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1.
Molecules ; 28(5)2023 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36903422

RESUMO

In this study the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of an enriched polysaccharide fraction (EPF) obtained from the fruiting body of cultivated P. eryngii was evaluated. Proximate composition (moisture, proteins, fat, carbohydrates and ash) was determined using the AOAC procedures. The EPF was extracted by using, in sequence, hot water and alkaline extractions followed by deproteinization and precipitation with cold ethanol. Total α- and ß-glucans were quantified using the Megazyme International Kit. The results showed that this procedure allows a high yield of polysaccharides with a higher content of (1-3; 1-6)-ß-D-glucans. The antioxidant activity of EPF was detected from the total reducing power, DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities. The EPF was found to scavenge DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals with a IC50 values of 0.52 ± 0.02, 1.15 ± 0.09, 0.89 ± 0.04 and 2.83 ± 0.16 mg/mL, respectively. As assessed by the MTT assay, the EPF was biocompatible for DI-TNC1 cells in the range of 0.006-1 mg/mL and, at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL, significantly counteracted H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production. This study demonstrated that polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii might be used as functional food to potentiate the antioxidant defenses and to reduce oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Antioxidantes/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo
2.
Food Res Int ; 165: 112549, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36869537

RESUMO

GABA is a health-promoting bioactive substance. Here, the GABA biosynthetic pathways were investigated, and then the dynamic quantitative changes in GABA and the expression levels of genes related to GABA metabolism under heat stress or at different developmental stages of fruiting bodies in Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm were determined. We found that the polyamine degradation pathway was the main route of GABA production under growth normal condition. The accumulation of GABA and the expression of most genes related to GABA biosynthesis, including genes encoding glutamate decarboxylase (PoGAD-2), polyamine oxidase (PoPAO-1), diamine oxidase (PoDAO) and aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (PoAMADH-1 and PoAMADH-2), were significantly suppressed by heat stress and the excessive maturity of fruiting bodies. Finally, the effects of GABA on the mycelial growth, heat tolerance and the morphogenesis and development of fruiting bodies were studied, the results showed that the deficiency of endogenous GABA inhibited the mycelial growth and primordial formation and aggravated heat damage, whereas exogenous application of GABA could improve thermotolerance and promote the development of fruiting bodies.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Pleurotus , Termotolerância , Carpóforos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 451: 131098, 2023 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893598

RESUMO

Mushrooms may incorporate significant levels of Hg making its consumption harmful to human health. Mercury remediation induced by Se competition in edible mushrooms represents a valuable alternative since Se plays effective roles against Hg uptake, accumulation, and toxicity. In this way, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus djamor were cultivated on Hg-contaminated substrate simultaneously supplemented with Se(IV) or Se(VI) under different dosages in this study. The protective role of Se was assessed taking into account morphological characteristics and Hg and Se total concentrations determined by ICP-MS, as well as proteins and protein-bound Hg and Se distribution by SEC-UV-ICP-MS, and Hg speciation studies (Hg(II) and MeHg) by HPLC-ICP-MS. Both Se(IV) and Se(VI) supplementation were able to recover the morphology mainly of Hg-contaminated Pleurotus ostreatus. The mitigation effects induced by Se(IV) stood out more than Se(VI) in terms of Hg incorporation, decreasing the total Hg concentration up to 96 %. Also, it was found that supplementation mainly with Se(IV) reduced the fraction of Hg bound to medium molecular weight compounds (17-44 kDa) up to 80 %. Finally, it was shown a Se-induced inhibitory effect on Hg methylation, decreasing MeHg species content in mushrooms exposed to Se(IV) (51.2 µg g-1) up to 100 %.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Pleurotus , Selênio , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo
4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 25(2): 1-10, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36749052

RESUMO

Prebiotics have gained much attention in recent years as functional food ingredients. This has encouraged researchers to look for sustainable alternative sources of prebiotics. Prebiotics help in the modulation of the human intestinal microbiota and thereby improve host health. Chicory, asparagus, and Jerusalem artichoke are some conventional prebiotics that have been extensively studied. Mushrooms are rich sources of medicinal foods as well as bioactive polysaccharides and essential amino acids. They contain large amounts of chitin, mannans, galactans, xylans, glucans, krestin, lentinan, and hemicellulose, thus making it a potential candidate for prebiotics. They are also rich sources of fibers, proteins, and antioxidants. Several mushroom species like Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceus, Agaricus bisporus, and Lentinula edodes are rich in medicinal properties that have an array of applications. These medicinal mushrooms can be repurposed to regulate gut microbiota. In this review, we discuss the prebiotic effects of different mushroom species on probiotic organisms. We also reviewed the potential of mushroom waste as novel, cheap, and alternative sources of prebiotics.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helianthus , Pleurotus , Humanos , Agaricales/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 25(2): 55-66, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36749057

RESUMO

In this study, pink oyster mushroom Pleurotus djamor was cultivated using wheat straw (WS), quinoa stalk (QS), and their mixtures (WS-QS (1:1)) as substrate and evaluated in terms of antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, and DNA protective effects. Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogen bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), dermatophyte (Trichophyton sp.) and yeast (Candida tropicalis) were used in the study. It was found to be very active against all bacteria (except S. mutans and S. typhi), and dermatophyte when compared to the control groups (8.7-33.3 mm), but low against C. tropicalis. It was seen that the best total antioxidant assay (TAS) value was 2.05 mmol/L on WS-QS (1:1). Depend on, it was determined that the total oxidant assay (TOS) value (5.26 µmol/L) in the same compost was lower than the others, and also the scavenging effect of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was higher on WS at 25 mg/mL (84.20%). The methanol extract on WS at a concentration of 400 µg/mL, significantly reduced the percentage of viability in the human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell line (2.2%). The methanol extracts on WS and QS medium were found to inhibit DNA damage induced by UV radiation and H2O2 at a concentration of 25 mg/mL. These results showed that pink oyster mushroom has benefits such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and DNA protective effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pleurotus , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pleurotus/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metanol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , DNA/farmacologia
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 25(1): 1-12, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734915

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX), a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic, has toxic effects on healthy tissues. Mitochondrial processes and oxidative stress act in the DOX-induced toxicity, therefore antioxidant therapies are widely used. The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Pleurotus eryngii extract (PEE), an extract of a fungus with antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced lung damage. Rats were divided into Control, DOX, DOX + PEE, and PEE groups (n = 6). DOX was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose (10 mg/kg BW) and PE (200 mg/kg BW) was administered by oral gavage every other day for 21 days. Histopathological evaluations, immunohistochemical analyses, total oxidant status (TOS)/total antioxidant status (TAS) method, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed. DOX led to severe histopathological disruptions in rat lungs. Also, DOX remarkably increased the expression of dynamin 1 like (DRP1) and decreased the expression of mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) genes, which are related to mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, DOX caused an increase in TOS/ TAS and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. On the other hand, PEE treatment remarkably normalized the histopathological findings, mitochondrial dynamics-related gene expressions, markers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage. The present study signs out that PEE can ameliorate the DOX-mediated lung toxicity and the antioxidant mechanism associated with mitochondrial dynamics can have a role in this potent therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Pleurotus , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Pleurotus/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Pulmão , Apoptose
7.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 25(1): 45-56, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734918

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are important natural foods that have been used since ancient times due to their delicious taste, high nutritional value, and various biological activities. In this study, antibacterial (against 10 different human pathogens) and antioxidant potentials (free radical scavenging activity and total phenol-flavonoid content) of 13 different wild-growing and the most popular edible mushrooms (Lactarius salmonicolor, L. deliciosus, L. volemus, L. piperatus, Boletus edulis, Marasmius oreades, Agaricus campestris, Tricholoma terreum, Hydnum repandum, Coprinus comatus, Ramaria sp., Cantharellus cibarius, and Pleurotus ostreatus) sold in a public bazaar in Bolu-Turkey were evaluated. Strong antibacterial capacities were observed with all tested Lactarius species, as well as M. oreades, A. campestris, T. terreum, H. repandum, and Ramaria sp. Significant antibacterial potentials of T. terreum and C. comatus against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus vulgaris were observed for the first time. H. repandum strongly inhibited all tested Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes). It was remarkable to reveal strong growth inhibition of M. oreades against S. aureus (29.33 ± 1.11 mm) for the first time. The highest total phenolic content was revealed with L. delicious (193.42 ± 0.77 mg GAE/g dw and 198 ± 0.79 mg TAE/g dw), while L. salmonicolor had the highest total flavonoid content (358.33 ± 15.27 mg CE/g dw). B. edulis demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 value (4.48 ± 0.04 µg/mL). Moreover, L. deliciosus and M. oreades also had high antioxidant potential with the lowest IC50 values (4.76 ± 0.01 µg/mL and 4.77 ± 0.02 µg/mL, respectively). Total phenolic contents of tested mushrooms were highly correlated with their antioxidant capacities. L. delicious is the most well-known and the most delicious mushroom sold in Bolu's public bazaar. The obtained results for this mushroom were notable in terms of the greatest total phenol-flavonoid content and strong antioxidant capability. The antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of L. deliciosus, M. oreades, H. repandum, A. campestris, and B. edulis, as well as their antibacterial activity, were quite outstanding, and our findings demonstrated the importance of these mushrooms as nutraceutical products.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia
8.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112146, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596100

RESUMO

Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most common edible and medicinal fungi in life, and its polysaccharide has been a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, a new intracellular polysaccharide component named P. ostreatus polysaccharide (POP-W) was obtained from the mycelium of P. ostreatus, and its structure was analyzed. The results showed that its molecular weight was Mw = 3.034 × 103 kDa, and it did not contain protein and nucleic acid. POP-W was composed of mannose, glucose, galactose and xylose in a molar ratio of 40.34:47.60:7.97:4.09. The backbone of POP-W was α-D-Glcp(1→,→3,4)-α-D-Glcp(1→, →3,4)-α-D-Manp(1→,→3)-α -D-Galp(1→, →4)-α-D-Glcp(1→, →3)-α-D-Glcp(1→, →2)-ß-D-Manp(1→, →4) -ß-D-Xylp(1 â†’. SEM and TGA analysis showed the structure of POP-W and good thermal stability. In addition, POP-W showed significant antioxidant activity in vitro. More importantly, POP-W protected PC12 cells induced by H2O2 by inhibiting the contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Western blot detection of Caspase-3, BAX, Bcl-2, PI3K/Akt protein expression. The results showed that POP-W inhibited the expression of caspase-3 and BAX, while promoting the expression of Bcl-2. In addition, POP-W can also promote the phosphorylation of Akt. In conclusion, POP-W pretreatment can protect PC12 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and regulation of apoptosis-related pathway proteins. It provided a theoretical basis for the practical application of the polysaccharide of P. ostreatus in production.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Pleurotus , Ratos , Animais , Células PC12 , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 8150909, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691472

RESUMO

The global demand for good quality food is going to be increased gradually. Mushrooms are broadly used as healthy nutritious meals. The nutritional values of extracts from four distinct Pleurotus species-Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus sapidus, and Pleurotus columbinus-were determined in the current study. Firstly, proximate analysis of selected Pleurotus species was performed followed by the Bradford assay to analyze the protein spectrophotometrically; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed for sugar determination while GC-MS was done to determine fatty acids on organic extracts of selected mushrooms. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the percentages while significance was determined by SPSS statistics. The results depicted that fat, protein, ash, fiber, energy contents, and total carbohydrate were in the range of 0.64-2.02%, 16.07-25.15%, 2.1-9.14%, 6.21-54.12%, 342.20-394.30 kcal/100 g, and 65.66-82.47%, respectively. The protein's maximum concentration was observed in P. ostreatus followed by P. columbinus>P. sajor-caju>P. sapidus, sequentially. Various sugars may or may not be present in selected Pleurotus spps. Among the fatty acids, the prevalence of UFA was more than that of saturated fatty acids among all selected mushrooms. From this study, it is concluded that all four Pleurotus spps. have excellent nutritional composition and can be used as valuable food and a great source of biochemical compounds.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Pleurotus/química , Carboidratos , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos
10.
Int. microbiol ; 26(1): 43-50, Ene. 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-215915

RESUMO

The production of proteases by white rot fungi, such as those of the genus Pleurotus, is related to the degradation of wood proteins, the substrate on which these fungi grow in the environment. From the point of view of production, they are still little explored for this purpose. A selection of agro-industrial residues highlighted corn bagasse as the best substrate for solid-state protease production using the basidiomycete Pleurotus pulmonarius. The enzyme production was maximized through a factorial design, where the enzyme activity increased from 137.8 ± 1.9 to 234.1 ± 2.7 U/mL. Factors such as temperature stability, pH, and chemical reagents were evaluated. The optimum temperature was 45 °C, showing low thermal stability at higher temperatures. The enzyme inhibition occurred by Mn2+ (50.3%) and Ba2+ (76.4%); SDS strongly inhibited the activity (82.4%), while pepstatin A partially inhibited (56%), suggesting an aspartic protease character. Regarding pH, the highest protease activity was obtained at pH 5.5. Partial characterization resulted in apparent values of the KM and Vmax constants of 0.61 mg/mL and 1.79 mM/min, respectively.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pleurotus , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Fungos , Ativação Enzimática , Temperatura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pepstatinas , Microbiologia
11.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677617

RESUMO

Agro-industrial residues represent more than 60% of organic wastes worldwide, which could be used to generate other by-products or to be incorporated into other production chains. For example, bagasse is a waste from the tequila industry in Mexico that could be implemented for mushroom cultivation. Additionally, the substrate influences the growth, development, and production of secondary metabolites of fungi. This work presents a comparative experiment that studies the metabolite production in Pleurotus djamor mushrooms on agave bagasse and barley straw (traditional substrate). The biological efficiency (BE), yield, phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, tannins, and the identification of low molecular weight metabolites were evaluated. Five treatments were proposed according to the following mixtures of agave bagasse: barley straw: T1 (1:0), T2 (3:1), T3 (1:1), T4 (1:3), and T5 (0:1). T2 had the highest yield (13.39 ± 3.23%), BE (56.7 ± 13.71%), and flavonoids (44.25 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g); T3 obtained the highest phenol content (230.27 mg GAE/g); and T1 the highest tannins content (0.23 mg (+) catechin equivalent (CE)/g). Finally, T1 and T5 are the ones that present the greatest number of primary metabolites, including hydroxycitric acid, 2-deoxy-D-galactose, D-mannose, paromomycin, palmitic acid, pyrrole, mannitol, and DL arabinose, while in T2, T3, and T4 only two chemical compounds were found present (palmitic acid and pyrrole in T2, silicic acid and pyrrole in T3 and 2-deoxy-D-galactose and quinoline in T4). The cultivation substrate influences the concentration of bioactive molecules in the fruiting bodies of P. djamor. Additionally, P. djamor's degradation of agave bagasse residue generates a potential application for agro-industrial residue management at a low cost.


Assuntos
Agave , Pleurotus , Agave/química , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677657

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is enriched in wild edible fungi, which is one of the main important sources of As in humans' diet. In this study, two wild edible fungi were employed for investigation: (1) Pleurotus citrinopileatusone, which contains a high content of inorganic As (iAs) and (2) Agaricus blazei Murill, which contains a high content of organic As. This study investigated the changes in As content and its speciation after different daily cooking methods. We found that the content of As in Pleurotus citrinipileatus and Agaricus blazei Murill reduced by soaking plus stir-frying by 55.4% and 72.9%, respectively. The As content in Pleurotus citrinipileatus and Agaricus blazei Murill decreased by 79.4% and 93.4%, respectively, after soaking plus boiling. The content of As speciation in dried wild edible fungi reduced significantly after different treatments. Among them, iAs decreased by 31.9~88.3%, and organic As decreased by 33.3~95.3%. This study also investigated the bioaccessibility of As in edible fungi after different cooking processes via an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). The results showed that the bioaccessibility of As was relatively high if the edible fungi were uncooked, boiled, or stir-fried. The gastric (G) bioaccessibility of As ranged from 51.7% to 93.0% and the gastrointestinal (GI) bioaccessibility of As ranged from 63.5% to 98.1%. Meanwhile, the bioaccessibility of inorganic As was found to be as high as 94.6% to 151%, which indicates that further evaluation of the potential health risks of wild edible fungi is necessary.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Arsênio , Pleurotus , Humanos , Arsênio/análise , Digestão , Culinária
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 15(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36668885

RESUMO

Tolaasin, a pore-forming bacterial peptide toxin secreted by Pseudomonas tolaasii, causes brown blotch disease in cultivated mushrooms by forming membrane pores and collapsing the membrane structures. Tolaasin is a lipodepsipeptide, MW 1985, and pore formation by tolaasin molecules is accomplished by hydrophobic interactions and multimerizations. Compounds that inhibit tolaasin toxicity have been isolated from various food additives. Food detergents, sucrose esters of fatty acids, and polyglycerol esters of fatty acids can effectively inhibit tolaasin cytotoxicity. These chemicals, named tolaasin-inhibitory factors (TIF), were effective at concentrations ranging from 10-4 to 10-5 M. The most effective compound, TIF 16, inhibited tolaasin-induced hemolysis independent of temperature and pH, while tolaasin toxicity increased at higher temperatures. When TIF 16 was added to tolaasin-pretreated erythrocytes, the cytotoxic activity of tolaasin immediately stopped, and no further hemolysis was observed. In the artificial lipid bilayer, the single-channel activity of the tolaasin channel was completely and irreversibly blocked by TIF 16. When TIF 16 was sprayed onto pathogen-treated oyster mushrooms growing on the shelves of cultivation houses, the development of disease was completely suppressed, and normal growth of oyster mushrooms was observed. Furthermore, the treatment with TIF 16 did not show any adverse effect on the growth of oyster mushrooms. These results indicate that TIF 16 is a good candidate for the biochemical control of brown blotch disease.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Toxinas Bacterianas , Pleurotus , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Hemólise , Toxinas Bacterianas/química
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 869: 161807, 2023 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707006

RESUMO

Because of the regular annual harvest, Phragmites australis used in wetland protection produces an abundance of straw, resulting in a large amount of straw waste. As a result, the extra straw should be used in a convenient and efficient manner. A comprehensive analysis of P. australis straw use in Pleurotus cultivation and spent mushroom substrate compost was performed in this study to increase its value. The lignocellulose content in the straw was shown to meet the nutritional requirements of the Pleurotus mushroom. Immediately thereafter, the replacement of bagasse with P. australis proved to be reasonable for Pleurotus eryngii substrate and could generate a profit of ¥17,400 per 10,000 cultivation bags. Substituting P. australis for approximately 20 % to 40 % of bagasse is recommended for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation and can yield a profit of approximately ¥16,000. Spent mushroom substrate compost was confirmed to increase the organic matter content, and post-compost use of this substrate as a fertilizer could increase economic income by approximately ¥1000 for every 10,000 bags. Overall, this recycling pathway for P. australis resources presents positive ecological and social benefits, and the model is a sustainable and eco-friendly solution for agricultural waste worthy of promotion and further application.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Pleurotus , Tailândia , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Poaceae , Agricultura/métodos
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626759

RESUMO

The cultivated edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus are valuable food crops and an important source of human nutrition. Agaricus bisporus is the dominant cultivated species in the western hemisphere and in Australia, while in Asian countries P. ostreatus is more prevalent. These two mushroom species are grown on fermented-pasteurized substrates, and bacteria and fungi play an important role in converting feedstocks into a selective medium for the mushroom mycelium. The mushrooms are usually introduced to the substrate as grain spawn, and the actively growing hyphae form a range of direct interactions with the diverse bacterial community in the substrate. Of these interactions, the most well studied is the removal of inhibitory volatile C8 compounds and ethylene by pseudomonads, which promotes mycelium growth and stimulates primordia formation of both A. bisporus and P. ostreatus. Bacterial biomass in the substrate is a significant nutrition source for the A. bisporus mycelium, both directly through bacteriolytic enzymes produced by A. bisporus, and indirectly through the action of extracellular bacterial enzymes, but this is less well studied for P. ostreatus. Apart from their role as a food source for the growing mycelium, bacteria also form extensive interactions with the mycelium of A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, by means other than those of the removal of inhibitory compounds. Although several of these interactions have been observed to promote mycelial growth, the proposed mechanisms of growth promotion by specific bacterial strains remain largely uncertain, and at times conflicting. Bacterial interactions also elicit varying growth-inhibitory responses from A. bisporus and P. ostreatus. This review explores characterized interactions involving bacteria and A. bisporus, and to a lesser degree P.ostreatus, and whilst doing so identifies existing research gaps and emphasizes directions for future work.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Pleurotus , Humanos , Pleurotus/química , Agaricus/química , Bactérias , Micélio
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(4): 1391-1404, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640206

RESUMO

In order to explore the relationship between sclerotial formation and antioxidant enzymes under abiotic stresses, the effects of abiotic stresses including temperature, pH value, osmotic pressure, limited nitrogen, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in Pleurotus tuber-regium were studied. Meanwhile, the sclerotial formation under these abiotic stress conditions was also investigated. It was found that low temperature, weak alkaline, appropriate osmotic stress, and H2O2 can promote sclerotial formation, and sclerotial formation always tended to occur when the activities of antioxidant enzymes were at a high value. During the prolonged low temperature stress, SOD acted mainly in the early stage of stress, while POD and CAT had higher activity in the middle and late stage. Moreover, the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results showed that SOD.193 and POD.535 were significantly down-regulated in sclerotia, and CAT.1115 and POD.401 were up-regulated instead. These antioxidant enzyme genes played an important role in the sclerotial formation under low temperature stress. It is strongly suggested that antioxidant enzymes and abiotic stresses are closely related to sclerotial formation in P. tuber-regium. KEY POINTS: • Low temperature and H2O2 can promote sclerotial formation. • Sclerotia are more likely to form under high antioxidant enzyme activity. • POD.401, POD.535, SOD.193, and CAT.1115 are important for sclerotial formation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Pleurotus , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Pleurotus/genética , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 835, 2023 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646729

RESUMO

This research aimed to examine the antioxidant polysaccharide activity (PsPc-3) derived from Pleurotus columbinus (P. columbinus) on oxidative renal injury (ORI) induced by cisplatin (CP). The principal components of crude polysaccharide were assessed. We studied the preventive impact of polysaccharide on cisplatin-induced renal damage in this study. For 21 days, we employed the CP-induced ORI rat model and divided the rats into four groups: control, CP alone, polysaccharide post CP (100 mg/kg) orally, and CP + polysaccharide (pre and post). The chemical characterization of the polysaccharide fraction PsPc-3 stated that protein was not present. PsPc-3 contained 7.2% uronic acid as assessed as 0% sulfate. PsPc-3 hydrolysate structured of Galacturonic:Glucose:Xylose and their molar proportions were 1:4:5, respectively. The average molecular weight (Mw) and molecular mass (Mn) per molecule of PsPc-3 were 5.49 × 104 g/mol and Mn of 4.95 × 104 g/mol respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by the polysaccharide of 65.21-95.51% at 10 mg/ml with IC50 less than 10 mg/ml. CP increased serum urea to 92.0 mg/dl and creatinine up to 1.0 mg/dl, with a concurrent decrease in the levels of total protein to 4.0 mg/dl. Besides, Also, CP-induced ORI raised levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and renal hormones (renin and aldosterone), with a decline in antioxidants compared to control rats. In addition, in the presence of CP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels increased. PsPc-3 decreased these changes dramatically. PsPc-3 improves pathological renal damage caused by CP and decreases tubular apoptosis measured by DNA ladder formation and cleaved caspase- 3. These findings showed that PsPc-3 isolated from P. columbinus protects and inhibits tubular apoptosis in cisplatin-induced ORI. Furthermore, PsPc-3 has no influence on the anticancer efficacy of CP in rats. Thus, PsPc-3 derived from P. columbinus might provide a novel therapy method for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Pleurotus , Ratos , Animais , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
18.
Environ Res ; 222: 115345, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706899

RESUMO

The cardinal focus of this study is to optimize the best reaction conditions for maximizing laccase activity from spent mushroom waste (SMW) of Pleurotus florida. Optimization process parameters were studied by the modeling techniques, artificial neural networking (ANN) embedded in particle swarm optimization (PSO), and response surface model (RSM). The best topology of ANN-PSO architecture was obtained on 4-10-1. The R2, IOA, MSE, and MAE values of the ANN model were obtained as 0.98785, 0.9939, 0.0023, and 0.0251 while, that of the RSM model were obtained as 0.74290, 0.9210, 0.0244, and 0.1110 respectively. The higher values of R2, IOA, and lower values of MSE and MAE of the ANN-PSO model depict that ANN-PSO outperformed compared to RSM and also verified the effectiveness of the ANN-PSO model. The ANN-PSO model performance demonstrates the robustness of the technique in optimizing laccase activity in SMW of P. florida. The optimization results revealed that pH 4.5, time 3 h, solid: solution ratio 1:5, and ABTS concentration of 1 mM was optimal for achieving maximum laccase activity at temperature 30 °C. The enzymatic activity of crude laccase enzyme was obtained as 1.185 U ml-1 without loss of enzyme activity. Additionally, crude laccase enzyme was 1.74 fold partially purified, and 83.54% of the enzyme was yielded. Out of all the independent process variables, ABTS and pH had an influence on laccase activity. Therefore, we anticipate that the findings of this investigation will reduce the ambiguity in maximizing laccase activity and ease the screening process. This study also highlights the comparative cost evaluation of crude laccase enzyme extracted from P. florida and commercial enzymes. There is a great potential for the utilization of the laccase enzyme extracted from SMW and using it for the degradation of recalcitrant micropollutants. Thus, SMW promises a cost-effective and sustainable approach leading towards circular economy.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Lacase , Redes Neurais de Computação
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0311322, 2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507658

RESUMO

Pleurotus ostreatus is usually cultivated in horticultural facilities that lack environmental control systems and often suffer heat stress (HS). Salicylic acid (SA) is recognized as a plant defense-related hormone. Here, SA treatment (200 µM) induced fungal resistance to HS of P. ostreatus, with decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and HSP expression. Further analysis showed that SA treatment in P. ostreatus increased the cytosolic trehalose content and reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Moreover, H2O2 could restore the MDA content and HSP expression of P. ostreatus treated with SA under HS. In addition, trehalose (25 mM) or CaCl2 (5 mM) treatment induced fungal resistance to HS, and CaCl2 treatment increased the cytosolic trehalose content of P. ostreatus under HS. However, inhibiting Ca2+ levels using Ca2+ inhibitors or mutants reversed the trehalose content induced by SA in P. ostreatus under HS. In addition, inhibiting trehalose biosynthesis using Tps-silenced strains reversed the MDA content and HSP expression of P. ostreatus treated with SA under HS. Taken together, these results indicate that SA treatment alleviates the HS response of P. ostreatus by reducing the intracellular ROS level and increasing the cytosolic trehalose content. IMPORTANCE Heat stress (HS) is a crucial environmental challenge for edible fungi. Salicylic acid (SA), a plant defense-related hormone, plays key roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that SA treatment increased the cytosolic trehalose content and induced fungal resistance to HS in P. ostreatus. Further analysis showed that SA can alleviate the HS of P. ostreatus by reducing the intracellular ROS level and increasing the cytosolic trehalose content. Our results help to understand the mechanism underlying the responses of P. ostreatus to HS. In addition, this research provides new insights for the cultivation of P. ostreatus.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Trealose , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Hormônios/metabolismo
20.
Phytochemistry ; 206: 113552, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481313

RESUMO

In this study, we described the isolation of an 8,14-secoergostane-type, a 9,11-secoergostane-type, and three ergostane-type steroids from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus. The structure of (22Z)-3ß,5α,11-trihydroxy-9,11-secoergosta-7,22-diene-6,9-dione, previously reported, have been revised to (22E). Their structures were established using NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopic analyses. Three of the isolated compounds were found to exhibit inhibitory activity on the production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 21.3, 17.6, and 23.1 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Ergosterol , Pleurotus , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Ergosterol/química , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/química , Pleurotus/química
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