T-cell activation and response, co-stimulation is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. The CD2/CD58 interaction is considered as one of the most important T-cell co-stimulatory pathways for T-cell activation and proliferation, and its role in regulating intestinal T-cell function in acute and chronic SIV -infected macaques is poorly documented. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction of CD58 expression in both T- and B-cell populations during acute SIV infection along with high plasma viral load and a loss of intestinal CD4+ T cells compared to SIV-uninfected control macaques. The reduction of CD58 expression in T cells was correlated with the reduced expression of T-cell-mediated IL-2 and TNFα production. Together, these results indicate that reduction in the CD2/CD58 interaction pathway in mucosal lymphocytes might play a crucial role in mucosal T-cell dysfunction during acute SIV/HIV infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD58/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Macaca , Plasma/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006811, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359380

RESUMO

Due to the large geographical overlap of populations exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), understanding the disease pathogenesis of co-infection is urgently needed. This warrants the development of an animal model for HIV-ZIKV co-infection. In this study, we used adult non-pregnant macaques that were chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus/chimeric simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/SHIV) and then inoculated with ZIKV. Plasma viral loads of both SIV/SHIV and ZIKV co-infected animals revealed no significant changes as compared to animals that were infected with ZIKV alone or as compared to SIV/SHIV infected animals prior to ZIKV inoculation. ZIKV tissue clearance of co-infected animals was similar to animals that were infected with ZIKV alone. Furthermore, in co-infected macaques, there was no statistically significant difference in plasma cytokines/chemokines levels as compared to prior to ZIKV inoculation. Collectively, these findings suggest that co-infection may not alter disease pathogenesis, thus warranting larger HIV-ZIKV epidemiological studies in order to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/patologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Plasma/química , Plasma/virologia , Carga Viral
20.
Transfusion ; 58(11): 2501-2505, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted by transfusion of any type of blood component, but there are few data on the potential risk of transmitting this virus and the associated complications. We provide evidence that HEV can be transmitted by cryosupernatant plasma, and that HEV infection can act as a trigger for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A patient with a history of TTP treated with plasmapheresis 2 months previously developed jaundice and a TTP exacerbation with purpura, thrombocytopenia, schistocytes, and undetectable ADAMTS-13 activity. He was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E and treated with ribavirin. TTP remitted with remission of HEV infection. RESULTS: Traceback to determine the source of the infection showed that 1 cryosupernatant plasma among the 99 different blood components used for the patient's last plasmapheresis was positive for HEV RNA, with an estimated viral load of 5000 to 10,000 IU/mL. Phylogenetic analysis proved the transfusion-transmitted route of acute hepatitis E. CONCLUSION: In a patient with TTP, acute HEV infection transmitted by cryosupernatant plasma may trigger exacerbation of TTP, which can be controlled on remission of HEV infection with ribavirin.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/etiologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Azul de Metileno , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Plasma/virologia
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