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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533814

RESUMO

Malaria represents a serious public health problem, presenting with high rates of incidence, morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization, in 2018 there were 228 million cases and 405 thousand deaths caused by this disease in the world, affecting mainly children and pregnant women in Africa. Despite the programs carried out to control this disease, drug resistance and invertebrate vector resistance to insecticides have generated difficulties. An efficient vaccine against malaria would be a strategy with a high impact on the eradication and control of this disease. Researches aimed at developing vaccines have focused on antigens of high importance for the survival of the parasite such as the Circumsporozoite Surface Protein, involved in the pre-erythrocytic cycle during parasites invasion in hepatocytes. Currently, RTS'S is the most promising vaccine for malaria and was constructed using CSP; its performance was evaluated using two types of adjuvants: AS01 and AS02. The purpose of this review was to provide a bibliographic survey of historical researches that led to the development of RTS'S and its performance analysis over the decade. The search for new adjuvants to be associated with this antigen seems to be a way to obtain higher percentages of protection for a future malaria vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1172, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608523

RESUMO

Mature red blood cells (RBCs) lack internal organelles and canonical defense mechanisms, making them both a fascinating host cell, in general, and an intriguing choice for the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), in particular. Pf, while growing inside its natural host, the human RBC, secretes multipurpose extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet their influence on this essential host cell remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Pf parasites, cultured in fresh human donor blood, secrete within such EVs assembled and functional 20S proteasome complexes (EV-20S). The EV-20S proteasomes modulate the mechanical properties of naïve human RBCs by remodeling their cytoskeletal network. Furthermore, we identify four degradation targets of the secreted 20S proteasome, the phosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins ß-adducin, ankyrin-1, dematin and Epb4.1. Overall, our findings reveal a previously unknown 20S proteasome secretion mechanism employed by the human malaria parasite, which primes RBCs for parasite invasion by altering membrane stiffness, to facilitate malaria parasite growth.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteômica
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 71, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, Cassia spectabilis DC leaf has shown a good antiplasmodial activity. Therefore, this study is a follow-up study of the extract of leaf of C. spectabilis DC on its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and mechanism as an antimalarial. METHODS: The extract was fractionated, sub-fractionated and isolated to obtain the purified compound. In vitro antiplasmodial activity test against Plasmodium falciparum to find out the active compound. In vivo test against P. berghei ANKA-infected mice was conducted to determine prophylactic activity and antiplasmodial activity either alone or in combination with artesunate. The inhibition of heme detoxification test as one of the antimalarial mechanisms was carried out using the Basilico method. RESULTS: The results showed that active antimalarial compound isolated from C. spectabilis DC leaf had a structural pattern that was identical to (-)-7-hydroxycassine. Prophylactic test of 90% ethanolic extract of C. spectabilis DC leaf alone against P. berghei ANKA-infected mice obtained the highest percentage inhibition was 68.61%, while positive control (doxycycline 13 mg/kg) was 73.54%. In combination with artesunate, 150 mg/kg three times a day of C. spectabilis DC (D0-D2) + artesunate (D2) was better than the standard combination of amodiaquine + artesunate where the inhibition percentages were 99.18 and 92.88%, respectively. The IC50 of the extract for the inhibitory activity of heme detoxification was 0.375 mg/ml which was better than chloroquine diphosphate (0.682 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: C. spectabilis DC leaf possessed potent antiplasmodial activity and may offer a potential agent for effective and affordable antimalarial phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cassia/química , Heme/metabolismo , Malária/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cetonas , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Piperidinas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Plasmodium berghei/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 530, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483501

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance, driven by mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13, has compromised antimalarial efficacy and threatens the global malaria elimination campaign. By applying systems-based quantitative transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to a panel of isogenic K13 mutant or wild-type P. falciparum lines, we provide evidence that K13 mutations alter multiple aspects of the parasite's intra-erythrocytic developmental program. These changes impact cell-cycle periodicity, the unfolded protein response, protein degradation, vesicular trafficking, and mitochondrial metabolism. K13-mediated artemisinin resistance in the Cambodian Cam3.II line was reversed by atovaquone, a mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor. These results suggest that mitochondrial processes including damage sensing and anti-oxidant properties might augment the ability of mutant K13 to protect P. falciparum against artemisinin action by helping these parasites undergo temporary quiescence and accelerated growth recovery post drug elimination.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Atovaquona/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466510

RESUMO

Ca2+ signaling has been involved in controling critical cellular functions such as activation of proteases, cell death, and cell cycle control. The endoplasmatic reticulum plays a significant role in Ca2+ storage inside the cell, but mitochondria have long been recognized as a fundamental Ca2+ pool. Protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma cruzi display a Ca2+ signaling toolkit with similarities to higher eukaryotes, including the participation of mitochondria in Ca2+-dependent signaling events. This review summarizes the most recent knowledge in mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling in protozoan parasites, focusing on the mechanism involved in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by pathogenic protists.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Parasitos/metabolismo , Animais , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 423-434, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459846

RESUMO

The malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a severe threat to human health across the globe. This parasite alone causes the highest morbidity and mortality than any other species of Plasmodium. The parasites dynamically multiply in the erythrocytes of the vertebrate hosts, a large number of reactive oxygen species that damage biological macromolecules are produced in the cell during parasite growth. To relieve this intense oxidative stress, the parasite employs an NADPH-dependent thioredoxin and glutathione system that acts as an antioxidant and maintains redox status in the parasite. The mutual interaction of both redox proteins is involved in various biological functions and the survival of the erythrocytic stage of the parasite. Since the Plasmodium species is deficient in catalase and classical glutathione peroxidase, so their redox balance relies on a complex set of five peroxiredoxins, differentially positioned in the cytosol, mitochondria, apicoplast, and nucleus with partly overlapping substrate preferences. Moreover, Plasmodium falciparum possesses a set of members belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, such as three thioredoxins, two thioredoxin-like proteins, one dithiol, three monocysteine glutaredoxins, and one redox-active plasmoredoxin with largely redundant functions. This review paper aims to discuss and encapsulate the biological function and current knowledge of the functional redox network of Plasmodium falciparum.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
J Proteomics ; 234: 104083, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373718

RESUMO

Using high-throughput BioPlex assays, we determined that six fractions from the venom of Conus nux inhibit the adhesion of various recombinant PfEMP-1 protein domains (PF08_0106 CIDR1α3.1, PF11_0521 DBL2ß3, and PFL0030c DBL3X and DBL5e) to their corresponding receptors (CD36, ICAM-1, and CSA, respectively). The protein domain-receptor interactions permit P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) to evade elimination in the spleen by adhering to the microvasculature in various organs including the placenta. The sequences for the main components of the fractions, determined by tandem mass spectrometry, yielded four T-superfamily conotoxins, one (CC-Loop-CC) with I-IV, II-III connectivity and three (CC-Loop-CXaaC) with a I-III, II-IV connectivity. The 3D structure for one of the latter, NuxVA = GCCPAPLTCHCVIY, revealed a novel scaffold defined by double turns forming a hairpin-like structure stabilized by the two disulfide bonds. Two other main fraction components were a miniM conotoxin, and a O2-superfamily conotoxin with cysteine framework VI/VII. This study is the first one of its kind suggesting the use of conotoxins for developing pharmacological tools for anti-adhesion adjunct therapy against malaria. Similarly, mitigation of emerging diseases like AIDS and COVID-19, can also benefit from conotoxins as inhibitors of protein-protein interactions as treatment. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Among the 850+ species of cone snail species there are hundreds of thousands of diverse venom exopeptides that have been selected throughout several million years of evolution to capture prey and deter predators. They do so by targeting several surface proteins present in target excitable cells. This immense biomolecular library of conopeptides can be explored for potential use as therapeutic leads against persistent and emerging diseases affecting non-excitable systems. We aim to expand the pharmacological reach of conotoxins/conopeptides by revealing their in vitro capacity to disrupt protein-protein and protein-polysaccharide interactions that directly contribute to pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This is significant for severe forms of malaria, which might be deadly even after treated with current parasite-killing drugs because of persistent cytoadhesion of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes even when parasites within red blood cells are dead. Anti-adhesion adjunct drugs would de-sequester or prevent additional sequestration of infected erythrocytes and may significantly improve survival of malaria patients. These results provide a lead for further investigations into conotoxins and other venom peptides as potential candidates for anti-adhesion or blockade-therapies. This study is the first of its kind and it suggests that conotoxins can be developed as pharmacological tools for anti-adhesion adjunct therapy against malaria. Similarly, mitigation of emerging diseases like AIDS and COVID-19, can also benefit from conotoxins as potential inhibitors of protein-protein interactions as treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36 , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Eritrócitos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Venenos de Moluscos , Plasmodium falciparum , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Antígenos CD36/química , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Caramujo Conus , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/química , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/química , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Venenos de Moluscos/química , Venenos de Moluscos/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/química , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Protozoários , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113262, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818574

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the Peruvian Amazon as in the tropical countries of South America, the use of medicinal Piper species (cordoncillos) is common practice, particularly against symptoms of infection by protozoal parasites. However, there is few documented information about the practical aspects of their use and few scientific validation. The starting point of this work was a set of interviews of people living in six rural communities from the Peruvian Amazon (Alto Amazonas Province) about their uses of plants from Piper genus: one community of Amerindian native people (Shawi community) and five communities of mestizos. Infections caused by parasitic protozoa take a huge toll on public health in the Amazonian communities, who partly fight it using traditional remedies. Validation of these traditional practices contributes to public health care efficiency and may help to identify new antiprotozoal compounds. AIMS OF STUDY: To record and validate the use of medicinal Piper species by rural people of Alto Amazonas Province (Peru) and annotate active compounds using a correlation study and a data mining approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rural communities were interviewed about traditional medication against parasite infections with medicinal Piper species. Ethnopharmacological surveys were undertaken in five mestizo villages, namely: Nueva Arica, Shucushuyacu, Parinari, Lagunas and Esperanza, and one Shawi community (Balsapuerto village). All communities belong to the Alto Amazonas Province (Loreto region, Peru). Seventeen Piper species were collected according to their traditional use for the treatment of parasitic diseases, 35 extracts (leaves or leaves and stems) were tested in vitro on P. falciparum (3D7 chloroquine-sensitive strain and W2 chloroquine-resistant strain), Leishmania donovani LV9 strain and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Assessments were performed on HUVEC cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The annotation of active compounds was realized by metabolomic analysis and molecular networking approach. RESULTS: Nine extracts were active (IC50 ≤ 10 µg/mL) on 3D7 P. falciparum and only one on W2 P. falciparum, six on L. donovani (axenic and intramacrophagic amastigotes) and seven on Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Only one extract was active on all three parasites (P. lineatum). After metabolomic analyses and annotation of compounds active on Leishmania, P. strigosum and P. pseudoarboreum were considered as potential sources of leishmanicidal compounds. CONCLUSIONS: This ethnopharmacological study and the associated in vitro bioassays corroborated the relevance of use of Piper species in the Amazonian traditional medicine, especially in Peru. A series of Piper species with few previously available phytochemical data have good antiprotozoal activity and could be a starting point for subsequent promising work. Metabolomic approach appears to be a smart, quick but still limited methodology to identify compounds with high probability of biological activity.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Piper/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Peru/etnologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22054, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328606

RESUMO

Malaria is still a devastating disease with 228 million cases globally and 405,000 lethal outcomes in 2018, mainly in children under five years of age. The threat of emerging malaria strains resistant to currently available drugs has made the search for novel drug targets compelling. The process by which Plasmodium falciparum parasites invade the host cell has been widely studied, but only a few erythrocyte proteins involved in this process have been identified so far. The erythrocyte protein Rac1 is a GTPase that plays an important role in host cell invasion by many intracellular pathogens. Here we show that Rac1 is recruited in proximity to the site of parasite entry during P. falciparum invasion process and that subsequently localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. We also suggest that this GTPase may be involved in erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum, by testing the effect of specific Rac1 inhibitory compounds. Finally, we suggest a secondary role of the erythrocyte GTPase also in parasite intracellular development. We here characterize a new erythrocyte protein potentially involved in P. falciparum invasion of the host cell and propose the human GTPase Rac1 as a novel and promising antimalarial drug target.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Vacúolos , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Vacúolos/parasitologia
10.
Nature ; 585(7826): 579-583, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939086

RESUMO

Malaria has had a major effect on the human genome, with many protective polymorphisms-such as the sickle-cell trait-having been selected to high frequencies in malaria-endemic regions1,2. The blood group variant Dantu provides 74% protection against all forms of severe malaria in homozygous individuals3-5, a similar degree of protection to that afforded by the sickle-cell trait and considerably greater than that offered by the best malaria vaccine. Until now, however, the protective mechanism has been unknown. Here we demonstrate the effect of Dantu on the ability of the merozoite form of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to invade red blood cells (RBCs). We find that Dantu is associated with extensive changes to the repertoire of proteins found on the RBC surface, but, unexpectedly, inhibition of invasion does not correlate with specific RBC-parasite receptor-ligand interactions. By following invasion using video microscopy, we find a strong link between RBC tension and merozoite invasion, and identify a tension threshold above which invasion rarely occurs, even in non-Dantu RBCs. Dantu RBCs have higher average tension than non-Dantu RBCs, meaning that a greater proportion resist invasion. These findings provide both an explanation for the protective effect of Dantu, and fresh insight into why the efficiency of P. falciparum invasion might vary across the heterogenous populations of RBCs found both within and between individuals.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/classificação , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Criança , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Quênia , Ligantes , Masculino , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Merozoítos/patogenicidade , Microscopia de Vídeo , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003203, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance is threatening malaria control. We aimed to develop and test a human model of artemisinin-resistant (ART-R) Plasmodium falciparum to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against ART-R malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted 2 sequential phase 1, single-centre, open-label clinical trials at Q-Pharm, Brisbane, Australia, using the induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model, whereby healthy participants are intravenously inoculated with blood-stage parasites. In a pilot study, participants were inoculated (Day 0) with approximately 2,800 viable P. falciparum ART-R parasites. In a comparative study, participants were randomised to receive approximately 2,800 viable P. falciparum ART-R (Day 0) or artemisinin-sensitive (ART-S) parasites (Day 1). In both studies, participants were administered a single approximately 2 mg/kg oral dose of artesunate (AS; Day 9). Primary outcomes were safety, ART-R parasite infectivity, and parasite clearance. In the pilot study, 2 participants were enrolled between April 27, 2017, and September 12, 2017, and included in final analyses (males n = 2 [100%], mean age = 26 years [range, 23-28 years]). In the comparative study, 25 participants were enrolled between October 26, 2017, and October 18, 2018, of whom 22 were inoculated and included in final analyses (ART-R infected participants: males n = 7 [53.8%], median age = 22 years [range, 18-40 years]; ART-S infected participants: males n = 5 [55.6%], median age = 28 years [range, 22-35 years]). In both studies, all participants inoculated with ART-R parasites became parasitaemic. A total of 36 adverse events were reported in the pilot study and 277 in the comparative study. Common adverse events in both studies included headache, pyrexia, myalgia, nausea, and chills; none were serious. Seven participants experienced transient severe falls in white cell counts and/or elevations in liver transaminase levels which were considered related to malaria. Additionally, 2 participants developed ventricular extrasystoles that were attributed to unmasking of a predisposition to benign fever-induced tachyarrhythmia. In the comparative study, parasite clearance half-life after AS was significantly longer for ART-R infected participants (n = 13, 6.5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-6.7 hours) compared with ART-S infected participants (n = 9, 3.2 hours; 95% CI 3.0-3.3 hours; p < 0.001). The main limitation of this study was that the ART-R and ART-S parasite strains did not share the same genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: We developed the first (to our knowledge) human model of ART-R malaria. The delayed clearance profile of ART-R parasites after AS aligns with field study observations. Although based on a relatively small sample size, results indicate that this model can be safely used to assess new drugs against ART-R P. falciparum. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The studies were registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000244303 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=372357) and ACTRN12617001394336 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373637).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artesunato/efeitos adversos , Artesunato/farmacologia , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Parasitos/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4015, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782246

RESUMO

Intracellular pathogens mobilize host signaling pathways of their host cell to promote their own survival. Evidence is emerging that signal transduction elements are activated in a-nucleated erythrocytes in response to infection with malaria parasites, but the extent of this phenomenon remains unknown. Here, we fill this knowledge gap through a comprehensive and dynamic assessment of host erythrocyte signaling during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. We used arrays of 878 antibodies directed against human signaling proteins to interrogate the activation status of host erythrocyte phospho-signaling pathways at three blood stages of parasite asexual development. This analysis reveals a dynamic modulation of many host signalling proteins across parasite development. Here we focus on the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) and the MAP kinase pathway component B-Raf, providing a proof of concept that human signaling kinases identified as activated by malaria infection represent attractive targets for antimalarial intervention.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3922, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764664

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) is a key contributor to multidrug resistance and is also essential for the survival of the malaria parasite, yet its natural function remains unresolved. We identify host-derived peptides of 4-11 residues, varying in both charge and composition, as the substrates of PfCRT in vitro and in situ, and show that PfCRT does not mediate the non-specific transport of other metabolites and/or ions. We find that drug-resistance-conferring mutations reduce both the peptide transport capacity and substrate range of PfCRT, explaining the impaired fitness of drug-resistant parasites. Our results indicate that PfCRT transports peptides from the lumen of the parasite's digestive vacuole to the cytosol, thereby providing a source of amino acids for parasite metabolism and preventing osmotic stress of this organelle. The resolution of PfCRT's native substrates will aid the development of drugs that target PfCRT and/or restore the efficacy of existing antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Xenopus laevis
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3825, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732874

RESUMO

The malaria parasite interfaces with its host erythrocyte (RBC) using a unique organelle, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The mechanism(s) are obscure by which its limiting membrane, the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM), collaborates with the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) to support the transport of proteins, lipids, nutrients, and metabolites between the cytoplasm of the parasite and the cytoplasm of the RBC. Here, we demonstrate that the PV has structure characterized by micrometer-sized regions of especially close apposition between the PVM and the PPM. To determine if these contact sites are involved in any sort of transport, we localize the PVM nutrient-permeable and protein export channel EXP2, as well as the PPM lipid transporter PfNCR1. We find that EXP2 is excluded from, but PfNCR1 is included within these regions of close apposition. We conclude that the host-parasite interface is structured to segregate those transporters of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citoplasma/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Vacúolos/parasitologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16546-16556, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601225

RESUMO

During blood-stage development, malaria parasites are challenged with the detoxification of enormous amounts of heme released during the proteolytic catabolism of erythrocytic hemoglobin. They tackle this problem by sequestering heme into bioinert crystals known as hemozoin. The mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that both rodent and human malaria parasite species secrete and internalize a lipocalin-like protein, PV5, to control heme crystallization. Transcriptional deregulation of PV5 in the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei results in inordinate elongation of hemozoin crystals, while conditional PV5 inactivation in the human malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum causes excessive multidirectional crystal branching. Although hemoglobin processing remains unaffected, PV5-deficient parasites generate less hemozoin. Electron diffraction analysis indicates that despite the distinct changes in crystal morphology, neither the crystalline order nor unit cell of hemozoin are affected by impaired PV5 function. Deregulation of PV5 expression renders P. berghei hypersensitive to the antimalarial drugs artesunate, chloroquine, and atovaquone, resulting in accelerated parasite clearance following drug treatment in vivo. Together, our findings demonstrate the Plasmodium-tailored role of a lipocalin family member in hemozoin formation and underscore the heme biomineralization pathway as an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation.


Assuntos
Heme/metabolismo , Lipocalinas/metabolismo , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Hemeproteínas/genética , Hemeproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipocalinas/química , Lipocalinas/genética , Malária/metabolismo , Camundongos , Plasmodium berghei/química , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/química , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008640, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569299

RESUMO

Ubiquitylation is a common post translational modification of eukaryotic proteins and in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) overall ubiquitylation increases in the transition from intracellular schizont to extracellular merozoite stages in the asexual blood stage cycle. Here, we identify specific ubiquitylation sites of protein substrates in three intraerythrocytic parasite stages and extracellular merozoites; a total of 1464 sites in 546 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014998). 469 ubiquitylated proteins were identified in merozoites compared with only 160 in the preceding intracellular schizont stage, suggesting a large increase in protein ubiquitylation associated with merozoite maturation. Following merozoite invasion of erythrocytes, few ubiquitylated proteins were detected in the first intracellular ring stage but as parasites matured through trophozoite to schizont stages the apparent extent of ubiquitylation increased. We identified commonly used ubiquitylation motifs and groups of ubiquitylated proteins in specific areas of cellular function, for example merozoite pellicle proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion, exported proteins, and histones. To investigate the importance of ubiquitylation we screened ubiquitin pathway inhibitors in a parasite growth assay and identified the ubiquitin activating enzyme (UBA1 or E1) inhibitor MLN7243 (TAK-243) to be particularly effective. This small molecule was shown to be a potent inhibitor of recombinant PfUBA1, and a structural homology model of MLN7243 bound to the parasite enzyme highlights avenues for the development of P. falciparum specific inhibitors. We created a genetically modified parasite with a rapamycin-inducible functional deletion of uba1; addition of either MLN7243 or rapamycin to the recombinant parasite line resulted in the same phenotype, with parasite development blocked at the schizont stage. Nuclear division and formation of intracellular structures was interrupted. These results indicate that the intracellular target of MLN7243 is UBA1, and this activity is essential for the final differentiation of schizonts to merozoites.


Assuntos
Merozoítos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ubiquitina/genética
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008485, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589689

RESUMO

Ozonide antimalarials, OZ277 (arterolane) and OZ439 (artefenomel), are synthetic peroxide-based antimalarials with potent activity against the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Here we used a "multi-omics" workflow, in combination with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), to demonstrate that peroxide antimalarials initially target the haemoglobin (Hb) digestion pathway to kill malaria parasites. Time-dependent metabolomic profiling of ozonide-treated P. falciparum infected red blood cells revealed a rapid depletion of short Hb-derived peptides followed by subsequent alterations in lipid and nucleotide metabolism, while untargeted peptidomics showed accumulation of longer Hb-derived peptides. Quantitative proteomics and ABPP assays demonstrated that Hb-digesting proteases were increased in abundance and activity following treatment, respectively. Ozonide-induced depletion of short Hb-derived peptides was less extensive in a drug-treated K13-mutant artemisinin resistant parasite line (Cam3.IIR539T) than in the drug-treated isogenic sensitive strain (Cam3.IIrev), further confirming the association between ozonide activity and Hb catabolism. To demonstrate that compromised Hb catabolism may be a primary mechanism involved in ozonide antimalarial activity, we showed that parasites forced to rely solely on Hb digestion for amino acids became hypersensitive to short ozonide exposures. Quantitative proteomics analysis also revealed parasite proteins involved in translation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system were enriched following drug treatment, suggestive of the parasite engaging a stress response to mitigate ozonide-induced damage. Taken together, these data point to a mechanism of action involving initial impairment of Hb catabolism, and indicate that the parasite regulates protein turnover to manage ozonide-induced damage.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/farmacologia , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Adamantano/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteômica
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1753-1765, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363442

RESUMO

RbAp46/RBBP7 and RbAp48/RBBP4 are WD40-repeat histone chaperones and chromatin adaptors that reside in multiple complexes involved in maintenance of chromatin structure. RbAp48 is the essential subunit of the chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) complex, therefore also named as CAF-1C. A detailed in silico sequence and structure analysis of homologs of RbAp46/48 in Plasmodium falciparum (PF3D7_0110700 and PF3D7_1433300) exhibited conservation of characteristic features in both the protein-seven-bladed WD40 ß-propeller conformation and different binding interfaces. A comparative structural analysis highlighted species-specific features of the parasite, yeast, drosophila, and human RbAp46/48. In the present study, we report cloning, expression, and characterization of P. falciparum PF3D7_0110700, a putative RbAp46/48 (PfRbAp46/48). PfRbAp46/48 was cloned into pTEM11 vector in fusion with 6xHistidine tag and over-expressed in Escherichia coli B834 cells. The protein was purified by Ni-NTA followed by gel permeation chromatography. The protein expressed in all the three asexual blood stages and exhibited nuclear localization. We showed direct interaction of the purified rPfRbAp46/48 with the histone H4. These findings further our understanding of RbAp46/48 proteins and role of these proteins in the parasite biology.


Assuntos
Chaperonas de Histonas/química , Chaperonas de Histonas/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Chaperonas de Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
19.
Nat Protoc ; 15(6): 1881-1921, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341577

RESUMO

Despite decades of research, little is known about the cellular targets and the mode of action of the vast majority of antimalarial drugs. We recently demonstrated that the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) protocol in its two variants: the melt curve and the isothermal dose-response, represents a comprehensive strategy for the identification of antimalarial drug targets. CETSA enables proteome-wide target screening for unmodified antimalarial compounds with undetermined mechanisms of action, providing quantitative evidence about direct drug-protein interactions. The experimental workflow involves treatment of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes with a compound of interest, heat exposure to denature proteins, soluble protein isolation, enzymatic digestion, peptide labeling with tandem mass tags, offline fractionation, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Methodological optimizations necessary for the analysis of this intracellular parasite are discussed, including enrichment of parasitized cells and hemoglobin depletion strategies to overcome high hemoglobin abundance in the host red blood cells. We outline an effective data processing workflow using the mineCETSA R package, which enables prioritization of drug-target candidates for follow-up studies. The entire protocol can be completed within 2 weeks.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria data reported through Mozambique's routine health information system are used to guide the implementation of prevention and control activities. Although previous studies have identified issues with the quality of aggregated data reported from public health facilities in the country, no studies have evaluated the quality of routine indicators recorded in health facility registries. This study addresses this issue by comparing indicators calculated from data from exit interviews and re-examinations of patients with data based on registry records from health facilities in order to measure the quality of registry data and data reporting in three provinces in Mozambique. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,840 outpatients from 117 health facilities in Maputo, Zambézia, and Cabo Delgado Provinces interviewed and examined as part of a malaria-specific health facility survey. Key indicators based on exit interview / re-examination data were compared to the same indicators based on records from health facility registries. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors associated with indicators matching in re-examination / exit interview data and health facility registries. Aggregated indicators abstracted from facility registries were compared to those reported through the routine health management information system (HMIS) for the same time period. RESULTS: Sensitivity of exit interview / re-examination data compared with those recorded in facility registries was low for all indicators in all facilities. The lowest sensitivities were in Maputo, where the sensitivity for recording negative RDT results was 9.7%. The highest sensitivity was for recording positive RDT results in Cabo Delgado, at 75%. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with agreement between gold standard and registry data showed patients were less likely to be asked about having a fever in the triage ward in Maputo and Cabo Delgado (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.75 and 0.39 respectively), and in the outpatient ward in Cabo Delgado (aOR = 0.37), compared with the emergency department. Patients with positive RDT were also more likely to have RDT results recorded in all three provinces when patients had been managed according to national treatment guidelines during initial examination. Comparison of retrospective data abstracted from facility registries to HMIS data showed discrepancies in all three provinces. The proportion of outpatient cases with suspected and confirmed malaria were similar in registry and HMIS data across all provinces (a relatively low difference between registry and HMIS data of 3% in Maputo and Zambézia), though the total number of all-cause outpatient cases was consistently higher in the HMIS. The largest difference was in Maputo, where a total of 87,992 all-cause outpatient cases were reported in HMIS, compared with a total of 42,431 abstracted from facility registries. CONCLUSION: This study shows that care should be taken in interpreting trends based solely on routine data due to data quality issues, though the discrepancy in all-cause outpatient cases may be indicative that register availability and storage are important factors. As such, simple steps such as providing consistent access and storage of registers that include reporting of patient fever symptoms might improve the quality of routine data recorded at health facilities.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Malária/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Febre/etiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/patologia , Moçambique , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
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