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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124881, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574438

RESUMO

Phyto- and myco-remediation have been identified as sustainable options for treatment of petroleum-contaminated soils. To appraise the benefits thereof, the potentials of 3 sunflower species, 2 palm wine types and P. ostreatus to treat petroleum-contaminated soils was investigated. The study involved sampling of petroleum-contaminated soils and treatment with the phyto- and myco-remediation agents for a period of 90-days. Agents used for the remediation were 3 species of sunflowers (Helianthus annus-pacino gold, Helianthus sunsation &Helianthus annus-sunny dwarf), fermented palm wine (from 2 species of palm trees -Elaeis guineensis &Raffia africana), and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The study further investigated variation in remediation efficiency among the sunflower and palm wine species, as well as different substrates and conditions for optimal application of P. ostreatus. The results obtained revealed up to 340 g/kg dry weight of Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soils, with remediation outcomes of up to 69% by the sunflower- Helianthus annus (Pacino gold), 70% by fermented palm wine, and 85% by P. ostreatus. While the remediation efficiency of sunflower species was proportional to biomass, there was no significant difference in remediation efficiency of the palm wines. It was also found that substrates type and method of application has a significant impact on the remediation efficiency of P. ostreatus. The study further revealed available nitrate and electrical conductivity as possible useful indicators of TPHs concentration and remediation progress in soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Helianthus/química , Petróleo/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Petróleo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3091-3098, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627254

RESUMO

The effects of four treatments of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) as replacements for pork back fat were evaluated for the physicochemical, technological, and sensory properties; nitrite content; and amino acid profile in pork sausages. Five batches were manufactured: one control (formulated with pork back fat) and four treatments with raw, boiled, deep-fried, and fried P. eryngii to replace the pork back fat in sausages. The results indicated that the fat content and energy value decreased, while the protein, moisture, total dietary fiber content, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity of the modified sausages increased. All samples were judged acceptable for their sensory characteristics, with the best one being the sausage containing deep-fried P. eryngii. The raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. Boiled P. eryngii enhanced the essential amino acids content in the sausages, while the other P. eryngii treatments improved the nonessential amino acid content. In summary, P. eryngii may potentially replace fat in sausages. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In manufacturing pork sausages, the mushroom P. eryngii can substitute pork back fat to improve the nutritional quality by reducing fat and energy value, while enhancing the protein and total dietary fiber content in the sausages. Raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. This study provides a basis for preparing healthier alternatives to traditional sausages by substituting pork fat with mushrooms.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pleurotus , Suínos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Pleurotus/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Paladar
3.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(15): 1309-1320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushrooms are deemed as a special delicacy in many countries. They are considered an important cuisine due to their bioactive ingredients and possible health benefits. METHODS: Herein, we measured selected biological properties of methanol extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Boletus edulis fruiting bodies including; in vitro antimicrobial activity, anti-α- glucosidase activity, antioxidant activity, anti-lipase activity and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cells and normal cells. RESULTS: B. edulis methanol extracts showed high antimicrobial and anti-α-glucosidase activity. In contrast, P. citrinopileatus methanol extracts showed superior antioxidant activity indicated by (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging with half maximal inhibitory concentration of IC50 37.4 µg/ml, anti-lipase activities with IC50 65.2 µg/ml and high cytotoxicity activity against HepG2 and HeLa cell lines with IC50 22.8 and 36.7 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle was used to show apoptotic effects of methanol extracts against HepG2 and HeLa cells. CONCLUSION: P. citrinopileatus and B. edulis methanolic extracts appear to contain biologically active compounds that might be used to treat some common human diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Carpóforos/química , Pleurotus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Metanol/química , Picratos/química
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109675, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536913

RESUMO

Due to the two-dimensional effect of selenium (Se) to health, which form of Se is most effective for increasing the bioaccessible Se content in P. ostreatus and whether these products have potential health risks are worth considering. Three Se supplements were applied at different application rates into substrates for cultivating P. ostreatus. The total content and speciation of Se in P. ostreatus fruit bodies were analyzed, and the bioaccessibility of Se was determined via an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Results showed that P. ostreatus had the highest utilization efficiency with selenite, followed by Se yeast and selenate. Organic Se (46%-90%) was the major Se speciation in P. ostreatus regardless applied Se species. Although the Se bioaccessibility of the gastrointestinal digestion of P. ostreatus was high (70%-92%), the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient values are all within the safe ranges. Se-enriched P. ostreatus can be safely used as a dietary source of Se for increasing Se intake.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Pleurotus/química , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , 32418 , Digestão , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Humanos , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6911-6921, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of cotton waste enrichment with glycine betaine (GB) for production of two strains (P9, P10) of king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii). Cotton waste was used as (100%) control (T0 = cotton waste) and augmented with various combinations of GB, (T1 = 2 mmol L-1 , T2 = 4 mmol L-1 , T3 = 6 mmol L-1 , T4 = 8 mmol L-1 and T5 = 10 mmol L-1 ). The response of king oyster to GB was evaluated by earliness, yield, biological efficiency (BE), minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca)), total sugars, total soluble solids, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, proximate (crude protein, carbohydrates, crude fibers, ash, fats) content of fruiting body and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis compared with the control substrate (cotton waste). RESULTS: The earliness, yield, and BE were higher as compared to control substrate and increased with an augmentation in the concentration of GB within the cotton waste. Two strains showed (on dry weight basis) 33.9-54.9 mg g-1 nitrogen, 6.8-12.5 mg g-1 phosphorus, 16.9-25.1 mg g-1 potassium, 40.5-64.2 mg kg-1 Zn, 17.1-37.3 mg kg-1 Cu, 1174-1325 mg kg-1 Mg, 20.1-29.1 mg kg-1 Mn, 129-265 mg kg-1 Fe, 779-835 mg kg-1 Ca), 6.3%-11.3% total sugars, 7.3-14.9 °Brix total soluble solids, 2.1-7.3% reducing sugars, 10.4-18.1% crude protein, 3.6-4.4% crude fiber and 5.6-16.7 mg (100 g)-1 on various concentration of GB enrich cotton waste. Cotton waste enriched with GB significantly affected nutritional profile of king oyster mushroom. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that GB enriched cotton waste can be used as an innovative substrate to enhance the yield and quality of king oyster mushroom. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Betaína/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Betaína/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Glicina/análise , Gossypium/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pleurotus/genética , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1157-1171, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291682

RESUMO

AIMS: To demonstrate the plant growth-promoting potential of a wood-decay mushroom. METHODS AND RESULTS: A wild strain of a white rot fungus (Pleurotus pulmonarius) was found to convert 10 mmol l-1 L-tryptophan (TRP) to approximately 15 µg ml-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) under the optimal growth conditions of 30°C and pH 5 for 15 days. Results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated IAA synthesis through the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway when using cellulose as a sole carbon source. The mycelium as well as the culture filtrate promoted the growth and chlorophyll content of seedlings. In a monocotyledonous plant (rice), the number of lateral roots was increased experimentally, whereas in a dicotyledonous plant (tomato), the fungus led to an increased length of shoots and roots. CONCLUSIONS: TRP-dependent IAA production was demonstrated for the first time for P. pulmonarius and may be responsible for enhancing plant growth in vitro. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Synthesis of IAA as the most prevalent phytohormone in plants has been demonstrated for soil microfungi. Pleurotus pulmonarius is reported as an IAA-producing wood-decay macrofungus. The higher temperature optimum of P. pulmonarius isolated from subtropical environment compared to other Pleurotus species from temperate regions makes it more suitable for application in subtropical/tropical regions.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Pleurotus , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/microbiologia , Triptofano/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357717

RESUMO

Oyster mushrooms are an interesting source of biologically active glucans and other polysaccharides. This work is devoted to the isolation and structural characterization of polysaccharides from basidiocarps of the cultivated oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Five polysaccharidic fractions were obtained by subsequent extraction with cold water, hot water and two subsequent extractions with 1 m sodium hydroxide. Branched partially methoxylated mannogalactan and slightly branched (1→6)-ß-d-glucan predominated in cold- and hot-water-soluble fractions, respectively. Alternatively, these polysaccharides were obtained by only hot water extraction and subsequent two-stage chromatographic separation. The alkali-soluble parts originating from the first alkali extraction were then fractionated by dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The polysaccharide insoluble in DMSO was identified as linear (1→3)-α-d-glucan, while branched (1→3)(1→6)-ß-d-glucans were found to be soluble in DMSO. The second alkaline extract contained the mentioned branched ß-d-glucan together with some proteins. Finally, the alkali insoluble part was a cell wall complex of chitin and ß-d-glucans.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Pleurotus/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia , Glucanos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral
8.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344969

RESUMO

The present work mainly describes the preparation of acetylated mycelia polysaccharides (AMPS) from Pleurotus djamor and investigates the antioxidant and anti-aging effects in d-galactose-induced aging mice. The optimized procedure indicates the acetyl substitution degree of AMPS is 0.54 ± 0.04 under the conditions of a reaction time of 56 h, a reaction temperature of 37 °C, and 4 mL of added acetic anhydride. The in vitro analysis and in vivo animal experiments indicate that the AMPS could alleviate the aging properties by scavenging the radicals, elevating the enzyme activities, and reducing the lipid contents. As for serum levels, the AMPS can improve the serum biochemical indices and enhance immunological activity. The histopathological observations indicate that the injuries to the liver, kidney, and brain can be remitted by AMPS intervention. The characterization showed that AMPS was one kind of ß-pyranose with the weight-average molecular weights of 3.61 × 105 Da and the major monosaccharides of mannose and glucose. The results suggest that AMPS can be used as a dietary supplement and functional food for the prevention of aging and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Pleurotus/química , Acetilação , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109030, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is now well recognized as a disorder, one that is essentially preventable through changes in lifestyle. Obesity is also a main concern associated with expanded morbidity and mortality from many noncommunicable illnesses (NCDs). The study aimed to determine the antiobesity effect of Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and its bioactive anthraquinone (AQ). The overall promoter genes CEBPα (CCAAT enhancer binding protein α) and PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) in controlling the homeostasis of glucose was analysed using 3T3-L1 cell line. Finally, an insilico study was carried out using CRISPR software to identify the RNA's involved in adipogenesis especially of the control gene PPARγ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preliminary screening of the edible fungi and their bio actives led to the marvellous discovery of side effect free agonists for treating obesity (adipogenesis). An edible fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) were analysed in a screening platform with different series of tests for adipocyte differentiation, triglyceride analysis, lipolysis determination, glucose uptake assay, cytotoxicity assay and lipase activity followed by specific gene expression analysis. The gene knockout mechanism was also elucidated by CRISPR spcas 9 tool. RESULTS: The antiadipogenic (antiobesity) activity of DMSO extract of PO were found to stimulate the insulin dependent uptake of glucose. The extract also decreased the levels of triglycerides and glycerol accumulation in differentiated adipocyte cells. The binding FABP4 (Fatty acid binding protein) and transport protein FATP1 (Fatty acid transport protein) along with the fat breaking LPL (lipoprotein lipase) was found to be inhibited after the PO treatment at varying concentration (0-300 µg/ml). CRISPR spcas9 genome editing software was used as an insilico approach in validating the efficiency of mouse embryonic and human adipogenic cell line (3T3-L1). These tool analysed and found 4 RNAs gene knock out possibilities in PPARγ and their efficiency for further treating obesity. CONCLUSION: These novel finding contribute to the confirmation that edible fungi PO and it's bioactive AQ is an adequate supplement for constraining the lipid and triglycerides in differentiated mature adipocytes by reversing the fat deposition. Thereby, forbidding the enzymes linked with fat absorption. Besides, the CRISPR tool identified gene knock out possibilities of control gene PPARγ, will pave a way in further research for treating obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , RNA/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Camundongos
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 221: 10-20, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227148

RESUMO

ß-carotene has been often used as a hydrophobic nutrient in many functional foods owning to its excellent antioxidant activity. However, the poor orally bioavailability of ß-carotene limits its utilization. To overcome such limitation, a delivery system was designed for the encapsulation of ß-carotene based on oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by oat protein isolate - Pleurotus ostreatus ß-glucan Maillard conjugate. The results showed that such conjugate protected emulsion against environmental stresses by increasing steric and electrostatic repulsion between droplets, mainly manifesting as their smaller particle size and higher surface charge. Additionally, conjugate promoted lipid digestion and formation of mixed micelles, leading to an improved gastrointestinal fate of encapsulated ß-carotene, especially for its in vitro bioavailability. Such effects could enhance the cellular antioxidant activity of encapsulated ß-carotene in Caco-2 cells. Our findings confirmed that Maillard conjugate can structure an emulsion-based delivery system for the encapsulation of hydrophobic ingredients to improve their utilization.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glucanos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Avena/química , Células CACO-2 , Óleo de Milho/química , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reação de Maillard , Concentração Osmolar , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(3): 275-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002611

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that some mushrooms are highly efficient in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase, the increased activity of which can trigger the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Starting from the fact that free radicals at high concentrations could cause neurodegenerative disorders as well as great interest in new, natural antineurodegenerative drugs, the goal of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidative and neuroprotective potentials of various Pleurotus ostreatus and Laetiporus sulphureus extracts. L. sulphureus was a better antioxidative agent; it showed higher reducing power, was a more efficient scavenger of DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals, and was an Fe3+ reducer. The most efficient acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was hot water extract of P. ostreatus fruiting body, which was slightly weaker than the commercial preparation, galantamine. However, in comparison with α-kojic acid, tested extracts were weaker tyrosinase inhibitors. Considering that tested extracts were rich in phenols and that their amounts were in positive correlation with the extent of radical neutralization and acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition, it is assumed that these compounds are the potential carriers of the neuroprotective activities. Owing to the significant antioxidative and antineurodegenerative capacity of these species, they can be suggested as novel nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Pleurotus/química , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Micélio/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 131: 315-322, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872051

RESUMO

The enzymatic-extraction residue polysaccharide (ERPS) from Pleurotus citrinipileatus was obtained, and its antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects were also investigated. Animal experiments indicated that the ERPS could reduce the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TBIL, MDA and LPO, improve the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and CAT, decrease the inflammatory factor of CYP2E1, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance the IL-10 levels, showing the potential protections against CCl4-induced injures. ERPS can improve liver fibrosis by reducing the level of pivotal cytokine TGF-ß1. Western blotting results revealed that ERPS relieved the inflammatory response by increasing the I-κBα expressions in the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the structural characteristics demonstrated that the ERPS was a typical ß-type glycosidic pyranose with the weight-average molecular weight of 1.30 × 105 Da and the monosaccharide composition of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Ara, GlcUA and GalUA. These results demonstrated that the ERPS might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs for preventing the acute liver damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Pleurotus/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Análise Espectral
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 131: 1-9, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851331

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus (POP) on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in rats. The hepatoprotective effect of POP against ALI was reflected by the decreased alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in blood, increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in blood and liver. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that TUNEL apoptosis cell rate and Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis-inducing factor expression levels were obviously decreased, whereas Bcl-2 expression levels obviously increased after POP treatment. A total of 11 metabolites belonging to energy, amino acid, fatty acid, and gut bacteria metabolism were identified as biomarkers by using metabolite analysis of liver homogenate based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. POP exhibited hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced ALI, and the underlying mechanism is correlated with antioxidants that regulate metabolic pathway disorders and alleviate liver mitochondria apoptosis.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Hepatócitos/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13400-13411, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813719

RESUMO

The white-rot fungus Pleurotus sapidus (PSA) biosynthesizes the bicyclic monoterpenoids 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran (dill ether) (1) and 3,6-dimethyl-3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-1-benzofuran-2(3H)-one (wine lactone) (2). Submerged cultures grown in different media were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The stereochemistry of the formed isomers was elucidated by comparing their retention indices to those of reference compounds by enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography. The basidiomycete produced the rare (3R,3aR,7aS) and (3S,3aR,7aS) stereoisomers of dill ether and wine lactone. Kinetic analyses of the volatilome and bioprocess parameters revealed that the biosynthesis of the bicyclic monoterpenoids correlated with the availability of the primary carbon source glucose. Spiking the media with 13C-labeled glucose demonstrated that the compounds were produced de novo. Supplementation studies i.a. with isotopically labeled substrates further identified limonene and p-menth-1-en-9-ol as intermediate compounds in the fungal pathways. PSA was able to biotransform all enantiomeric forms of the latter compounds to the respective isomers of dill ether and wine lactone.


Assuntos
Éter/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Anethum graveolens/química , Éter/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cinética , Lactonas/química , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Pleurotus/química , Estereoisomerismo , Vinho/análise
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 129: 316-325, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708004

RESUMO

The aims of this work were to extract the enzymatic residue polysaccharides (EnRPS) from Pleurotus ostreatus and investigate the antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effects on high-fat-high-cholesterol emulsion (HFHCE)-induced liver injured mice. The results revealed that EnRPS at 400 mg/kg bw showed superior liver protective effects by ameliorating the AI, lowing the hepatic MPO, FFA, ADPN, TC and TG indicators, and improving the antioxidant status by enhancing liver enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, LEP, INS and T-AOC), eliminating the MDA content, decreasing the levels of LDL-C, TC, TG, ALT, AST and ALP, and increasing the HDL-C in serum. And in addition, GC, FTIR, NMR and pathological sections were also studied. The above consequences suggested that EnRPS could be used as functional foods of oxidative stress and anti-hyperlipidemic against liver injury.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipolipemiantes/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(12): 3491-3501, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789726

RESUMO

Ergothioneine-rich crude extracts of Pleurotus cornucopiae were used as a source of antioxidative components to control the effects of lipid oxidation in astaxanthin-containing liposomes. This study aimed to elucidate the interactions of liposomal astaxanthin and lipids with ergothioneine-rich mushroom extract (ME) under radical oxidation-induced conditions to provide a better understanding of the agricultural and postharvest applications of this strategy. Azo compounds (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride and 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) were used as hydrophilic and lipophilic radical initiators, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that the presence of ME significantly delayed the oxidative degradation of astaxanthin and controlled the progress of lipid oxidation in a liposomal system. The lipid hydroperoxide formation was significantly suppressed, while polyunsaturated fatty acids were protected from degradation. In addition, Crude ME also demonstrated more potent DPPH radical scavenging activities and EC50 than the equimolar concentrations of ergothioneine alone, which suggested the presence of additional compounds with antioxidative properties.


Assuntos
Ergotioneína/química , Lipossomos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pleurotus/química , Compostos Azo/química , Oxirredução , Xantofilas/química
17.
Food Chem ; 279: 179-186, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611477

RESUMO

Pleurotus geesteranus has recently been gaining popularity due to its strong umami taste. In the present study, umami taste, energy level, and energy metabolism-related enzymes activity in harvested P. geesteranus, stored at 20, 10, 5, and 0 °C, were investigated to evaluate the relationship between umami taste and energy status. Results showed that the mushroom at 5 °C exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) equivalent umami concentration (EUC), higher content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and higher activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in late storage. AMP, associating umami taste with energy, presented a significantly positive correlation with EUC and umami determined by electronic tongue at 5 °C. Furthermore, there were better correlations between umami taste and energy status of mushroom at 5 °C. The results suggest that higher energy status of post-harvest P. geesteranus contributes to better umami taste.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Pleurotus/química , Paladar , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Pleurotus/fisiologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/análise , Temperatura
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209371, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605465

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to optimize the extraction method for polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm and to assess the antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of polysaccharide. In this investigation, polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm were extricated by utilizing the hot water. One-single factor and response surface methodology was established to optimize the extraction conditions for polysaccharide from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Examination of antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide (POP) was directed by utilizing 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) techniques. Cytotoxicity of POP was evaluated using an MTT assay. The experimental data were fitted to a quadratic equation utilizing multiple regression investigations, and the ideal conditions were as per the following: water/crude material proportion, 26.04 mL/g; an extraction time of 62.08 minutes; and an extraction temperature 70.5°C. Under such conditions, the polysaccharide yield was 5.32 ± 0.12% with the anticipated yield. POP showed good scavenging activity against DPPH radical (p<0.001, EC50 = 1036.38 µg/mL, R2 = 0.8313) and ABTS radicals (p<0.001, EC50 = 824.37 µg/mL, R2 = 0.8223), with a dose (p<0.001)-and-time (p<0.001) dependent cytotoxic potential on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line in vitro. This demonstrated that polysaccharides (POP) had certain cancer prevention agent exercises. In this manner, these examinations give reference to additionally research and reasonable improvement of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm polysaccharide and POP may prove a useful therapeutic agent, due to its robust antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pleurotus/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/química , Linfoma/metabolismo , Linfoma/patologia , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química
19.
Food Chem ; 279: 231-236, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611485

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) speciation analysis in edible and medicinal Se enriched P. pulmonarius extracts was performed. Mycelium, colonized substrate, and fruiting bodies at different harvesting times were analyzed using ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to an ICPMS/MS detector. Extraction efficiencies in enzymatically digested and aqueous extracts were between 45.3 and 109% for Se, depending on the sample type. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) was found to be the major Se-compound, together with a number of unknown Se-species. Cystine (Cys2), methionine (Met), and sulfate were also detected and quantified in all samples. Most of the Se-Met (84.0%) and Met (75.8%) were found to be in free form in the fruiting body, in contrast with the mycelium where 53.4% of Se-Met and 80.5% of Met is incorporated into proteins.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Pleurotus/química , Selênio/análise , Enxofre/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cistina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metionina/análise , Selenometionina/análise
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(3): 931-944, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489678

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate characterization of the bacterial community composition and functionality and their impact on substrate biodegradation as well as mushroom yield. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial diversity, composition and functionality were accessed by DNA-derived analysis for a sugarcane straw-based substrate composted for either 5, 10 or 15 days. In addition, carbon and nitrogen losses, carbohydrate conversion and mushroom yields were measured for the different treatments. Changes were observed in the bacterial community diversity and composition after the process started, but not during the composting process itself. Following phase I, Acinetobacter sequences were recovered in high numbers, and selected genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and lignocellulose deconstruction were mapped. Substrate physicochemical composition showed elevated carbon and nitrogen losses after 10 and 15 days of phase I with reductions in mushroom yield. CONCLUSIONS: Acinetobacter species appear to play an important role in substrate degradation processes, and a 5-day phase I period showed a significant higher mushroom yield compared to composting for either 10 or 15 days. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study confers a better understanding of the bacterial community manipulation during the substrate preparation and their influence in substrate selectivity for the Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biomassa , Compostagem , Consórcios Microbianos , Pleurotus , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo
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