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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD000022, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) have a high risk of developing respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been estimated to affect 5% to 40% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. The attributable mortality rate of VAP has been estimated at about 9%. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD), which consists of the topical application of non-absorbable antimicrobial agents to the oropharynx and gastroenteric tract during the whole period of mechanical ventilation, is often used to reduce the risk of VAP. A related treatment is selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), in which topical antibiotics are applied to the oropharynx only. This is an update of a review first published in 1997 and updated in 2002, 2004, and 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of topical antibiotic regimens (SDD and SOD), given alone or in combination with systemic antibiotics, to prevent mortality and respiratory infections in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours in ICUs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialised Register, PubMed, and Embase on 5 February 2020. We also searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing and unpublished studies on 5 February 2020. All searches included non-English language literature. We handsearched references of topic-related systematic reviews and the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of topical prophylactic antibiotic regimens in adults receiving intensive care and mechanical ventilation. The included studies compared topical plus systemic antibiotics versus placebo or no treatment; topical antibiotics versus no treatment; and topical plus systemic antibiotics versus systemic antibiotics. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 41 trials involving 11,004 participants (five new studies were added in this update). The minimum duration of mechanical ventilation ranged from 2 (19 studies) to 6 days (one study). Thirteen studies reported the mean length of ICU stay, ranging from 11 to 33 days. The percentage of immunocompromised patients ranged from 0% (10 studies) to 22% (1 study). The reporting quality of the majority of included studies was very poor, so we judged more than 40% of the studies as at unclear risk of selection bias. We judged all studies to be at low risk of performance bias, though 47.6% were open-label, because hospitals usually have standardised infection control programmes, and possible subjective decisions on who should be tested for the presence or absence of RTIs are unlikely in an ICU setting. Regarding detection bias, we judged all included studies as at low risk for the outcome mortality. For the outcome RTIs, we judged all double-blind studies as at low risk of detection bias. We judged five open-label studies as at high risk of detection bias, as the diagnosis of RTI was not based on microbiological exams; we judged the remaining open-label studies as at low risk of detection bias, as a standardised set of diagnostic criteria, including results of microbiological exams, were used. Topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduces overall mortality compared with placebo or no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 0.96; 18 studies; 5290 participants; high-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 303 deaths in 1000 people this equates to 48 (95% CI 15 to 79) fewer deaths with topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis probably reduces RTIs (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.53; 17 studies; 2951 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 417 RTIs in 1000 people this equates to 238 (95% CI 196 to 271) fewer RTIs with topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis probably reduces overall mortality compared with no topical antibiotic prophylaxis (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.05; 22 studies, 4213 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 290 deaths in 1000 people this equates to 19 (95% CI 37 fewer to 15 more) fewer deaths with topical antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce RTIs (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.74; 19 studies, 2698 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 318 RTIs in 1000 people this equates to 137 (95% CI 83 to 178) fewer RTIs with topical antibiotic prophylaxis. Sixteen studies reported adverse events and dropouts due to adverse events, which were poorly reported with sparse data. The certainty of the evidence ranged from low to very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Treatments based on topical prophylaxis probably reduce respiratory infections, but not mortality, in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, whereas a combination of topical and systemic prophylactic antibiotics reduces both overall mortality and RTIs. However, we cannot rule out that the systemic component of the combined treatment provides a relevant contribution in the observed reduction of mortality. No conclusion can be drawn about adverse events as they were poorly reported with sparse data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Viés , Cuidados Críticos , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD008367, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush, or combination, together with suction of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care (OHC) on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 February 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 February 2020), Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 February 2020), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 25 February 2020) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2020). We also searched the VIP Database (January 2012 to 8 March 2020). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, using the random-effects model of meta-analysis when data from four or more trials were combined. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 RCTs (5675 participants), which were conducted in various countries including China, USA, Brazil and Iran. We categorised these RCTs into five main comparisons: chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse or gel versus placebo/usual care; CHX mouthrinse versus other oral care agents; toothbrushing (± antiseptics) versus no toothbrushing (± antiseptics); powered versus manual toothbrushing; and comparisons of other oral care agents used in OHC (other oral care agents versus placebo/usual care, or head-to-head comparisons between other oral care agents). We assessed the overall risk of bias as high in 31 trials and low in two, with the rest being unclear. Moderate-certainty evidence from 13 RCTs (1206 participants, 92% adults) shows that CHX mouthrinse or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of VAP compared to placebo or usual care from 26% to about 18% (RR 0.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47 to 0.97; P = 0.03; I2 = 66%). This is equivalent to a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 12 (95% CI 7 to 128), i.e. providing OHC including CHX for 12 ventilated patients in intensive care would prevent one patient developing VAP. There was no evidence of a difference between interventions for the outcomes of mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.33; P = 0.86, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 944 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.10 days, 95% CI -3.20 to 1.00 days; P = 0.30, I2 = 74%; 4 RCTs, 594 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (MD -0.89 days, 95% CI -3.59 to 1.82 days; P = 0.52, I2 = 69%; 5 RCTs, 627 participants; low-certainty evidence). Most studies did not mention adverse effects. One study reported adverse effects, which were mild, with similar frequency in CHX and control groups and one study reported there were no adverse effects. Toothbrushing (± antiseptics) may reduce the incidence of VAP (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; P = 0.01, I2 = 40%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is also some evidence that toothbrushing may reduce the duration of ICU stay (MD -1.89 days, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.27 days; P = 0.02, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 749 participants), but this is very low certainty. Low-certainty evidence did not show a reduction in mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; P = 0.12, I2 = 0%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants) or duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -0.43, 95% CI -1.17 to 0.30; P = 0.25, I2 = 46%; 4 RCTs, 810 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients from 26% to about 18%, when compared to placebo or usual care. We did not find a difference in mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of stay in the intensive care unit, although the evidence was low certainty. OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing may be more effective than OHC with antiseptics alone to reduce the incidence of VAP and the length of ICU stay, but, again, the evidence is low certainty. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether any of the interventions evaluated in the studies are associated with adverse effects.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 has caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particles chiefly known for their reverse cholesterol transport function, also display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory or antioxidant functions. HDLs and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) can neutralize lipopolysaccharides and increase bacterial clearance. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decrease during bacterial sepsis, and an association has been reported between low lipoprotein levels and poor patient outcomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the lipoprotein profiles of severe ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and to assess their changes during bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) superinfection. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a university hospital ICU. All consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia were included. Lipoprotein levels were assessed at admission and daily thereafter. The assessed outcomes were survival at 28 days and the incidence of VAP. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were included. Upon admission, lipoprotein concentrations were low, typically under the reference values ([HDL-C] = 0.7[0.5-0.9] mmol/L; [LDL-C] = 1.8[1.3-2.3] mmol/L). A statistically significant increase in HDL-C and LDL-C over time during the ICU stay was found. There was no relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations and mortality on day 28 (log-rank p = 0.554 and p = 0.083, respectively). A comparison of alive and dead patients on day 28 did not reveal any differences in HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations over time. Bacterial VAP was frequent (64%). An association was observed between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations on the day of the first VAP diagnosis and mortality ([HDL-C] = 0.6[0.5-0.9] mmol/L in survivors vs. [HDL-C] = 0.5[0.3-0.6] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.036; [LDL-C] = 2.2[1.9-3.0] mmol/L in survivors vs. [LDL-C] = 1.3[0.9-2.0] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations upon ICU admission are low in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients but are not associated with poor outcomes. However, low lipoprotein concentrations in the case of bacterial superinfection during ICU hospitalization are associated with mortality, which reinforces the potential role of these particles during bacterial sepsis.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Bacteriana/sangue , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Superinfecção/sangue , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the use of polymyxins for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) at a teaching hospital where carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria are endemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a historical cohort study of patients receiving polymyxins to treat VAP in ICUs at a public university hospital in southern Brazil between January 1, 2017 and January 31, 2018. RESULTS: During the study period, 179 cases of VAP were treated with polymyxins. Of the 179 patients, 158 (88.3%) were classified as having chronic critical illness. Death occurred in 145 cases (81.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with mortality were the presence of comorbidities (P<0.001) and the SOFA score of the day of polymyxin prescription (P<0.001). Being a burn patient was a protective factor for mortality (P<0.001). Analysis of the 14-day survival probability showed that mortality was higher among the patients who had sepsis or septic shock at the time of polymyxin prescription (P = 0.028 and P<0.001, respectively). Acinetobacter baumannii was identified as the etiological agent of VAP in 121 cases (67.6%). In our cohort, polymyxin consumption and the incidence density of VAP were quite high. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, comprised primarily of chronically critically ill patients, there was a high prevalence of VAP caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, consistent with healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries. Presence of comorbidities and the SOFA score at the time of polymyxin prescription were predictors of mortality in this cohort. Despite aggressive antimicrobial treatment, mortality was high, stressing the need for antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Polimixinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Probabilidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 154(10): 400-405, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195523

RESUMO

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major complication among critically ill patients who depend on mechanical ventilation. Few reports have focused on intracerebral hemorrhage patients with VAP. Our main objective was to investigate the bacteria distribution characteristics and the impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia mortality in critical cerebral hemorrhage patients. This retrospective study included 89 cases of cerebral hemorrhage patients with VAP admitted to the ICU of Huashan Hospital. We used the chi-square test to compare qualitative variables and Student's t-test to compare means between groups of normally distributed quantitative variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess mortality-independent predictors in the ICU. A total of 42% patients with cerebral hemorrhage were diagnosed with VAP in the ICU during the study period, and the mortality rate was 18%. Acinetobacter baumannii (n=58), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=52), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=21) were the most common pathogenic bacteria. Blood volume >30ml, tracheal ventilation mode and head of bed elevation were independent factors associated with increased mortality. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and the time from bleeding to intubation were other potentially important factors. While the number of infecting bacteria may not be directly related to death, it can increase antibiotic consumption and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stays. Blood volume >30ml, tracheal ventilation mode and head of bed elevation were directly related to the death of critical cerebral hemorrhage patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia


La neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (NAV) es una complicación mayor entre los pacientes críticos que dependen de la ventilación mecánica. Pocos artículos se han centrado en los pacientes de hemorragia cerebral con NAV. Nuestro objetivo principal fue investigar las características de la distribución bacteriana y el impacto de la mortalidad de la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica en pacientes críticos de hemorragia cerebral. Este estudio retrospectivo incluyó 89 casos de pacientes de hemorragia cerebral con NAV ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) del Hospital Huashan. Utilizamos la prueba χ2 para comparar las variables cualitativas, y la t de Student para comparar las medias entre grupos de las variables cuantitativas normalmente distribuidas. Utilizamos análisis de regresión logística múltiple para valorar los factores predictivos independientes de la mortalidad en la UCI. Diagnosticamos NAV en el 42% de los pacientes con hemorragia en la UCI durante el periodo de estudio, y la tasa de mortalidad fue del 18%. Acinetobacter baumannii (n=58), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=52) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=21) fueron las bacterias patogénicas más comunes. El volumen sanguíneo >30ml, el modo de ventilación traqueal y la inclinación del cabecero de la cama fueron factores independientes asociados al incremento de la mortalidad. La Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) y el Acute Physiology and Chronic Health EvaluationII (APACHE II), así como el tiempo transcurrido entre el sangrado y la intubación, fueron otros factores potencialmente importantes. A pesar de que el número de bacterias infecciosas puede no estar directamente relacionado con la muerte, puede incrementar el consumo de antibióticos y la duración de la estancia en la UCI. El volumen sanguíneo >30ml, el modo de ventilación traqueal y la inclinación del cabecero de la cama guardaron una relación directa con la muerte de los pacientes críticos de hemorragia cerebral con neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral/microbiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fatores de Risco , Modelos Logísticos
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 12, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication can be detected in the respiratory secretions of a high proportion of ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, the clinical significance remains poorly defined. We investigated whether patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia not responding to antibiotics and in whom high levels of HSV could be detected in respiratory secretions benefit from acyclovir treatment. METHODS: Respiratory secretions (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or tracheal aspirates) were tested for HSV replication by quantitative real-time PCR. ICU survival times, clinical parameters, and radiographic findings were retrospectively compared between untreated and acyclovir treated patients with high (> 105 HSV copies/mL) and low (103-105 HSV copies/mL) viral load. RESULTS: Fifty-seven low and 69 high viral load patients were identified. Fewer patients with high viral load responded to antibiotic treatment (12% compared to 40% of low load patients, p = 0.001). Acyclovir improved median ICU survival (8 vs 22 days, p = 0.014) and was associated with a significantly reduced hazard ratio for ICU death (HR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.92, p = 0.035) in high load patients only. Moreover, circulatory and pulmonary oxygenation function of high load patients improved significantly over the course of acyclovir treatment: mean norepinephrine doses decreased from 0.05 to 0.02 µg/kg body weight/min between days 0 and 6 of treatment (p = 0.049), and median PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased from 187 to 241 between day 3 and day 7 of treatment (p = 0.02). Chest radiographic findings also improved significantly (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, antibiotic treatment failure, and high levels of HSV replication, acyclovir treatment was associated with a significantly longer time to death in the ICU and improved circulatory and pulmonary function. This suggests a causative role for HSV in this highly selected group of patients.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simplexvirus/patogenicidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
8.
J Crit Care ; 54: 250-255, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to identify the proportion of patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) beyond day 10, the recently defined time of onset of Persistent Critical Illness (PerCI). The secondary objective was to identify underlying diagnoses, intensive care unit (ICU) based therapies, relevant complications, and outcomes of patients with PerCI. SUBJECTS: 100 PerCI patients and 100 age, sex, mechanical ventilation for >24 h, acute physiology and chronic health score (APACHE III) and co-morbidity score-matched controls. MAIN RESULTS: The maximum proportion of PerCI patients requiring invasive MV beyond day 10 was 66%. PerCI patients were more likely to have respiratory, septic, or neurosurgical admission diagnoses (p = .01). In the first 10 ICU days, they received multiple types of ICU-based treatments for longer duration and had a higher incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (p = .008). Hospital discharge destination differed significantly (p≤.001), with greater mortality (34% vs. 22%) and discharge to chronic care facility (11% vs. 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical ventilation beyond day 10 affected only two thirds of PerCI patients. However, VAP was a key complication in such patients. Discharge to chronic care facilities and hospital mortality were more common in PerCI patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , APACHE , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
9.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 992-997, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638512

RESUMO

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) affects up to 30 per cent of ICU patients and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We identified factors associated with prolonged latency of VAP and evaluated its effects on survival and additional outcomes. We also determined the sensitivity of various clinical definitions of VAP, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2013 criteria. We hypothesized that the CDC 2013 criteria would have poor sensitivity. We collected data on 102 subjects who developed VAP between 2012 and 2017. We conducted a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression and generalized linear models/ANOVA to look at predictor variables along with multivariate models for each outcome. White patients, nonsurgical patients, patients with renal failure, altered mental status, increased FiO2, and increased positive end-expiratory pressure had worse survival. Trauma patients, patients with positive sputum cultures, and patients with suspected pneumonia had better survival. Sensitivity of the CDC 2013 criteria was only 44.1 per cent. Our results emphasize the importance of having a high index of suspicion for VAP in ventilator-dependent patients. The 2013 CDC criteria failed to detect 55.9 per cent of confirmed VAP cases. These results are concerning because undetected VAP can have devastating consequences for patients.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Trials ; 20(1): 603, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine application of chlorhexidine oral rinse is recommended to reduce risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Recent reappraisal of the evidence from two meta-analyses suggests chlorhexidine may cause excess mortality in non-cardiac surgery patients and does not reduce VAP. Mechanisms for possible excess mortality are unclear. The CHORAL study will evaluate the impact of de-adopting chlorhexidine and implementing an oral care bundle (excluding chlorhexidine) on mortality, infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and oral health status. METHODS: The CHORAL study is a stepped wedge, cluster randomized controlled trial in six academic intensive care units (ICUs) in Toronto, Canada. Clusters (ICU) will be randomly allocated to six sequential steps over a 14-month period to de-adopt oral chlorhexidine and implement a standardized oral care bundle (oral assessment, tooth brushing, moisturization, and secretion removal). On study commencement, all clusters begin with a control period in which the standard of care is oral chlorhexidine. Clusters then begin crossover from control to intervention every 2 months according to the randomization schedule. Participants include all mechanically ventilated adults eligible to receive the standardized oral care bundle. The primary outcome is ICU mortality; secondary outcomes are IVACs and oral health status. We will determine demographics, antibiotic usage, mortality, and IVAC rates from a validated local ICU clinical registry. With six clusters and 50 ventilated patients on average each month per cluster, we estimate that 4200 patients provide 80% power after accounting for intracluster correlation to detect an absolute reduction in mortality of 5.5%. We will analyze our primary outcome of mortality using a generalized linear mixed model adjusting for time to account for secular trends. We will conduct a process evaluation to determine intervention fidelity and to inform interpretation of the trial results. DISCUSSION: The CHORAL study will inform understanding of the effectiveness of de-adoption of oral chlorhexidine and implementation of a standardized oral care bundle for decreasing ICU mortality and IVAC rates while improving oral health status. Our process evaluation will inform clinicians and decision makers about intervention delivery to support future de-adoption if justified by trial results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03382730 . Registered on December 26, 2017.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Higiene Bucal , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal , Estudos Cross-Over , Drenagem , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ontário , Higiene Bucal/efeitos adversos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(12): 1753-1762, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ventilator associated-lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTIs), either ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or tracheobronchitis (VAT), accounts for most nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICU) including. Our aim was to determine if appropriate antibiotic treatment in patients with VA-LRTI will effectively reduce mortality in patients who had cardiovascular failure. METHODS: This was a pre-planned subanalysis of a large prospective cohort of mechanically ventilated patients for at least 48 h in eight countries in two continents. Patients with a modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mSOFA) cardiovascular score of 4 (at the time of VA-LRTI diagnosis and needed be present for at least 12 h) were defined as having cardiovascular failure. RESULTS: VA-LRTI occurred in 689 (23.2%) out of 2960 patients and 174 (25.3%) developed cardiovascular failure. Patients with cardiovascular failure had significantly higher ICU mortality than those without (58% vs. 26.8%; p < 0.001; OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.4). A propensity score analysis found that the presence of inappropriate antibiotic treatment was an independent risk factor for ICU mortality in patients without cardiovascular failure, but not in those with cardiovascular failure. When the propensity score analysis was conducted in patients with VA-LRTI, the use of appropriate antibiotic treatment conferred a survival benefit for patients without cardiovascular failure who had only VAP. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with VA-LRTI and cardiovascular failure did not show an association to a higher ICU survival with appropriate antibiotic treatment. Additionally, we found that in patients without cardiovascular failure, appropriate antibiotic treatment conferred a survival benefit for patients only with VAP. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01791530.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7660-7665, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND As a common nosocomial infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) often has high mortality. This study aimed to assess the risk factor for mortality owing to VAP. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective clinical audit study screened medical records between the period of January 2014 and December 2017. All patients under mechanical ventilation MV) for ≥72 hours were screened against previously reported diagnostic criteria for VAP. The medical records were obtained for cases of documented diagnosis of VAP. RESULTS In all, 145 patients (5.0%) diagnosed with VAP were included in the study; the morbidity of VAP was 19.5 episodes per 1000 days of MV. The 30-day mortality rate was 42.8%. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), high blood urea nitrogen/albumin (BUN/ALB) ratio, Multidrug-resistant organism infection, and a higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were risk factors for mortality caused by VAP. In the second multivariate analysis, elevated NLR levels (P=0.038), high BUN/ALB ratio (P=0.016), multidrug-resistant organism infections (P=0.036), and a higher SOFA score (P<0.001) were still associated with the 30-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS The 30-day mortality rate of VAP was high. Blood NLR and BUN/ALB levels can be used as risk factors to assess the 30-day VAP-related mortality to help clinicians improve the prognosis of VAP.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 756, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well-known, life-threatening disease that persists despite preventative measures and approved antibiotic therapies. This prospective observational study investigated bacterial airway colonization, and whether its detection and quantification in the endotracheal aspirate (ETA) is useful for identifying mechanically ventilated ICU patients who are at risk of developing VAP. METHODS: 240 patients admitted to 3 ICUs at the Lahey Hospital and Medical Center (Burlington, MA) between June 2014 and June 2015 and mechanically ventilated for > 2 days were included. ETA samples and clinical data were collected. Airway colonization was assessed, and subsequently categorized into "heavy" and "light" by semi-quantitative microbiological analysis of ETAs. VAP was diagnosed retrospectively by the study sponsor according to a pre-specified pneumonia definition. RESULTS: Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from ETAs of 125 patients. The most common species isolated was S. aureus (56.8%), followed by K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli (35.2% combined). VAP was diagnosed in 85 patients, 44 (51.7%) with no bacterial pathogen, 18 associated with S. aureus and 18 Gram-negative-only cases, and 5 associated with other Gram-positive or mixed species. A higher proportion of patients who were heavily colonized with S. aureus developed VAP (32.4%) associated with S. aureus compared to those lightly colonized (17.6%). The same tendency was seen for patients heavily and lightly colonized with Gram-negative pathogens (30.0 and 0.0%, respectively). Detection of S. aureus in the ETA preceded S. aureus VAP by approximately 4 days, while Gram-negative organisms were first detected 2.5 days prior to Gram-negative VAP. VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization regardless of microbiologic cause when compared to patients who did not develop VAP. CONCLUSIONS: The overall VAP rate was 35%. Heavy tracheal colonization supported identification of patients at higher risk of developing a corresponding S. aureus or Gram-negative VAP. Detection of bacterial ETA-positivity tended to precede VAP.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Traqueia/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 180, 2019 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have investigated the clinical epidemiology and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care units. However, these findings have not been clearly defined in broad subgroups of mechanically ventilated adults. Hence, this protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis is designed to better understand the clinical and epidemiological features of VAP in these patient populations by establishing its overall prognosis of and risk factors for morbidity and mortality and to determine the differences in clinical and economic outcomes between VAP and non-VAP patients. METHODS: This present review will systematically search available full-text articles without date and language restrictions and indexed in PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases. In addition, reference lists and citations of retrieved articles and relevant medical and nursing journals will be manually reviewed. Supplementary search in other databases involving trials, reviews, and grey literatures, including conference proceedings, theses, and dissertations, will be performed. Study investigators will be contacted to clarify missing or unpublished data. All prognostic studies meeting the pre-defined eligibility criteria will be included. The study selection, risk of bias assessment, data extraction, and grading of the quality of evidence will be carried out in duplicate, involving independent evaluation by two investigators with consensus or a third-party adjudication. The degree of inter-rater agreement will be calculated using the kappa statistic. For meta-analysis, dichotomous and continuous outcome measures will be pooled using odds ratios and standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals, respectively. The Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance methods with random effects model will be used as a guide for analysis. The heterogeneity of each outcome measure will be assessed using both X2 and I2 statistics. In addition, sensitivity and subgroup analyses will be performed to ensure consistency of pooled results. The review protocol described herein is in accordance with the PRISMA-P standards. DISCUSSION: The investigation of the epidemiological profiles, prognostic factors, and outcomes associated with VAP is critical for the identification of high-risk groups of mechanically ventilated patients and evaluation of possible clinical endpoints. This may provide substantial links for improved VAP prevention practices targeting modifiable risk factors. Implications for future research directions are discussed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017048158.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(5): e20180152, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects that a hand hygiene education program has on the compliance of health professionals in an ICU. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study with an interrupted time-series design, conducted over a 12-month period: the 5 months preceding the implementation of a hand hygiene education program (baseline period); the 2 months of the intensive (intervention) phase of the program; and the first 5 months thereafter (post-intervention phase). Hand hygiene compliance was monitored by one of the researchers, unbeknownst to the ICU team. The primary outcome measure was the variation in the rate of hand hygiene compliance. We also evaluated the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), as well as the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) at 28 days and 60 days, together with mortality at 28 days and 60 days. RESULTS: On the basis of 959 observations, we found a significant increase in hand hygiene compliance rates-from 31.5% at baseline to 65.8% during the intervention phase and 83.8% during the post-intervention phase, corresponding to prevalence ratios of 2.09 and 2.66, respectively, in comparison with the baseline rate (p < 0.001). Despite that improvement, there were no significant changes in duration of MV, VAP incidence (at 28 or 60 days), or mortality (at 28 or 60 days). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a hand hygiene education program can increase hand hygiene compliance among ICU professionals, although it appears to have no impact on VAP incidence, duration of MV, or mortality.


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(8): 1082-1092, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare bacteria recovered by standard cultures and metataxonomics, particularly with regard to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) pathogens, and to determine if the presence of particular bacteria or microbiota in tracheal and oropharyngeal secretions during the course of intubation was associated with the development of VAP. METHODS: In this case-control study, oropharyngeal secretions and endotracheal aspirate were collected daily in mechanically ventilated patients. Culture and metataxonomics (16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic profiling of bacterial communities) were performed on serial upper respiratory samples from patients with late-onset definite VAP and their respective controls. RESULTS: Metataxonomic analyses showed that a low relative abundance of Bacilli at the time of intubation in the oropharyngeal secretions was strongly associated with the subsequent development of VAP. On the day of VAP, the quantity of human and bacterial DNA in both tracheal and oropharyngeal secretions was significantly higher in patients with VAP than in matched controls with similar ventilation times. Molecular techniques identified the pathogen(s) of VAP found by culture, but also many more bacteria, classically difficult to culture, such as Mycoplasma spp. and anaerobes. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular analyses of respiratory specimens identified markers associated with the development of VAP, as well as important differences in the taxa abundance between VAP and controls. Further prospective trials are needed to test the predictive value of these markers, as well as the relevance of uncultured bacteria in the pathogenesis of VAP.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Microbiota , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Cultura/instrumentação , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Suíça , Traqueia/microbiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064097

RESUMO

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) leads to increased patients' mortality and medical expenditure. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and infection. Therefore, the plasma concentration of MCP-1 was assessed and correlated with the clinical course in VAP patients. This retrospective observational study recruited 45 healthy volunteers, 12 non-VAP subjects, and 30 VAP patients. The diagnostic criteria for VAP were based on the American Thoracic Society guidelines, and the level of plasma MCP-1 was determined by ELISA. Plasma MCP-1 concentration was significantly elevated in the acute stage in VAP patients when compared with the control (p < 0.0001) and non-VAP patient groups (p = 0.0006). Subsequently, it was remarkably decreased following antibiotic treatment. Moreover, plasma MCP-1 concentration was positively correlated with indices of pulmonary dysfunction, including the lung injury score (p = 0.02) and the oxygenation index (p = 0.02). When patients with VAP developed adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), their plasma MCP-1 concentrations were significantly higher than those of patients who did not develop ARDS (p = 0.04). Moreover, plasma MCP-1 concentration was highly correlated with organ failure scores, including simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II, p < 0.0001), sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA, p < 0.0001), organ dysfunctions and/or infection (ODIN, p < 0.0001), predisposition, insult response and organ dysfunction (PIRO, p = 0.005), and immunodeficiency, blood pressure, multilobular infiltrates on chest radiograph, platelets and hospitalization 10 days before onset of VAP (IBMP-10, p = 0.004). Our results demonstrate that plasma MCP-1 is an excellent marker for recognizing VAP when the cut-off level is set to 347.18 ng/mL (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936, 95% CI = 0.863-0.977). In conclusion, MCP-1 not only could be a biological marker related to pulmonary dysfunction, organ failure, and mortality in patients with VAP, but also could be used for early recognition of VAP.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(9): 1059-1064, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between bacterial resistance and prognosis remains controversial. Predominant pathogen causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), which has increasingly become multidrug resistant (MDR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MDR VAP Pa episodes and 30-day mortality. METHODS: From a longitudinal prospective French multicenter database (2010-2016), Pa VAP onset and physiological data were recorded. MDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least 1 agent in 3 or more antimicrobial categories. To analyze if MDR episodes were associated with greater in-hospital 30-day mortality, we performed a multivariate survival analysis using the multivariate nonlinear frailty model. RESULTS: A total of 230 patients presented 286 Pa VAP. A maximum of 3 episodes per patient was observed; 73 episodes were MDR and 213 were susceptible. In the multivariate model, factors independently associated with 30-day mortality included hospitalization in the 6 months preceding the first episode (hazard ratio [HR], 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.60; P = .0002), chronic renal failure (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.15-4.77; P = .0196), and Pa VAP recurrence (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.79-4.87; P = .032). Finally, MDR Pa VAP was not associated with death (HR, 0.87; 95% CI; 0.52-1.45; P = .59). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not identify a relationship between the resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , França , Hospitais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 307-314, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated events (VAE), using objective diagnostic criteria, are the preferred quality indicator for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) for greater than 48 hours. We aim to identify the occurrence of VAE in our trauma population, the impact on survival, and length of stay, as compared to the traditional definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: This retrospective review included adult trauma patients, who were Washington residents, admitted between 2012 and 2017, and required at least 3 days of MV. Exclusions included patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale head score greater than 4 and burn related mechanisms of injury. We matched trauma registry data with our institutional, physician-adjudicated, and culture-confirmed ventilator event database. We compared the clinical outcomes of ventilator-free days, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and likelihood of death between VAE and VAP. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred thirty-three trauma patients met criteria; 124 (8.1%) patients developed VAE, 114 (7.4%) patients developed VAP, and 63 (4.1%) patients met criteria for both VAE and VAP. After adjusted analyses, patients with VAE were more likely to die (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-5.68), than those with VAP, as well those patients with neither diagnosis (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.83-4.38). Patients with VAP were no more likely to die (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.91-2.68) than those with neither diagnosis. Patients with VAE had fewer ventilator-free days than those with VAP (HR, -2.71; 95% CI, -4.74 to -0.68). CONCLUSION: Critically injured trauma patients who develop VAE are three times more likely to die and utilize almost 3 days more MV than those that develop VAP. The objective criteria of VAE make it a promising indicator on which quality indicator efforts should be focused. Future studies should be aimed at identification of modifiable risk factors for VAE and their impact on outcome, as these patients are at high risk for death. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective cohort study, level III.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(2)2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781896

RESUMO

Background and objectives: High mortality and healthcare costs area associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). The data concerning the link between multidrug-resistance of A. baumannii strains and outcomes remains controversial. Therefore, we aimed to identify the relation of risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality with the drug resistance profiles of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) and independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Methods: A retrospective ongoing cohort study of 60 patients that were treated for VAP due to drug-resistant A. baumannii in medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU) over a two-year period was conducted. Results: The proportions of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and potentially pandrug-resistant (pPDR) A. baumannii were 13.3%, 68.3%, and 18.3%, respectively. The SAPS II scores on ICU admission were 42.6, 48.7, and 49 (p = 0.048); hospital length of stay (LOS) prior to ICU was 0, one, and two days (p = 0.036), prior to mechanical ventilation (MV)-0, 0, and three days (p = 0.013), and carbapenem use prior to VAP-50%, 29.3%, and 18.2% (p = 0.036), respectively. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 63.3%. In MDR, XDR, and pPDR A. baumannii VAP groups, it was 62.5%, 61.3%, and 72.7% (p = 0.772), respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (95% OR 5.26; CI: 1.21⁻22.83), SOFA score on ICU admission (95% OR 1.28; CI: 1.06⁻1.53), and RBC transfusion (95% OR 5.98; CI: 1.41⁻25.27) were all independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: The VAP risk factors: higher SAPS II score, increased hospital LOS prior to ICU, and MV were related to the higher resistance profile of A. baumannii. Carbapenem use was found to be associated with the risk of MDR A. baumannii VAP. Mortality due to drug-resistant A. baumannii VAP was high, but it was not associated with the A. baumannii resistance profile. Female gender, SOFA score, and RBC transfusion were found to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/complicações , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbapenêmicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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